We report the first isolation and molecular and antigenic characterization of a human ehrlichial species in South America. A retrospective study was performed with serum specimens from 6 children with clinical signs suggestive of human ehrlichiosis and 43 apparently healthy adults who had a close contact with dogs exhibiting clinical signs compatible with canine ehrlichiosis. The evaluation was performed by the indirect fluorescent-antibody assay with Ehrlichia chaffeensis Arkansas, Ehrlichia canis Oklahoma, and Ehrlichia muris antigens. The sera from two apparently healthy humans were positive by the indirect fluorescent-antibody assay for all three antigens. Of the three antigens, samples from humans 1 and 2 showed the highest antibody titers against E. chaffeensis and E. muris, respectively. The remaining serum samples were negative for all three antigens. One year later examination of a blood sample from subject 1 revealed morulae morphologically resembling either E. canis, E. chaffeensis, or E. muris in monocytes in the blood smear. The microorganism, referred to here as Venezuelan human ehrlichia (VHE), was isolated from the blood of this person at 4 days after coculturing isolated blood leukocytes with a dog macrophage cell line (DH82). The organism was also isolated from mice 10 days after intraperitoneal inoculation of blood leukocytes from subject 1. Analysis by electron microscopy showed that the human isolate was ultrastructurally similar to E. canis, E. chaffeensis, and E. muris. When the virulence of VHE in mice was compared with those of E. chaffeensis, E. canis, and E. muris, only VHE and E. muris induced clinical signs in BALB/c mice at 4 and 10 days, respectively, after intraperitoneal inoculation. VHE was reisolated from peritoneal exudate cells of the mice. Only E. chaffeensis- and E. muris-infected mice developed significant splenomegaly. Western immunoblot analysis showed that serum from subject 1 reacted with major proteins of the VHE antigen of 110, 80, 76, 58, 43, 35, and 34 kDa. Human serum against E. chaffeensis reacted strongly with 58-, 54-, 52-, and 40-kDa proteins of the VHE antigen. Anti-E. canis dog serum reacted strongly with 26- and 24-kDa proteins of VHE. In contrast, anti-E. sennetsu rabbit and anti-E. muris mouse sera did not react with the VHE antigen. Serum from subject 1 reacted with major proteins of 90, 64, or 47 kDa of the E. chaffeensis, E. canis, and E. muris antigens. This reaction pattern suggests that this serum sample was similar to serum samples from E. chaffeensis-infected human patients in Oklahoma. The base sequence of the 16S rRNA gene of VHE was most closely related to that of E. canis Oklahoma. On the basis of these observations, we suggest that VHE is a new strain or a subspecies of E. canis which may cause asymptomatic persistent infection in humans.
The sequence of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) of 13 ehrlichial species (Ehrlichia chaffeensis, Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia muris, an Ehrlichia species recently detected from Ixodes ovatus, Cowdria ruminantium, Ehrlichia phagocytophila, Ehrlichia equi, the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis [HGE] agent, Anaplasma marginale, Anaplasma centrale, Ehrlichia sennetsu, Ehrlichia risticii, and Neorickettsia helminthoeca) have been determined by degenerate PCR and the Genome Walker method. The ehrlichial gltA genes are 1,197 bp (E. sennetsu and E. risticii) to 1,254 bp (A. marginale and A. centrale) long, and GC contents of the gene vary from 30.5% (Ehrlichia sp. detected from I. ovatus) to 51.0% (A. centrale). The percent identities of the gltA nucleotide sequences among ehrlichial species were 49.7% (E. risticii versus A. centrale) to 99.8% (HGE agent versus E. equi). The percent identities of deduced amino acid sequences were 44.4% (E. sennetsu versus E. muris) to 99.5% (HGE agent versus E. equi), whereas the homology range of 16S rRNA genes was 83.5% (E. risticii versus the Ehrlichia sp. detected from I. ovatus) to 99.9% (HGE agent, E. equi, and E. phagocytophila). The architecture of the phylogenetic trees constructed by gltA nucleotide sequences or amino acid sequences was similar to that derived from the 16S rRNA gene sequences but showed more-significant bootstrap values. Based upon the alignment analysis of the ehrlichial gltA sequences, two sets of primers were designed to amplify tick-borne Ehrlichia and Neorickettsia genogroup Ehrlichia (N. helminthoeca, E. sennetsu, and E. risticii), respectively. Tick-borne Ehrlichia species were specifically identified by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) patterns of AcsI and XhoI with the exception of E. muris and the very closely related ehrlichia derived from I. ovatus for which sequence analysis of the PCR product is needed. Similarly, Neorickettsia genogroup Ehrlichia species were specifically identified by RFLP patterns of RcaI digestion. If confirmed this technique will be useful in rapidly identifying Ehrlichia spp.
Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME), an emerging and often life-threatening tick-transmitted disease, is caused by the obligately intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia chaffeensis. HME is modeled in C57BL/6 mice using Ehrlichia muris, which causes persistent infection, and Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia (IOE), which is either acutely lethal or sublethal depending on the dose and route of inoculation. A persistent primary E. muris infection, but not a sublethal IOE infection, protects mice against an ordinarily lethal secondary IOE challenge. In the present study, we determined the role of persistent infection in maintenance of protective memory immune responses. E. muris-infected mice were treated with doxycycline or left untreated and then challenged with an ordinarily lethal dose of IOE. Compared to E. muris-primed mice treated with doxycycline, untreated mice persistently infected with E. muris had significantly greater numbers of antigen-specific gamma interferon-producing splenic memory T cells, significant expansion of CD4+ CD25+ T regulatory cells, and production of transforming growth factor β1 in the spleen. Importantly, E. muris-primed mice treated with doxycycline showed significantly greater susceptibility to challenge infection with IOE compared to untreated mice persistently infected with E. muris. The study indicated that persistent ehrlichial infection contributes to heterologous protection by stimulating the maintenance of memory T-cell responses.
The roles of antibodies and memory T cells in protection against virulent Ehrlichia have not been completely investigated. In this study, we addressed these issues by using murine models of mild and fatal ehrlichiosis caused by related monocytotropic Ehrlichia strains. Mice were primed with either Ehrlichia muris or closely related virulent ehrlichiae transmitted by Ixodes ovatus (IOE) ticks given intraperitoneally or intradermally. All groups were reinfected intraperitoneally, 30 days later, with a lethal high dose of IOE. Priming with E. muris, but not IOE, induced strong CD4+ and CD8+ memory type 1 T-cell responses, Ehrlichia-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies, and persistent infection. Compared to IOE-primed mice, subsequent lethal IOE challenge of E. muris-primed mice, resulted in (i) 100% protection against lethal infection, (ii) strong Ehrlichia-specific secondary gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing effector/effector memory CD4+ and CD8+ T-cell responses, (iii) enhanced secondary anti-ehrlichial antibody response, (iv) accelerated bacterial clearance, and (v) the formation of granulomas in the liver and lung. E. muris-primed mice challenged with IOE had lower levels of serum interleukin-1α (IL-1α), IL-6, and IL-10 compared to unprimed mice challenged with IOE. Interestingly, the fatal secondary response in IOE-primed mice correlated with (i) decline in the Ehrlichia-specific CD4+ and CD8+ type 1 responses, (ii) marked hepatic apoptosis and necrosis, and (iii) substantial bacterial clearance, suggesting that fatal secondary response is due to immune-mediated tissue damage. In conclusion, protection against fatal ehrlichial infection correlates with strong expansion of IFN-γ-producing CD4+ and CD8+ effector memory type 1 T cells, which appear to be maintained in the presence of IgG antibodies and persistent infection.
Seventeen Minnesota and Wisconsin dogs with granulocytic ehrlichosis were studied. The diagnoses were made by finding ehrlichia morulae in peripheral blood neutrophils. Eight dogs were studied retrospectively, and nine dogs were studied prospectively. The medical records of all dogs were reviewed. Eighty-eight percent of the dogs were purebred and 76% were spayed females. The median age was 8 years. Sixty-five percent of the cases were diagnosed in October and November. Fever and lethargy were the most common clinical signs. The most frequent laboratory findings were lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, elevated activities of serum alkaline phosphatase and amylase, and hypoalbuminemia. No dogs seroreacted to Ehrlichia canis or Ehrlichia chaffeensis antigens, which are cross-reactive. Seventy-five percent of the dogs tested during the acute phase of disease and 100% of the dogs tested during convalescence were seropositive for E. equi antigens. Granulocytic ehrlichial 16S rRNA gene DNAs from six dogs were amplified by PCR. Sequence analysis of a 919-bp sequence of the ehrlichial 16S rRNA gene amplified by PCR from the blood of two dogs revealed the agent to be identical to the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Minnesota and Wisconsin and to be very similar to E. equi and Ehrlichia phagocytophila and less similar to E. canis, Ehrlichia ewingii, and E. chaffeensis. The geographic, clinical, serologic, and molecular evidence indicates that granulocytic ehrlichiosis in Minnesota and Wisconsin dogs is not caused by E. ewingii, but suggests that it is a zoonotic disease caused by an agent closely related to E. equi and that dogs likely contribute to the enzootic cycle and human infection.
A gene that is homologous to the Ehrlichia chaffeensis groEL operon was recovered and characterized by broad-range PCR amplification of whole blood from patients with human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) and from infected HL60 cell cultures. Sequence analysis of an 820-bp DNA fragment recovered directly from human blood showed 76.5 and 76.3% identity with cognate sequences from E. chaffeensis and Cowdria ruminantium, respectively. Analysis of a 1.6-kb DNA fragment derived from an HGE agent-infected HL60 cell culture indicated a near-complete open reading frame that contained 75.6 and 75.2% sequence identity with the E. chaffeensis and C. ruminantium groEL sequences, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis of this fragment showed that the HGE agent-derived sequence was related to, but distinct from, the sequences of E. chaffeensis and C. ruminantium. Polyvalent antibody responses to a recombinant fusion protein based on the HGE agent groEL homolog were detected in three of three BALB/c mice that were infected by syringe inoculation with a Wisconsin strain of the HGE agent (WI-1) and nine of nine mice infected by Ixodes scapularis (Ixodes dammini) tick inoculation of an isolate from Nantucket Island, Mass. (NCH-1). No response was detected in mice infected with Borrelia burgdorferi or in control BALB/c mice. Further characterization of the sensitivity and specificity of immune responses to this protein will be facilitated by the use of recombinant fusion proteins or peptides based on the HGE agent-specific groEL homolog.
Field and experimental studies have implicated white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) as probable reservoir hosts for Ehrlichia chaffeensis, the causative agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but natural infection in deer has not been confirmed through isolation of E. chaffeensis. Thirty-five white-tailed deer collected from three Amblyomma americanum-infested populations in Georgia were examined for evidence of E. chaffeensis infection by serologic, molecular, cell culture, and xenodiagnostic methods. Twenty-seven deer (77%) had E. chaffeensis-reactive indirect fluorescent-antibody assay titers of > or = 1:64; and the blood, spleens, or lymph nodes of seven (20%) deer were positive in a nested PCR assay with E. chaffeensis-specific primers. E. chaffeensis was isolated in DH82 cell cultures from the blood of five (14%) deer, including two deer that were PCR negative. Combination of culture and PCR results indicated that six (17%) deer were probably rickettsemic and that nine (26%) were probably infected. Restriction digestion of PCR products amplified from deer tissues and cell culture isolates resulted in a banding pattern consistent with the E. chaffeensis 16S rRNA gene sequence. The sequences of all PCR products from deer tissues or cell culture isolates were identical to the sequence of the Arkansas type strain of E. chaffeensis. Xenodiagnosis with C3H mice inoculated intraperitoneally with deer blood, spleen, or lymph node suspensions was unsuccessful. When viewed in the context of previous studies, these findings provide strong evidence that E. chaffeensis is maintained in nature primarily by a tick vector-vertebrate reservoir system consisting of lone star ticks and white-tailed deer.
We previously culture isolated a strain of Ehrlichia canis, the causative agent of canine ehrlichiosis, from a human in Venezuela. In the present study, we examined whether dogs and ticks are infected with E. canis in Venezuela and, if so, whether this is the same strain as the human isolate. PCR analysis using E. canis-specific primers revealed that 17 of the 55 dog blood samples (31%) and all three pools of four Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks each were positive. An ehrlichial agent (Venezuelan dog Ehrlichia [VDE]) was isolated and propagated in cell culture from one dog sample and was further analyzed to determine its molecular and antigenic characteristics. The 16S rRNA 1,408-bp sequence of the new VDE isolate was identical to that of the previously reported Venezuelan human Ehrlichia isolate (VHE) and was closely related (99.9%) to that of E. canis Oklahoma. The 5′ (333-bp) and 3′ (653-bp) sequences of the variable regions of the 16S rRNA genes from six additional E. canis-positive dog blood specimens and from three pooled-tick specimens were also identical to those of VHE. Western blot analysis of serum samples from three dogs infected with VDE by using several ehrlichial antigens revealed that the antigenic profile of the VDE was similar to the profiles of VHE and E. canis Oklahoma. Identical 16S rRNA gene sequences among ehrlichial organisms from dogs, ticks, and a human in the same geographic region in Venezuela and similar antigenic profiles between the dog and human isolates suggest that dogs serve as a reservoir of human E. canis infection and that R. sanguineus, which occasionally bites humans residing or traveling in this region, serves as a vector. This is the first report of culture isolation and antigenic characterization of an ehrlichial agent from a dog in South America, as well as the first molecular characterization of E. canis directly from naturally infected ticks.
Tick-borne pathogens in the genus Ehrlichia cause emerging zoonoses. Although laboratory mice are susceptible to Ehrlichia infections, many isolates do not cause clinical illness. In contrast, the Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia-like agent (IOE) causes disease and immune responses in mice comparable to the human illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis. No culture system had been developed for IOE, however, which limited studies of this pathogen. We reasoned that endothelial and tick cell lines could potentially serve as host cells, since the IOE is found in ticks and in endothelial cells in mice. Infected spleen cells from RAG-deficient mice were overlaid onto ISE6 and RF/6A cultures, and colonies typical of Ehrlichia were noted in RF/6A cells within 2 weeks. Infection of ISE6 cells was established after transfer of IOE from RF/6A cells. Electron microscopy revealed densely packed inclusions in infected RF/6A and ISE6 cells; these inclusions contained copious amounts of filamentous structures, apparently originating from Ehrlichial cells. In particular, within RF/6A cells the structures assumed an ordered morphology of finely combed hair. IOE from RF/6A cells, when inoculated into C57BL/6 and RAG-deficient mice, induced fatal disease. These data reveal unique structural features of IOE that may contribute to the pathogen's high virulence.
Ehrlichia; tick cell; endothelial cell; bacterial infection; ultrastructure
Ixodid ticks were collected from Connecticut, Massachusetts, Missouri, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, and British Columbia (Canada) during 1991 to 1994 to determine the prevalence of infection with hemocytic (blood cell), rickettsia-like organisms. Hemolymph obtained from these ticks was analyzed by direct and indirect fluorescent antibody (FA) staining methods with dog, horse, or human sera containing antibodies to Ehrlichia canis, Ehrlichia equi, or Rickettsia rickettsii. Of the 693 nymphal and adult Amblyomma americanum, Dermacentor variabilis, Ixodes scapularis, and Ixodes pacificus ticks tested with dog anti-E. canis antiserum, 209 (32.5%) contained hemocytic bacteria. The prevalence of infected ticks varied greatly with species and locale. In parallel tests of duplicate hemolymph preparations from adult I. scapularis ticks, the hemocytic organisms reacted positively with E. canis and/or E. equi antisera, including sera from persons who had granulocytic ehrlichiosis. In separate PCR analyses, DNA of the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis was detected in 59 (50.0%) of 118 adult and in 1 of 2 nymphal I. scapularis ticks tested from Connecticut. There was no evidence of Ehrlichia chaffeensis DNA in these ticks. In indirect FA tests of hemolymph for spotted fever group rickettsiae, the overall prevalence of infection was less than 4%. Specificity tests of antigens and antisera used in these studies revealed no cross-reactivity between E. canis and E. equi or between any of the ehrlichial reagents and those of R. rickettsii. The geographic distribution of hemocytic microorganisms with shared antigens to Ehrlichia species or spotted fever group rickettsiae is widespread.
A total of 287 adult Ixodes ricinus ticks, collected in two regions of southern Germany (Frankonia and Baden-Württemberg) where Borrelia burgdorferi infections are known to be endemic, were examined for the presence of 16S ribosomal DNA specific for the Ehrlichia phagocytophila genogroup, E. chaffeensis, E. canis, and B. burgdorferi by nested PCR. Totals of 2.2% (6 of 275) and 21.8% (65 of 275) of the ticks were positive for the E. phagocytophila genogroup and B. burgdorferi, respectively. Two ticks (0.7%) were coinfected with both bacteria. Of 12 engorged I. ricinus ticks collected from two deer, 8 (67%) were positive for the E. phagocytophila genogroup and one (8%) was positive for B. burgdorferi. There was no evidence of infection with E. canis or E. chaffeensis in the investigated tick population. The nucleotide sequences of the 546-bp Ehrlichia PCR products differed at one or two positions from the original sequence of the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis (HGE) agent (S.-M. Chen, J. S. Dumler, J. S. Bakken, and D. H. Walker, J. Clin. Microbiol. 32:589–595, 1994). Three groups of sequence variants were detected; two of these were known to occur in other areas in Europe or the United States, whereas one has not been reported before. Thus, in the German I. ricinus tick population closely related granulocytic ehrlichiae are prevalent, which might represent variants of E. phagocytophila or the HGE agent.
In order to investigate the prevalence of tick-borne infectious agents among ticks, ticks comprising five species from two genera (Hemaphysalis spp. and Ixodes spp.) were screened using molecular techniques. Ticks (3,135) were collected from small wild-caught mammals or by dragging/flagging in the Republic of Korea (ROK) and were pooled into a total of 1,638 samples (1 to 27 ticks per pool). From the 1,638 tick samples, species-specific fragments of Anaplasma phagocytophilum (1 sample), Anaplasma platys (52 samples), Ehrlichia chaffeensis (29 samples), Ehrlichia ewingii (2 samples), Ehrlichia canis (18 samples), and Rickettsia rickettsii (28 samples) were amplified by PCR assay. Twenty-one pooled and individual tick samples had mixed infections of two (15 samples) or three (6 samples) pathogens. In addition, 424 spleen samples from small captured mammals (389 rodents, 33 insectivores, and 2 weasels) were screened for selected zoonotic pathogens. Species-specific DNA fragments of A. phagocytophilum (110 samples), A. platys (68 samples), E. chaffeensis (8 samples), E. ewingii (26 samples), E. canis (51 samples), and Rickettsia sp. (22 samples) were amplified by PCR assay. One hundred thirty small mammals had single infections, while 4, 14, and 21 striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) had mixed infections of four, three, and two pathogens, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on nucleotide sequence comparison also revealed that Korean strains of E. chaffeensis clustered closely with those from China and the United States, while the Rickettsia (rOmpA) sequences clustered within a clade together with a Chinese strain. These results suggest that these agents should be considered in differential diagnosis while examining cases of acute febrile illnesses in humans as well as animals in the ROK.
Immune responses against monocytotropic ehrlichiosis during infection with a strain of Ehrlichia from Ixodes ovatus (IOE) were evaluated using a model that closely reproduces the pathology and immunity associated with tick-transmitted human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. C57BL/6 mice were inoculated intradermally or intraperitoneally with high-dose highly virulent IOE or intraperitoneally with mildly virulent Ehrlichia muris. Intradermal (i.d.) infection with IOE established mild, self-limited disease associated with minimal hepatic apoptosis, and all mice survived past 30 days. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) infection with IOE resulted in acute, severe toxic shock-like syndrome and severe multifocal hepatic apoptosis and necrosis, and all mice succumbed to disease. Compared to i.p. infection with IOE, intradermally infected mice had a 100- to 1,000-fold lower bacterial load in the spleen with limited dissemination. Compared to mice infected intraperitoneally with IOE, i.d. infection stimulated a stronger protective type-1 cell-mediated response on day 7 of infection, characterized by increased percentages of both CD4+ and CD8+ splenic T cells, generation of a greater number of IOE-specific, gamma interferon-producing CD4+ Th1 cells, and higher levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in the spleen but lower concentrations of serum TNF-α and interleukin-10. These data suggest that under the conditions of natural route of challenge (i.e., i.d. inoculation), the immune response has the capacity to confer complete protection against monocytotropic ehrlichiosis, which is associated with a strong cell-mediated type-1 response and decreased systemic production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines.
The ehrlichiae express variable outer membrane proteins (OMPs) that play important roles in both pathogenesis and host defense. Previous studies revealed that OMPs are immunodominant B-cell antigens and that passive transfer of anti-OMP antibodies can protect SCID mice from fatal ehrlichial infection. In this study, we used a model of fatal monocytotropic ehrlichiosis caused by Ehrlichia bacteria from Ixodes ovatus (IOE) to determine whether OMP immunization could generate protective immunity in immunocompetent mice. Immunization of C57BL/6 mice with a purified recombinant OMP expressed by IOE omp19 generated protection from fatal IOE infection and elicited robust humoral and CD4 T-cell responses. To identify CD4 T-cell epitopes within OMPs, we performed enzyme-linked immunospot analyses for gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production using a panel of overlapping 16-mer peptides from IOE OMP-19. Five immunoreactive peptides comprising residues 30 to 45, 77 to 92, 107 to 122, 197 to 212, and 247 to 264 were identified; the strongest response was generated against OMP-19107-122. Most of the peptides are conserved between E. muris and E. chaffeensis OMP-19, and they elicited IFN-γ production in CD4 T cells from E. muris-infected mice, indicating that T-cell epitope cross-reactivity likely contributes to heterologous immunity. Accordingly, CD4 T-cell responses to both OMP-19 and OMP-19107-122 were of greater magnitude following high-dose IOE challenge of mice that had been immunized by prior infection with E. muris. Our studies cumulatively identify B- and T-cell epitopes that are associated with protective homologous and heterologous immunity during ehrlichial infection.
To identify ehrlichial agents in Boophilus microplus ticks, DNA samples of B. microplus collected from the Tibet Autonomous Region and Sichuan Province of China were screened by a nested PCR. Sixteen of 43 (37%) DNA samples of B. microplus from Tibet were positive in nested PCR analysis. All 27 samples from Sichuan were negative. The screen identified two ehrlichial agents based on different 16S rRNA genes that were found after amplifying and sequencing the 5′-end fragments of the 16S rRNA genes. One sequence was identical to that of the gene of Anaplasma marginale, an etiological agent of animal anaplasmosis. The other sequence was most similar to that of the gene of Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an etiological agent of human monocytic ehrlichiosis. The sequence of 1,501 bases from the novel ehrlichial agent was obtained and showed the greatest levels of sequence similarity (97 to 98%) to 16S rRNA gene sequences of the members of the E. canis group of the genus Ehrlichia. Sequence comparison of the 16S rRNA gene with the members of the genus Ehrlichia reveals that the novel ehrlichial agent detected in B. microplus ticks is a new species of the genus Ehrlichia and is most closely related to E. chaffeensis.
Detection of vector-borne pathogens is necessary for investigation of their association with vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. The ability to detect Ehrlichia spp. within individual experimentally infected ticks would be valuable for studies to evaluate the relative competence of different vector species and transmission scenarios. The purpose of this study was to develop a sensitive PCR assay based on oligonucleotide sequences from the unique Ehrlichia canis gene, p30, to facilitate studies that require monitoring this pathogen in canine and tick hosts during experimental transmission. Homologous sequences for Ehrlichia chaffeensis p28 were compared to sequences of primers derived from a sequence conserved among E. canis isolates. Criteria for primer selection included annealing scores, identity of the primers to homologous E. chaffeensis sequences, and the availability of similarly optimal primers that were nested within the target template sequence. The p30-based assay was at least 100-fold more sensitive than a previously reported nested 16S ribosomal DNA (rDNA)-based assay and did not amplify the 200-bp target amplicon from E. chaffeensis, the human granulocytic ehrlichiosis agent, or Ehrlichia muris DNA. The assay was used to detect E. canis in canine carrier blood and in experimentally infected Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks. Optimized procedures for preparing tissues from these hosts for PCR assay are described. Our results indicated that this p30-based PCR assay will be useful for experimental investigations, that it has potential as a routine test, and that this approach to PCR assay design may be applicable to other pathogens that occur at low levels in affected hosts.
The obligately intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia chaffeensis that resides in mononuclear phagocytes is the etiologic agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME). HME is an emerging and often life-threatening, tick-transmitted infectious disease in the United States. Effective primary immune responses against Ehrlichia infection involve generation of Ehrlichia-specific gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing CD4+ T cells and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, activation of macrophages by IFN-γ, and production of Ehrlichia-specific antibodies of the Th1 isotype. Currently, there are no vaccines available against HME. We evaluated the ability of 28-kDa outer membrane proteins (P28-OMP-1) of the closely related Ehrlichia muris to stimulate long-term protective memory T and B cell responses and confer protection in mice. The spleens of mice vaccinated with E. muris P28-9, P28-12, P28-19, or a mixture of these three P28 proteins (P28s) using a DNA prime-protein boost regimen and challenged with E. muris had significantly lower bacterial loads than the spleens of mock-vaccinated mice. Mice immunized with P28-9, P28-12, P28-19, or the mixture induced Ehrlichia-specific CD4+ Th1 cells. Interestingly, mice immunized with P28-14, orthologs of which in E. chaffeensis and E. canis are primarily expressed in tick cells, failed to lower the ehrlichial burden in the spleen. Immunization with the recombinant P28-19 protein alone also significantly decreased the bacterial load in the spleen and liver compared to those of the controls. Our study reports, for the first time, the protective roles of the Ehrlichia P28-9 and P28-12 proteins in addition to confirming previous reports of the protective ability of P28-19. Partial protection induced by immunization with P28-9, P28-12, and P28-19 against Ehrlichia was associated with the generation of Ehrlichia-specific cell-mediated and humoral immune responses.
Ehrlichiosis is a clinically important, emerging zoonosis. Only Ehrlichia chaffeensis and E. ewingii have been thought to cause ehrlichiosis in humans in the United States. Patients with suspected ehrlichiosis routinely undergo testing to ensure proper diagnosis and to ascertain the cause.
We used molecular methods, culturing, and serologic testing to diagnose and ascertain the cause of cases of ehrlichiosis.
On testing, four cases of ehrlichiosis in Minnesota or Wisconsin were found not to be from E. chaffeensis or E. ewingii and instead to be caused by a newly discovered ehrlichia species. All patients had fever, malaise, headache, and lymphopenia; three had thrombocytopenia; and two had elevated liver-enzyme levels. All recovered after receiving doxycycline treatment. At least 17 of 697 Ixodes scapularis ticks collected in Minnesota or Wisconsin were positive for the same ehrlichia species on polymerase-chain-reaction testing. Genetic analyses revealed that this new ehrlichia species is closely related to E. muris.
We report a new ehrlichia species in Minnesota and Wisconsin and provide supportive clinical, epidemiologic, culture, DNA-sequence, and vector data. Physicians need to be aware of this newly discovered close relative of E. muris to ensure appropriate testing, treatment, and regional surveillance. (Funded by the National Institutes of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.)
Human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis (HME) is an emerging tick-transmitted zoonosis in the United States caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Ehrlichia canis, E, chaffeensis and E. ewingii have recently been detected in dogs and Rhipicephalus sanguineus ticks from Cameroon; thus the potential exists for human infections. The objective of this study was to determine if Ehrlichia species were associated with acute fevers of unknown etiology in patients from the coastal region of Cameroon. E. chaffeensis was detected in peripheral blood from 12 (10%) of 118 patients using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the genus-specific disulfide bond (dsb) formation protein gene. Furthermore, DNA sequencing of PCR amplicons revealed that the dsb gene sequence was identical to E. chaffeensis (Arkansas strain). Patients with detectable E. chaffeensis DNA had clinical manifestations that included fever, headache, myalgia, arthralgia, pulmonary involvement, and diffuse rash.
In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had been isolated. These new isolates were compared with the E. muris type strain. The mouse virulence and ultrastructure of the new isolates were similar to those of the type strain, and all of them were cross-reactive with each other, as well as with the type strain, by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test. The levels of similarity of the base sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of one of the A. speciosus isolates and one of the tick isolates to that of the E. muris type strain were 99.79 and 99.93%, respectively. We suggest that all of these isolates are E. muris; that E. muris is not limited to Eothenomys kageus but infects other species of mice; and that E. muris is present at locations other than Aichi Prefecture. It appears that H. flava is a potential vector of E. muris. Twenty (1%) of 1803 humans from metropolitan Tokyo were found to be seropositive for E. muris antibodies. A serological survey revealed that exposure to E. muris or organisms antigenically cross-reactive to E. muris occurred among dogs, wild mice, monkeys, bears, deer, and wild boars in Gifu Prefecture, nearby prefectures, and Nagoya City, central Japan. However, human beings and Rattus norvegicus rats in this area were seronegative. These results indicate broader geographic distribution of and human and animal species exposure to E. muris or related Ehrlichia spp. in Japan.
Ehrlichia chaffeensis, an obligatory intracellular rickettsial pathogen, enters and replicates in monocytes/macrophages and several non-phagocytic cells. E. chaffeensis entry into mammalian cells is essential not only for causing the emerging zoonosis, human monocytic ehrlichiosis, but also for its survival. It remains unclear if E. chaffeensis has evolved a specific surface protein that functions as an ‘invasin’ to mediate its entry. We report a novel entry triggering protein of Ehrlichia, EtpE that functions as an invasin. EtpE is an outer membrane protein and an antibody against EtpE (the C-terminal fragment, EtpE-C) greatly inhibited E. chaffeensis binding, entry and infection of both phagocytes and non-phagocytes. EtpE-C-immunization of mice significantly inhibited E. chaffeensis infection. EtpE-C-coated latex beads, used to investigate whether EtpE-C can mediate cell invasion, entered both phagocytes and non-phagocytes and the entry was blocked by compounds that block E. chaffeensis entry. None of these compounds blocked uptake of non-coated beads by phagocytes. Yeast two-hybrid screening revealed that DNase X, a glycosylphosphatidyl inositol-anchored mammalian cell-surface protein binds EtpE-C. This was confirmed by far-Western blotting, affinity pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation, immunofluorescence labeling, and live-cell image analysis. EtpE-C-coated beads entered bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) from wild-type mice, whereas they neither bound nor entered BMDMs from DNase X-/- mice. Antibody against DNase X or DNase X knock-down by small interfering RNA impaired E. chaffeensis binding, entry, and infection. E. chaffeensis entry and infection rates of BMDMs from DNase X-/- mice and bacterial load in the peripheral blood in experimentally infected DNase X-/- mice, were significantly lower than those from wild-type mice. Thus this obligatory intracellular pathogen evolved a unique protein EtpE that binds DNase X to enter and infect eukaryotic cells. This study is the first to demonstrate the invasin and its mammalian receptor, and their in vivo relevance in any ehrlichial species.
Human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME), discovered in 1986, was designated as a nationally notifiable disease by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1998. HME is one of the most prevalent, life-threatening emerging infectious diseases in the United States. HME is caused by a bacterium, Ehrlichia chaffeensis and is transmitted by the bite of infected ticks. This bacterium has special ability to enter and replicate inside human white blood cells and this feature is very essential for the bacterial survival. How E. chaffeensis enters host cells has been a mystery. The present study revealed that E. chaffeensis outer-surface protein named EtpE binds a specific host cell-surface protein, DNase X, and this ligand-receptor interaction is required to induce bacterial entry into its host cells. In order to test whether E. chaffeensis infection can be prevented by EtpE immunization, mice were immunized with the recombinant EtpE protein, and challenged with live E. chaffeensis. Infection was significantly reduced in the EtpE protein-immunized mice compared to controls. Mice lacking DNase X were also resistant to infection. This study shows EtpE-mediated entry pathway of E. chaffeensis is important in infecting mammals and EtpE can be incorporated into a future HME vaccine design.
Human monocytic ehrlichiosis, one of the most frequent life-threatening tick-borne zoonoses, is caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis that lacks endotoxin and peptidoglycan. While sequence polymorphisms in several genes in E. chaffeensis strains have been reported, global genomic divergence and biological differences among strains are unknown. The objectives of the present study were to compare the genome sequences of strains of E. chaffeensis and to examine the virulence potentials of the strains with defined genome sequences. Genomic DNA was extracted from purified E. chaffeensis strains Wakulla and Liberty, and comparative genome hybridization was performed using a densely tiled microarray of 147,027 chromosome positions of the E. chaffeensis strain Arkansas genome. The results revealed that 4,663 and 5,325 positions in the chromosomes of strains Wakulla and Liberty, respectively, were different from those in the chromosome of strain Arkansas, including three common major polymorphic chromosomal regions. Of various functional categories, the differences were most concentrated in genes predicted to encode cell envelope proteins. Of all the open reading frames (ORFs), 21 omp-1 (p28 gene) paralogs, nine genes encoding hypothetical proteins, two genes encoding ankyrin repeat proteins, and hemE contained the most differences. Several highly polymorphic ORFs were confirmed by sequencing. When the E. chaffeensis strains were inoculated into severe combined immunodeficiency mice, the order of the severity of clinical signs and the bacterial burden detected in mice was Wakulla > Liberty > Arkansas. Severe diffuse inflammation and granulomatous inflammation were evident in the livers of mice infected with strains Wakulla and Arkansas, respectively, but not in the livers of mice infected with strain Liberty. These results revealed distinct virulence phenotypes of E. chaffeensis strains with defined genome sequences.
An infectious agent was isolated from the enlarged spleen of a wild mouse, Eothenomys kageus, by intraperitoneal inoculation of the spleen homogenate into laboratory mice. The laboratory mice developed splenomegaly, and the agent was maintained by serial passage of spleen homogenates in laboratory mice. The agent in the spleen homogenate was inactivated after incubation at 37 or 50 degrees C. Tetracyclines were effective in preventing infection of mice with this agent, but penicillin and sulfonamides were ineffective. Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies were observed in the peritoneal macrophages of infected mice. Electron microscopy revealed numerous small pleomorphic cocci within membrane-lined vacuoles in the cytoplasm of splenic macrophages. Morphologically similar to the ehrlichial organisms, each organism was surrounded by a distinct plasma membrane and rippled outer cell membrane without a distinct peptidoglycan layer. The agent did not grow in chicken embryos, and the Weil-Felix test result was negative. In the indirect fluorescent-antibody test, the agent reciprocally cross-reacted with Ehrlichia canis and cross-reacted somewhat with Ehrlichia sennetsu but did not cross-react with Ehrlichia risticii, Neorickettsia helminthoeca, Rickettsia tsutsugamushi, or Chlamydia spp. The mouse antiserum against this agent reacted with 64-, 47-, 46-, 44-, and 40-kDa proteins of E. canis by Western blotting (immunoblotting). Since E. canis and closely related Ehrlichia chaffeensis and Ehrlichia ewingii are not known to proliferate or cause splenomegaly in mice, these results suggest that the agent is a new species within the tribe Ehrlichieae of the family Rickettsiaceae. The finding suggests that wild rodents may serve as reservoirs for pathogenic ehrlichiae.
A 30-kDa major outer membrane protein of Ehrlichia canis, the agent of canine ehrlichiosis, is the major antigen recognized by both naturally and experimentally infected dog sera. The protein cross-reacts with a serum against a recombinant 28-kDa protein (rP28), one of the outer membrane proteins of a gene (omp-1) family of Ehrlichia chaffeensis. Two DNA fragments of E. canis were amplified by PCR with two primer pairs based on the sequences of E. chaffeensis omp-1 genes, cloned, and sequenced. Each fragment contained a partial 30-kDa protein gene of E. canis. Genomic Southern blot analysis with the partial gene probes revealed the presence of multiple copies of these genes in the E. canis genome. Three copies of the entire gene (p30, p30-1, and p30a) were cloned and sequenced from the E. canis genomic DNA. The open reading frames of the two copies (p30 and p30-1) were tandemly arranged with an intergenic space. The three copies were similar but not identical and contained a semivariable region and three hypervariable regions in the protein molecules. The following genes homologous to three E. canis 30-kDa protein genes and the E. chaffeensis omp-1 family were identified in the closely related rickettsiae: wsp from Wolbachia sp., p44 from the agent of human granulocytic ehrlichiosis, msp-2 and msp-4 from Anaplasma marginale, and map-1 from Cowdria ruminantium. Phylogenetic analysis among the three E. canis 30-kDa proteins and the major surface proteins of the rickettsiae revealed that these proteins are divided into four clusters and the two E. canis 30-kDa proteins are closely related but that the third 30-kDa protein is not. The p30 gene was expressed as a fusion protein, and the antibody to the recombinant protein (rP30) was raised in a mouse. The antibody reacted with rP30 and a 30-kDa protein of purified E. canis. Twenty-nine indirect fluorescent antibody (IFA)-positive dog plasma specimens strongly recognized the rP30 of E. canis. To evaluate whether the rP30 is a suitable antigen for serodiagnosis of canine ehrlichiosis, the immunoreactions between rP30 and the whole purified E. canis antigen were compared in the dot immunoblot assay. Dot reactions of both antigens with IFA-positive dog plasma specimens were clearly distinguishable by the naked eye from those with IFA-negative plasma specimens. By densitometry with a total of 42 IFA-positive and -negative plasma specimens, both antigens produced results similar in sensitivity and specificity. These findings suggest that the rP30 antigen provides a simple, consistent, and rapid serodiagnosis for canine ehrlichiosis. Cloning of multigenes encoding the 30-kDa major outer membrane proteins of E. canis will greatly facilitate understanding pathogenesis and immunologic study of canine ehrlichosis and provide a useful tool for phylogenetic analysis.
The obligately intracellular bacterium Ehrlichia chaffeensis that resides in mononuclear phagocytes is the causative agent of human monocytotropic ehrlichiosis. Ehrlichia muris and Ixodes ovatus Ehrlichia (IOE) are agents of mouse models of ehrlichiosis. The mechanism by which Ehrlichia are transported from an infected host cell to a non-infected cell has not been demonstrated.
Using fluorescence microscopy and transmission and scanning electron microscopy, we demonstrated that Ehrlichia was transported through the filopodia of macrophages during early stages of infection. If host cells were not present in the vicinity of an Ehrlichia-infected cell, the leading edge of the filopodium formed a fan-shaped structure filled with the pathogen. Formation of filopodia in the host macrophages was inhibited by cytochalasin D and ehrlichial transport were prevented due to the absence of filopodia formation. At late stages of infection the host cell membrane was ruptured, and the bacteria were released.
Ehrlichia are transported through the host cell filopodium during initial stages of infection, but are released by host cell membrane rupture during later stages of infection.