The C-type lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR efficiently bind human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) strains and can transmit bound virus to adjacent CD4-positive cells. DC-SIGN also binds efficiently to the Ebola virus glycoprotein, enhancing Ebola virus infection. DC-SIGN is thought to be responsible for the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to capture HIV and transmit it to T cells, thus promoting HIV dissemination in vitro and perhaps in vivo as well. To investigate DC-SIGN function and expression levels on DCs, we characterized a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against the carbohydrate recognition domain of DC-SIGN. Using quantitative fluorescence-activated cell sorter technology, we found that DC-SIGN is highly expressed on immature monocyte-derived DCs, with at least 100,000 copies and often in excess of 250,000 copies per DC. There was modest variation (three- to fourfold) in DC-SIGN expression levels between individuals and between DCs isolated from the same individual at different times. Several MAbs efficiently blocked virus binding to cell lines expressing human or rhesus DC-SIGN, preventing HIV and SIV transmission. Interactions with Ebola virus pseudotypes were also blocked efficiently. Despite their ability to block virus-DC-SIGN interactions on cell lines, these antibodies only inhibited transmission of virus from DCs by approximately 50% or less. These results indicate that factors other than DC-SIGN may play important roles in the ability of DCs to capture and transmit HIV.
To better understand the role of dendritic cells (DCs) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission at mucosal surfaces, we examined the expressions of the HIV adhesion molecule, dendritic-cell-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), its closely related homologue DC-SIGNR, and HIV coreceptors by distinct DC populations in the intestinal and genital tracts of humans and rhesus macaques. We also developed monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) specific for DC-SIGN or DC-SIGNR. In the Peyer's patches, DC-SIGN expression was detected in the interfollicular regions and in clusters of cells in the subepithelial dome regions. DC-SIGN expression was not found on plasmacytoid DCs. DC-SIGNR expression was restricted to endothelial cells in approximately one-third of the capillaries in the terminal ileum. In the vaginal epithelium, Langerhans' cells did not express DC-SIGN, whereas subepithelial DCs in the lamina propria expressed moderate levels of DC-SIGN. Finally, the rectum contained cells that expressed high levels of DC-SIGN throughout the entire thickness of the mucosa, while solitary lymphoid nodules within the rectum showed very little staining for DC-SIGN. Triple-color analysis of rectal tissue indicated that CCR5+ CD4+ DC-SIGN+ DCs were localized just beneath the luminal epithelium. These findings suggest that DC-SIGN+ DCs could play a role in the transmission of primate lentiviruses in the ileum and the rectum whereas accessibility to DC-SIGN+ cells is limited in an intact vaginal mucosa. Finally, we identified a MAb that blocked simian immunodeficiency virus interactions with rhesus macaque DC-SIGN. This and other specific MAbs may be used to assess the relevance of DC-SIGN in virus transmission in vivo.
DC-SIGN, a type II membrane protein with a C-type lectin binding domain that is highly expressed on mucosal dendritic cells (DCs) and certain macrophages in vivo, binds to ICAM-3, ICAM-2, and human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV). Virus captured by DC-SIGN can be presented to T cells, resulting in efficient virus infection, perhaps representing a mechanism by which virus can be ferried via normal DC trafficking from mucosal tissues to lymphoid organs in vivo. To develop reagents needed to characterize the expression and in vivo functions of DC-SIGN, we cloned, expressed, and analyzed rhesus macaque, pigtailed macaque, and murine DC-SIGN and made a panel of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) to human DC-SIGN. Rhesus and pigtailed macaque DC-SIGN proteins were highly similar to human DC-SIGN and bound and transmitted HIV type 1 (HIV-1), HIV-2, and SIV to receptor-positive cells. In contrast, while competent to bind virus, murine DC-SIGN did not transmit virus to receptor-positive cells under the conditions tested. Thus, mere binding of virus to a C-type lectin does not necessarily mean that transmission will occur. The murine and macaque DC-SIGN molecules all bound ICAM-3. We mapped the determinants recognized by a panel of 16 MAbs to the repeat region, the lectin binding domain, and the extreme C terminus of DC-SIGN. One MAb was specific for DC-SIGN, failing to cross-react with DC-SIGNR. Most MAbs cross-reacted with rhesus and pigtailed macaque DC-SIGN, although none recognized murine DC-SIGN. Fifteen of the MAbs recognized DC-SIGN on DCs, with MAbs to the repeat region generally reacting most strongly. We conclude that rhesus and pigtailed macaque DC-SIGN proteins are structurally and functionally similar to human DC-SIGN and that the reagents that we have developed will make it possible to study the expression and function of this molecule in vivo.
Dendritic cells (DCs) are among the first cells encountered by human and simian immunodeficiency virus (HIV and SIV) following mucosal infection. Because these cells efficiently capture and transmit virus to T cells, they may play a major role in mediating HIV and SIV infection. Recently, a C-type lectin protein present on DCs, DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), was shown to efficiently bind and present HIV and SIV to CD4+, coreceptor-positive cells in trans. However, the significance of DC-SIGN for virus transmission and pathogenesis in vivo remains unclear. Because SIV infection of macaques may represent the best model to study the importance of DC-SIGN in HIV infection, we cloned and characterized pig-tailed macaque DC-SIGN and generated monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against it. We demonstrate that, like human DC-SIGN, pig-tailed macaque DC-SIGN (ptDC-SIGN) is expressed on DCs and macrophages but not on monocytes, T cells, or B cells. Moderate levels of ptDC-SIGN expression were detected on the surface of DCs, and low-level expression was found on macrophages. Additionally, we show that ptDC-SIGN efficiently binds and transmits replication-competent SIVmne variants to CD4+, coreceptor-positive cells. Moreover, transmission of virus between pig-tailed macaque DCs and CD4+ T cells is largely ptDC-SIGN dependent. Interestingly, MAbs directed against ptDC-SIGN vary in the capacity to block transmission of different SIVmne variants. These data demonstrate that ptDC-SIGN plays a central role in transmitting virus from macaque DCs to T cells, and they suggest that SIVmne variants may differ in their interactions with ptDC-SIGN. Thus, SIVmne infection of pig-tailed macaques may provide an opportunity to investigate the significance of DC-SIGN in primate lentiviral infections.
Interactions between the oncogenic retrovirus human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) and dendritic cells (DCs) are poorly characterized. We show here that monocyte-derived DCs form syncytia and are infected upon coculture with HTLV-1-infected lymphocytes. We examined the role of DC-specific ICAM-3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), a C-type lectin expressed in DCs, in HTLV-1-induced syncytium formation. DC-SIGN is known to bind with high affinity to various viral envelope glycoproteins, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus, as well as to the cellular receptors ICAM-2 and ICAM-3. After cocultivating DCs and HTLV-1-infected cells, we found that anti-DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were able to decrease the number and size of HTLV-1-induced syncytia. Moreover, expression of the lectin in epithelial-cell lines dramatically enhanced the ability to fuse with HTLV-1-positive cells. Interestingly, in contrast to the envelope (Env) glycoproteins of HIV and other viruses, that of HTLV-1 does not bind directly to DC-SIGN. The facilitating role of the lectin in HTLV-1 syncytium formation is mediated by its interaction with ICAM-2 and ICAM-3, as demonstrated by use of MAbs directed against these adhesion molecules. Altogether, our results indicate that DC-SIGN facilitates HTLV-1 infection and fusion of DCs through an ICAM-dependent mechanism.
Two CD209 family genes identified in humans, CD209 (DC-SIGN) and CD209L (DC-SIGNR/L-SIGN), encode C-type lectins that serve as adhesion receptors for ICAM-2 and ICAM-3 and participate in the transmission of human and simian immunodeficiency viruses (HIV and SIV, respectively) to target cells in vitro. Here we characterize the CD209 gene family in nonhuman primates and show that recent evolutionary alterations have occurred in this family across primate species. All of the primate species tested, specifically, Old World monkeys (OWM) and apes, have orthologues of human CD209. In contrast, CD209L is missing in OWM but present in apes. A third family member, that we have named CD209L2, was cloned from rhesus monkey cDNA and subsequently identified in OWM and apes but not in humans. Rhesus CD209L2 mRNA was prominently expressed in the liver and axillary lymph nodes, although preliminary data suggest that levels of expression may vary among individuals. Despite a high level of sequence similarity to both human and rhesus CD209, rhesus CD209L2 was substantially less effective at binding ICAM-3 and poorly transmitted HIV type 1 and SIV to target cells relative to CD209. Our data suggest that the CD209 gene family has undergone recent evolutionary processes involving duplications and deletions, the latter of which may be tolerated because of potentially redundant functional activities of the molecules encoded by these genes.
Dengue virus receptors are relatively poorly characterized, but there has been recent interest in 2 C-type lectin molecules, dendritic cell–specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3)–grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) and its close homologue liver/lymph node–specific ICAM-3–grabbing integrin (L-SIGN), which can both bind dengue and promote infection. In this report we have studied the interaction of dengue viruses produced in insect cells, tumor cell lines, and primary human dendritic cells (DCs) with DC-SIGN and L-SIGN. Virus produced in primary DCs is unable to interact with DC-SIGN but remains infectious for L-SIGN–expressing cells. Skin-resident DCs may thus be a site of initial infection by insect-produced virus, but DCs will likely not participate in large-scale virus replication during dengue infection. These results reveal that differential glycosylation of dengue virus envelope protein is highly dependent on cell state and suggest that studies of virus tropism using virus prepared in insect cells or tumor cell lines should be interpreted with caution.
African green monkeys (AGMs) infected by simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) SIVagm are resistant to AIDS. SIVagm-infected AGMs exhibit levels of viremia similar to those described during pathogenic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and SIVmac infections in humans and macaques, respectively, but contain lower viral loads in their lymph nodes. We addressed the potential role of dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN; CD209) in viral dissemination. In previous studies, it has been shown that human DC-SIGN and macaque DC-SIGN allow transmission of HIV and SIVmac to T cells. Here, we looked at the ability of DC-SIGN derived from AGM lymph nodes to interact with SIVagm. We show that DC-SIGN-expressing cells are present mainly in the medulla and often within the cortex and/or paracortex of AGM lymph nodes. We describe the isolation and characterization of at least three isoforms of dc-sign mRNA in lymph nodes of AGMs. The predicted amino acid sequence from the predominant mRNA isoform, DC-SIGNagm1, is 92 and 99% identical to the corresponding human and rhesus macaque DC-SIGN amino acid sequences, respectively. DC-SIGNagm1 is characterized by the lack of the fourth motif in the repeat domain. This deletion was also detected in the dc-sign gene derived from thirteen animals belonging to five other African monkey species and from four macaques (Macaca fascicularis and M. mulatta). Despite three- to seven-amino-acid modifications compared to DC-SIGNmac, DC-SIGNagm1 allows transmission of SIVagm to T cells. Furthermore, AGM monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDC) expressed at least 100,000 DC-SIGN molecules and were able to transmit SIVagm to T cells. At a low multiplicity of infection (10−5 50% tissue culture infective doses/cell), viral transmission by AGM MDDC was mainly DC-SIGN dependent. The present study reveals that DC-SIGN from a natural host species of SIV has the ability to act as an efficient attachment and transmission factor for SIVagm and suggests the absence of a direct link between this ability and viral load levels in lymph nodes.
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a major health problem. However, the mechanism of hepatocyte infection is largely unknown. We demonstrate that the dendritic cell (DC)-specific C-type lectin DC-SIGN and its liver-expressed homologue L-SIGN/DC-SIGNR are important receptors for HCV envelope glycoproteins E1 and E2. Mutagenesis analyses demonstrated that both HCV E1 and E2 bind the same binding site on DC-SIGN as the pathogens human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and mycobacteria, which is distinct from the cellular ligand ICAM-3. HCV virus-like particles are efficiently captured and internalized by DCs through binding of DC-SIGN. Antibodies against DC-SIGN specifically block HCV capture by both immature and mature DCs, demonstrating that DC-SIGN is the major receptor on DCs. Interestingly, internalized HCV virus-like particles were targeted to nonlysosomal compartments within immature DCs, where they are protected from lysosomal degradation in a manner similar to that demonstrated for HIV-1. Lewis X antigen, another ligand of DC-SIGN, was internalized to lysosomes, demonstrating that the internalization pathway of DC-SIGN-captured ligands may depend on the structure of the ligand. Our results suggest that HCV may target DC-SIGN to “hide” within DCs and facilitate viral dissemination. L-SIGN, expressed by THP-1 cells, internalized HCV particles into similar nonlysosomal compartments, suggesting that L-SIGN on liver sinusoidal endothelial cells may capture HCV from blood and transmit it to hepatocytes, the primary target for HCV. We therefore conclude that both DCs and liver sinusoidal endothelial cells may act as reservoirs for HCV and that the C-type lectins DC-SIGN and L-SIGN, as important HCV receptors, may represent a molecular target for clinical intervention in HCV infection.
Mouse DC-SIGN CD209a is a type II transmembrane protein, one of a family of C-type lectin genes syntenic and homologous to human DC-SIGN. Current anti-mouse DC-SIGN monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are unable to react with DC-SIGN in acetone fixed cells, limiting the chance to visualize DC-SIGN in tissue sections. We first produced rabbit polyclonal PAb-DSCYT14 against a 14-aa peptide in the cytosolic domain of mouse DC-SIGN, and it specifically detected DC-SIGN and not the related lectins, SIGN-R1 and SIGN-R3 expressed in transfected CHO cells. MAbs were generated by immunizing rats and DC-SIGN knockout mice with the extracellular region of mouse DC-SIGN.. Five rat IgG2a or IgM MAbs, named BMD10, 11, 24, 25, and 30, were selected and each MAb specifically detected DC-SIGN by FACS and Western blots, although BMD25 was cross-reactive to SIGN-R1. Two mouse IgG2c MAbs MMD2 and MMD3 interestingly bound mouse DC-SIGN but at 10 fold higher levels than the rat MAbs. When the binding epitopes of the new BMD and two other commercial rat anti-DC-SIGN MAbs, 5H10 and LWC06, were examined by competition assays, the epitopes of BMD11, 24, and LWC06 were identical or closely overlapping while BMD10, 30, and 5H10 were shown to bind different epitopes. MMD2 and MMD3 epitopes were on a 3rd noncompeting region of mouse DC-SIGN. DC-SIGN expressed on the cell surface was sensitive to collagenase treatment, as monitored by polyclonal and MAb. These new reagents should be helpful to probe the biology of DC-SIGN in vivo.
Monoclonal Antibody; Polyclonal Antibody; DC-SIGN; CD209a; Dendritic Cells
The C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific ICAM 3-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN)/CD209 efficiently binds several pathogens, including HIV-1. DC-SIGN is expressed on monocyte-derived DCs in culture, and importantly, it is able to sequester HIV-1 within cells and facilitate transmission of virus to CD4+ T cells. To investigate DC-SIGN function, we have generated new mAbs. We report in this study that these and prior anti-DC-SIGN mAbs primarily label macrophages in the medullary sinuses of noninflamed human lymph node. In contrast, expression is not detected on most DCs in the T cell area, except for occasional cells. We also noted that IL-4 alone can induce expression of DC-SIGN in CD14+ monocytes and circulating blood DCs. However, blockade of DC-SIGN with Abs and DC-SIGN small interfering RNA did not result in a major reduction in the capacity of these DCs to transfer HIV to T cells, confirming significant DC-SIGN-independent mechanisms. The blocking approaches did reduce HIV-1 transmission by DC-SIGN-transfected cells by >90%. DC-SIGN blockade also did not reduce the ability of DCs to stimulate T cell proliferation in the MLR. These results indicate that DC-SIGN has the potential to contribute to macrophage function in normal human lymph node, and that DCs do not require DC-SIGN to transmit HIV or to initiate T cell responses.
The C-type lectin dendritic cell−specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) mediates the innate immune recognition of microbial carbohydrates. We investigated the function of this molecule in the host response to pathogens in vivo, by generating mouse lines lacking the DC-SIGN homologues SIGNR1, SIGNR3, and SIGNR5. Resistance to Mycobacterium tuberculosis was impaired only in SIGNR3-deficient animals. SIGNR3 was expressed in lung phagocytes during infection, and interacted with M. tuberculosis bacilli and mycobacterial surface glycoconjugates to induce secretion of critical host defense inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF). SIGNR3 signaling was dependent on an intracellular tyrosine-based motif and the tyrosine kinase Syk. Thus, the mouse DC-SIGN homologue SIGNR3 makes a unique contribution to protection of the host against a pulmonary bacterial pathogen.
Despite the susceptibility of dendritic cells (DCs) to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection and the defined role of these cells in disease pathogenesis, the mechanisms of viral binding to DCs have not been fully delineated. Recently, a glucose transporter, GLUT-1, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs), and neuropilin-1 (NRP-1) were demonstrated to facilitate HTLV-1 entry into T cells. DCs express their own array of antigen receptors, the most important being the DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) with respect to retrovirus binding. Consequently, the role of DC-SIGN and other HTLV-1 attachment factors was analyzed in viral binding, transmission, and productive infection using monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs), blood myeloid DCs, and B-cell lines expressing DC-SIGN. The relative expression of DC-SIGN, GLUT-1, HSPGs, and NRP-1 first was examined on both DCs and B-cell lines. Although the inhibition of these molecules reduced viral binding, HTLV-1 transmission from DCs to T cells was mediated primarily by DC-SIGN. DC-SIGN also was shown to play a role in the infection of MDDCs as well as model B-cell lines. The HTLV-1 infection of MDDCs also was achieved in blood myeloid DCs following the enhancement of virus-induced interleukin-4 production and subsequent DC-SIGN expression in this cell population. This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of potential HTLV-1 receptors on DCs and strongly suggests that DC-SIGN plays a critical role in HTLV-1 binding, transmission, and infection, thereby providing an attractive target for the development of antiretroviral therapeutics and microbicides.
The dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing nonintegrin binding receptor (DC-SIGN) was shown to bind human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral envelope protein gp120 and proposed to function as a Trojan horse to enhance trans-virus infection to host T cells. To better understand the mechanism by which DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR selectively bind HIV-1 gp120, we constructed a series of deletion mutations in the repeat regions of both receptors. Different truncated receptors exist in different oligomeric forms. The carbohydrate binding domain without any repeats was monomeric, whereas the full extracellular receptors existed as tetramers. All reconstituted receptors retained their ability to bind gp120. The dissociation constant, however, differed drastically from micromolar values for the monomeric receptors to nanomolar values for the tetrameric receptors, suggesting that the repeat region of these receptors contributes to the avidity of gp120 binding. Such oligomerization may provide a mechanism for the receptor to selectively recognize pathogens containing multiple high-mannose-concentration carbohydrates. In contrast, the receptors bound to ICAMs with submicromolar affinities that are similar to those of two nonspecific cell surface glycoproteins, FcγRIIb and FcγRIII, and the oligomerization of DC-SIGNR resulted in no increase in binding affinity to ICAM-3. These findings suggest that DC-SIGN may not discriminate other cell surface glycoproteins from ICAM-3 binding. The pH dependence in DC-SIGN binding to gp120 showed that the receptor retained high-affinity gp120 binding at neutral pH but lost gp120 binding at pH 5, suggesting a release mechanism of HIV in the acidic endosomal compartment by DC-SIGN. Our work contradicts the function of DC-SIGN as a Trojan horse to facilitate HIV-1 infection; rather, it supports the function of DC-SIGN/R (a designation referring to both DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR) as an antigen-capturing receptor.
Dendritic cell (DC) transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) to CD4+ T cells occurs across a point of cell-cell contact referred to as the infectious synapse. The relationship between the infectious synapse and the classically defined immunological synapse is not currently understood. We have recently demonstrated that human B cells expressing exogenous DC-SIGN, DC-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 (ICAM-3)-grabbing nonintegrin, efficiently transmit captured HIV type 1 (HIV-1) to CD4+ T cells. K562, another human cell line of hematopoietic origin that has been extensively used in functional analyses of DC-SIGN and related molecules, lacks the principal molecules involved in the formation of immunological synaptic junctions, namely major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and leukocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1). We thus examined whether K562 erythroleukemic cells could recapitulate efficient DC-SIGN-mediated HIV-1 transmission (DMHT).
Here we demonstrate that DMHT requires cell-cell contact. Despite similar expression of functional DC-SIGN, K562/DC-SIGN cells were inefficient in the transmission of HIV-1 to CD4+ T cells when compared with Raji/DC-SIGN cells. Expression of MHC class II molecules or LFA-1 on K562/DC-SIGN cells was insufficient to rescue HIV-1 transmission efficiency. Strikingly, we observed that co-culture of K562 cells with Raji/DC-SIGN cells impaired DMHT to CD4+ T cells. The K562 cell inhibition of transmission was not directly exerted on the CD4+ T cell targets and required contact between K562 and Raji/DC-SIGN cells.
DMHT is cell type dependent and requires cell-cell contact. We also find that the cellular milieu can negatively regulate DC-SIGN transmission of HIV-1 in trans.
In an endeavor to further characterize human intercellular adhesion molecule-2 (ICAM-2), two murine monoclonal antibodies (mAb) were generated to ICAM-2 transfected COS cells, and designated CBR-IC2/1 and CBR-IC2/2. Immunoprecipitated, reduced ICAM-2 migrated as a broad band of Mr 60,000 in sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Treatment with N-glycanase revealed a peptide backbone of Mr 31,000, consistent with the size predicted from the cDNA. ICAM-2 had a broad distribution on hematopoietic cell lines and little expression on other cell lines, the sole exception being cultured endothelial cells which possess high levels of ICAM-2. Resting lymphocytes and monocytes expressed ICAM-2, while neutrophils did not. Staining of tissue sections with anti-ICAM-2 mAb confirmed their strong reactivity to vascular endothelium, but demonstrated a lack of ICAM-2 expression on other tissues. Small clusters of ICAM-2 positive cells were, however, seen in germinal centers. In contrast to ICAM-1 there was little or no induction of ICAM-2 expression on lymphocytes or cultured endothelium upon stimulation with inflammatory mediators. One of the two mAb, CBR-IC2/2, was found to totally inhibit binding of ICAM- 2+ COS cells to purified lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA- 1). Using this mAb, LFA-1-dependent binding to both stimulated and unstimulated endothelium was found to be totally accounted for by ICAM- 1 and ICAM-2. Homotypic aggregation of an Epstein-Barr virus- transformed B cell line, JY, was found to be solely ICAM-1 and ICAM-2- dependent, while in the case of the T cell lymphoma cell line, SKW3, anti- ICAM-2 mAb in conjunction with anti-ICAM-1 mAb could not inhibit the LFA-1-dependent aggregation. This suggests an additional LFA-1 ligand exists. Using a cell binding assay to purified LFA-1 in conjunction with anti-ICAM-1 and anti-ICAM-2 mAb, we have demonstrated that this putative third ligand for LFA-1 exists on SKW3 and other cell lines.
The discovery of dendritic cell (DC)-specific intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-3–grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) as a DC-specific ICAM-3 binding receptor that enhances HIV-1 infection of T cells in trans has indicated a potentially important role for adhesion molecules in AIDS pathogenesis. A related molecule called DC-SIGNR exhibits 77% amino acid sequence identity with DC-SIGN. The DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR genes map within a 30-kb region on chromosome 19p13.2-3. Their strong homology and close physical location indicate a recent duplication of the original gene. Messenger RNA and protein expression patterns demonstrate that the DC-SIGN–related molecule is highly expressed on liver sinusoidal cells and in the lymph node but not on DCs, in contrast to DC-SIGN. Therefore, we suggest that a more appropriate name for the DC-SIGN–related molecule is L-SIGN, liver/lymph node–specific ICAM-3–grabbing nonintegrin. We show that in the liver, L-SIGN is expressed by sinusoidal endothelial cells. Functional studies indicate that L-SIGN behaves similarly to DC-SIGN in that it has a high affinity for ICAM-3, captures HIV-1 through gp120 binding, and enhances HIV-1 infection of T cells in trans. We propose that L-SIGN may play an important role in the interaction between liver sinusoidal endothelium and trafficking lymphocytes, as well as function in the pathogenesis of HIV-1.
L-SIGN; adhesion receptor; chromosome 19p13.2-3; ICAM-3; HIV-1 gp120
The C-type lectins DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR [collectively referred to as DC-SIGN(R)] bind and transmit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and simian immunodeficiency virus to T cells via the viral envelope glycoprotein (Env). Other viruses containing heavily glycosylated glycoproteins (GPs) fail to interact with DC-SIGN(R), suggesting some degree of specificity in this interaction. We show here that DC-SIGN(R) selectively interact with HIV Env and Ebola virus GPs containing more high-mannose than complex carbohydrate structures. Modulation of N-glycans on Env or GP through production of viruses in different primary cells or in the presence of the mannosidase I inhibitor deoxymannojirimycin dramatically affected DC-SIGN(R) infectivity enhancement. Further, murine leukemia virus, which typically does not interact efficiently with DC-SIGN(R), could do so when produced in the presence of deoxymannojirimycin. We predict that other viruses containing GPs with a large proportion of high-mannose N-glycans will efficiently interact with DC-SIGN(R), whereas those with solely complex N-glycans will not. Thus, the virus-producing cell type is an important factor in dictating both N-glycan status and virus interactions with DC-SIGN(R), which may impact virus tropism and transmissibility in vivo.
Cytokines such as interleukin 1 (IL-1) promote adhesiveness in human umbilical vein endothelial cells for leukocytes including basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils, and induce expression of adherence molecules including ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1), ELAM-1 (endothelial-leukocyte adhesion molecule-1), and VCAM-1 (vascular cell adhesion molecule-1). In the present study, blocking monoclonal antibodies (mAb) recognizing ICAM-1, ELAM-1, and VCAM-1 have been used to compare their roles in IL-1-induced adhesion of human basophils, eosinophils, and neutrophils. IL-1 treatment of endothelial cell monolayers for 4 hours induced a four- to eight-fold increase in adhesion for each cell type. Treatment of endothelial cells with either anti-ICAM-1 or anti-ELAM-1 mAb inhibited IL-1-induced adherence of each cell type. In contrast, treatment with anti-VCAM-1 mAb inhibited basophil and eosinophil (but not neutrophil) adhesion, and was especially effective in blocking eosinophil adhesion. The effects of these mAb were at least additive. Indirect immunofluorescence and flow cytometry demonstrated expression of VLA-4 alpha (very late activation antigen-4 alpha, a counter-receptor for VCAM-1) on eosinophils and basophils but not on neutrophils. These data document distinct roles for ICAM-1, ELAM-1, and VCAM-1 during basophil, eosinophil, and neutrophil adhesion in vitro, and suggest a novel mechanism for the recruitment of eosinophils and basophils to sites of inflammation in vivo.
AM3 (Inmunoferon) is an orally effective immunomodulator that influences the regulatory and effector functions of the immune system whose molecular mechanisms of action are mostly unknown. We hypothesized that the polysaccharide moiety of AM3 (IF-S) might affect immune responses by modulating the lectin-dependent pathogen recognition abilities of human dendritic cells. IF-S inhibited binding of viral, fungal, and parasite pathogens by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells in a dose-dependent manner. IF-S specifically impaired the pathogen recognition capabilities of DC-SIGN, as it reduced the attachment of Candida, Aspergillus, and Leishmania to DC-SIGN transfectants. IF-S also inhibited the interaction of DC-SIGN with both its cellular counterreceptor (intercellular adhesion molecule 3) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 gp120 protein and blocked the DC-SIGN-dependent capture of HIV virions and the HIV trans-infection capability of DC-SIGN transfectants. IF-S promoted DC-SIGN internalization in DCs without affecting mannose receptor expression, and 1D saturation transfer difference nuclear magnetic resonance demonstrated that IF-S directly interacts with DC-SIGN on the cell surface. Therefore, the polysaccharide moiety of AM3 directly influences pathogen recognition by dendritic cells by interacting with DC-SIGN. Our results indicate that DC-SIGN is the target for an immunomodulator and imply that the adjuvant and immunomodulatory actions of AM3 are mediated, at least in part, by alteration of the DC-SIGN functional activities.
DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR are two closely related membrane-associated C-type lectins that bind human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope glycoprotein with high affinity. Binding of HIV to cells expressing DC-SIGN or DC-SIGNR can enhance the efficiency of infection of cells coexpressing the specific HIV receptors. DC-SIGN is expressed on some dendritic cells, while DC-SIGNR is localized to certain endothelial cell populations, including hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells. We found that soluble versions of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) E2 glycoprotein and retrovirus pseudotypes expressing chimeric forms of both HCV E1 and E2 glycoproteins bound efficiently to DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR expressed on cell lines and primary human endothelial cells but not to other C-type lectins tested. Soluble E2 bound to immature and mature human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs). Binding of E2 to immature MDDCs was dependent on DC-SIGN interactions, while binding to mature MDDCs was partly independent of DC-SIGN, suggesting that other cell surface molecules may mediate HCV glycoprotein interactions. HCV interactions with DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR may contribute to the establishment or persistence of infection both by the capture and delivery of virus to the liver and by modulating dendritic cell function.
Dengue virus is a single-stranded, enveloped RNA virus that productively infects human dendritic cells (DCs) primarily at the immature stage of their differentiation. We now find that all four serotypes of dengue use DC-SIGN (CD209), a C-type lectin, to infect dendritic cells. THP-1 cells become susceptible to dengue infection after transfection of DC-specific ICAM-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN), or its homologue L-SIGN, whereas the infection of dendritic cells is blocked by anti–DC-SIGN antibodies and not by antibodies to other molecules on these cells. Viruses produced by dendritic cells are infectious for DC-SIGN– and L-SIGN–bearing THP-1 cells and other permissive cell lines. Therefore, DC-SIGN may be considered as a new target for designing therapies that block dengue infection.
receptor; flavivirus; lectin; antigen-presenting cells; virus receptor
Dendritic cells (DCs) potently stimulate the cell-cell transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, the mechanisms that underlie DC transmission of HIV-1 to CD4+ T cells are not fully understood. DC-SIGN, a C-type lectin, efficiently promotes HIV-1 trans infection. DC-SIGN is expressed in monocyte-derived DCs (MDDCs), macrophage subsets, activated B lymphocytes, and various mucosal tissues. MDDC-mediated HIV-1 transmission to CD4+ T cells involves DC-SIGN-dependent and -independent mechanisms. DC-SIGN transmission of HIV-1 depends on the donor cell type. HIV-1 Nef can upregulate DC-SIGN expression and promote DC-T-cell clustering and HIV-1 spread. Nef also downregulates CD4 expression; however, the effect of the CD4 downmodulation on DC-mediated HIV-1 transmission has not been examined. Here, we report that CD4 expression levels correlate with inefficient HIV-1 transmission by monocytic cells expressing DC-SIGN. Expression of CD4 on Raji B cells strongly impaired DC-SIGN-mediated HIV-1 transmission to T cells. By contrast, enhanced HIV-1 transmission was observed when CD4 molecules on MDDCs and DC-SIGN-CD4-expressing cell lines were blocked with specific antibodies. Coexpression of CD4 and DC-SIGN in Raji cells promoted the internalization and intracellular retention of HIV-1. Interestingly, internalized HIV-1 particles were sorted and confined to late endosomal compartments that were positive for CD63 and CD81. Furthermore, in HIV-1-infected MDDCs, significant downregulation of CD4 by Nef expression correlated with enhanced viral transmission. These results suggest that CD4, which is present at various levels in DC-SIGN-positive primary cells, is a key regulator of HIV-1 transmission.
The C-type lectin dendritic cell (DC)–specific intercellular adhesion molecule grabbing non-integrin (DC-SIGN; CD209) facilitates binding and internalization of several viruses, including HIV-1, on DCs, but the underlying mechanism for being such an efficient phagocytic pathogen-recognition receptor is poorly understood. By high resolution electron microscopy, we demonstrate a direct relation between DC-SIGN function as viral receptor and its microlocalization on the plasma membrane. During development of human monocyte-derived DCs, DC-SIGN becomes organized in well-defined microdomains, with an average diameter of 200 nm. Biochemical experiments and confocal microscopy indicate that DC-SIGN microdomains reside within lipid rafts. Finally, we show that the organization of DC-SIGN in microdomains on the plasma membrane is important for binding and internalization of virus particles, suggesting that these multimolecular assemblies of DC-SIGN act as a docking site for pathogens like HIV-1 to invade the host.
pathogen recognition receptor; lectin; electron microscopy; multiprotein assembly; lipid rafts
We have characterized the immunobiology of the interaction of intercellular adhesion molecule 3 (ICAM-3; CD50) with its counter- receptor, leukocyte function-associated antigen 1 (LFA-1; CD11a/CD18). Purified ICAM-3 supported LFA-1-dependent adhesion in a temperature- and cation-dependent manner. Activation of cells bearing LFA-1 increased adhesiveness for ICAM-3 in parallel to adhesiveness for ICAM- 1. Although CBR-IC3/1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) blocked adhesion of cells to purified LFA-1, when tested alone, neither CBR-IC3/1 nor five novel ICAM-3 mAbs characterized here blocked adhesion of cells to purified ICAM-3 or homotypic adhesion. Two ICAM-3 mAbs, CBR-IC3/1 and CBR-IC3/2, were required to block LFA-1-dependent adhesion to purified ICAM-3- or LFA-1-dependent, ICAM-1-, ICAM-2-independent homotypic adhesion of lymphoid cell lines. Two ICAM-3 mAbs, CBR-IC3/1 and CBR- IC3/6, induced LFA-1-independent aggregation that was temperature and divalent cation dependent and was completely inhibited by ICAM-3 mAb, CBR-IC3/2, recognizing a distinct epitope. Purified ICAM-3 provided a costimulatory signal for proliferation of resting T lymphocytes. mAb to ICAM-3, together with mAbs to ICAM-1 and ICAM-2, inhibited peripheral blood lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin, allogeneic stimulator cells, and specific antigen. Inhibition was almost complete and to the same level as with mAb to LFA-1, suggesting the most functionally important, and possibly all, of the ligands for LFA-1 have been defined.