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1.  The Coordinated Action of CC Chemokines in the Lung Orchestrates Allergic Inflammation and Airway Hyperresponsiveness  
The complex pathophysiology of lung allergic inflammation and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) that characterize asthma is achieved by the regulated accumulation and activation of different leukocyte subsets in the lung. The development and maintenance of these processes correlate with the coordinated production of chemokines. Here, we have assessed the role that different chemokines play in lung allergic inflammation and BHR by blocking their activities in vivo. Our results show that blockage of each one of these chemokines reduces both lung leukocyte infiltration and BHR in a substantially different way. Thus, eotaxin neutralization reduces specifically BHR and lung eosinophilia transiently after each antigen exposure. Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-5 neutralization abolishes BHR not by affecting the accumulation of inflammatory leukocytes in the airways, but rather by altering the trafficking of the eosinophils and other leukocytes through the lung interstitium. Neutralization of RANTES (regulated upon activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted) receptor(s) with a receptor antagonist decreases significantly lymphocyte and eosinophil infiltration as well as mRNA expression of eotaxin and RANTES. In contrast, neutralization of one of the ligands for RANTES receptors, macrophage-inflammatory protein 1α, reduces only slightly lung eosinophilia and BHR. Finally, MCP-1 neutralization diminishes drastically BHR and inflammation, and this correlates with a pronounced decrease in monocyte- and lymphocyte-derived inflammatory mediators. These results suggest that different chemokines activate different cellular and molecular pathways that in a coordinated fashion contribute to the complex pathophysiology of asthma, and that their individual blockage results in intervention at different levels of these processes.
PMCID: PMC2525544  PMID: 9653092
chemokines; allergic inflammation; bronchial hyperresponsiveness; eosinophilia; leukocytes
2.  Anti-Allergic Cromones Inhibit Histamine and Eicosanoid Release from Activated Human and Murine Mast Cells by Releasing Annexin A1 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(3):e58963.
Background and Purpose
Although the ‘cromones’ (di-sodium cromoglycate and sodium nedocromil) are used to treat allergy and asthma, their ‘mast cell stabilising’ mechanism of pharmacological action has never been convincingly explained. Here, we investigate the hypothesis that these drugs act by stimulating the release of the anti-inflammatory protein Annexin-A1 (Anx-A1) from mast cells.
Experimental approach
We used biochemical and immuno-neutralisation techniques to investigate the mechanism by which cromones suppress histamine and eicosanoid release from cord-derived human mast cells (CDMCs) or murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMDMCs) from wild type and Anx-A1 null mice.
Key results
CDMCs activated by IgE-FcRε1 crosslinking, released histamine and prostaglandin (PG) D2, which were inhibited (30–65%) by 5 min pre-treatment with cromoglycate (10 nM) or nedocromil (10 nM), as well as dexamethasone (2 nM) and human recombinant Anx-A1 (1–10 nM). In CDMCs cromones potentiated (2–5 fold) protein kinase C (PKC) phosphorylation and Anx-A1 phosphorylation and secretion (3–5 fold). Incubation of CDMCs with a neutralising anti-Anx-A1 monoclonal antibody reversed the cromone inhibitory effect.
Nedocromil (10 nM) also inhibited (40–60%) the release of mediators from murine bone marrow derived-mast cells from wild type mice activated by compound 48/80 and IgE-FcRε1 cross-linking, but were inactive in such cells when these were prepared from Anx-A1 null mice or when the neutralising anti-Anx-A1 antibody was present.
Conclusions and Implications
We conclude that stimulation of phosphorylation and secretion of Anx-A1 is an important component of inhibitory cromone actions on mast cells, which could explain their acute pharmacological actions in allergy. These findings also highlight a new pathway for reducing mediator release from these cells.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0058963
PMCID: PMC3601088  PMID: 23527056
3.  Ca2+-Activated K+ Channel–3.1 Blocker TRAM-34 Attenuates Airway Remodeling and Eosinophilia in a Murine Asthma Model 
Key features of asthma include bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), eosinophilic airway inflammation, and bronchial remodeling, characterized by subepithelial collagen deposition, airway fibrosis, and increased bronchial smooth muscle (BSM) mass. The calcium-activated K+ channel KCa3.1 is expressed by many cells implicated in the pathogenesis of asthma, and is involved in both inflammatory and remodeling responses in a number of tissues. The specific KCa3.1 blocker 5-[(2-chlorophenyl)(diphenyl)methyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34) attenuates BSM cell proliferation, and both mast cell and fibrocyte recruitment in vitro. We aimed to examine the effects of KCa3.1 blockade on BSM remodeling, airway inflammation, and BHR in a murine model of chronic asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized with intraperitoneal ovalbumin (OVA) on Days 0 and 14, and then challenged with intranasal OVA during Days 14–75. OVA-sensitized/challenged mice received TRAM-34 (120 mg/kg/day, subcutaneous) from Days −7 to 75 (combined treatment), Days −7 to 20 (preventive treatment), or Days 21 to 75 (curative treatment). Untreated mice received daily injections of vehicle (n = 8 per group). Bronchial remodeling was assessed by histological and immunohistochemical analyses. Inflammation was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage and flow cytometry. We also determined BHR in both conscious and anesthetized mice via plethysmography. We demonstrated that curative treatment with TRAM-34 abolishes BSM remodeling and subbasement collagen deposition, and attenuates airway eosinophilia. Although curative treatment alone did not significantly reduce BHR, the combined treatment attenuated nonspecific BHR to methacholine. This study indicates that KCa3.1 blockade could provide a new therapeutic strategy in asthma.
doi:10.1165/rcmb.2012-0103OC
PMCID: PMC4035224  PMID: 23204391
asthma; KCa3.1; ion channel; remodeling; smooth muscle
4.  Airway inflammation, basement membrane thickening and bronchial hyperresponsiveness in asthma 
Thorax  2002;57(4):309-316.
Background: There are few data in asthma relating airway physiology, inflammation and remodelling and the relative effects of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS) treatment on these parameters. A study of the relationships between spirometric indices, airway inflammation, airway remodelling, and bronchial hyperreactivity (BHR) before and after treatment with high dose inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP 750 µg bd) was performed in a group of patients with relatively mild but symptomatic asthma.
Methods: A double blind, randomised, placebo controlled, parallel group study of inhaled FP was performed in 35 asthmatic patients. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and airway biopsy studies were carried out at baseline and after 3 and 12 months of treatment. Twenty two normal healthy non-asthmatic subjects acted as controls.
Results: BAL fluid eosinophils, mast cells, and epithelial cells were significantly higher in asthmatic patients than in controls at baseline (p<0.01). Subepithelial reticular basement membrane (rbm) thickness was variable, but overall was increased in asthmatic patients compared with controls (p<0.01). Multiple regression analysis explained 40% of the variability in BHR, 21% related to rbm thickness, 11% to BAL epithelial cells, and 8% to BAL eosinophils. The longitudinal data corroborated the cross sectional model. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second improved after 3 months of treatment with FP with no further improvement at 12 months. PD20 improved throughout the study. BAL inflammatory cells decreased following 3 months of treatment with no further improvement at 12 months (p<0.05 v placebo). Rbm thickness decreased in the FP group, but only after 12 months of treatment (mean change –1.9, 95% CI –3 to –0.7 µm; p<0.01 v baseline, p<0.05 v placebo). A third of the improvement in BHR with FP was associated with early changes in inflammation, but the more progressive and larger improvement was associated with the later improvement in airway remodelling.
Conclusion: Physiology, airway inflammation and remodelling in asthma are interrelated and improve with ICS. Changes are not temporally concordant, with prolonged treatment necessary for maximal benefit in remodelling and PD20. Determining the appropriate dose of inhaled steroids only by reference to symptoms and lung function, as specified in current international guidelines, and even against indices of inflammation may be over simplistic. The results of this study support the need for early and long term intervention with ICS, even in patients with relatively mild asthma.
doi:10.1136/thorax.57.4.309
PMCID: PMC1746305  PMID: 11923548
5.  Identification of PCDH1 as a Novel Susceptibility Gene for Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness 
Rationale: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease that affects more than 300 million individuals worldwide. Asthma is caused by interaction of genetic and environmental factors. Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is a hallmark of asthma and results from increased sensitivity of the airways to physical or chemical stimulants. BHR and asthma are linked to chromosome 5q31-q33.
Objectives: To identify a gene for BHR on chromosome 5q31-q33.
Methods: In 200 Dutch families with asthma, linkage analysis and fine mapping were performed, and the Protocadherin 1 gene (PCDH1) was identified. PCDH1 was resequenced in 96 subjects from ethnically diverse populations to identify novel sequence variants. Subsequent replication studies were undertaken in seven populations from The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States, including two general population samples, two family samples, and three case-control samples. PCDH1 mRNA and protein expression was investigated using polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemistry.
Measurements and Main Results: In seven out of eight populations (n = 6,168) from The Netherlands, United Kingdom, and United States, PCHD1 gene variants were significantly associated with BHR (P values, 0.005–0.05) This association was present in both families with asthma and general populations. PCDH1 mRNA and protein were expressed in airway epithelial cells and in macrophages.
Conclusions: PCDH1 is a novel gene for BHR in adults and children. The identification of PCDH1 as a BHR susceptibility gene may suggest that a structural defect in the integrity of the airway epithelium, the first line of defense against inhaled substances, contributes to the development of BHR.
doi:10.1164/rccm.200810-1621OC
PMCID: PMC2778155  PMID: 19729670
bronchial hyperresponsiveness; asthma genetics; protocadherin-1; cell adhesion; airway epithelium
6.  Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness to Methacholine and AMP in Children With Atopic Asthma 
Purpose
Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is typically measured by bronchial challenge tests that employ direct stimulation by methacholine or indirect stimulation by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP). Some studies have shown that the AMP challenge test provides a better reflection of airway inflammation, but few studies have examined the relationship between the AMP and methacholine challenge tests in children with asthma. We investigated the relationship between AMP and methacholine testing in children and adolescents with atopic asthma.
Methods
The medical records of 130 children with atopic asthma (mean age, 10.63 years) were reviewed retrospectively. Methacholine and AMP test results, spirometry, skin prick test results, and blood tests for inflammatory markers (total IgE, eosinophils [total count, percent of white blood cells]) were analyzed.
Results
The concentration of AMP that induces a 20% decline in forced expiratory volume in 1 second [FEV1] (PC20) of methacholine correlated with the PC20 of AMP (r2=0.189, P<0.001). No significant differences were observed in the levels of inflammatory markers (total eosinophil count, eosinophil percentage, and total IgE) between groups that were positive and negative for BHR to methacholine. However, significant differences in inflammatory markers were observed in groups that were positive and negative for BHR to AMP (log total eosinophil count, P=0.023; log total IgE, P=0.020, eosinophil percentage, P<0.001). In contrast, body mass index (BMI) was significantly different in the methacholine positive and negative groups (P=0.027), but not in the AMP positive and negative groups (P=0.62). The PC20 of methacholine correlated with FEV1, FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC), and maximum mid-expiratory flow (MMEF) (P=0.001, 0.011, 0.001, respectively), and the PC20 of AMP correlated with FEV1, FEV1/FVC, and MMEF (P=0.008, 0.046, 0.001, respectively).
Conclusions
Our results suggest that the AMP and methacholine challenge test results correlated well with respect to determining BHR. The BHR to AMP more likely implicated airway inflammation in children with atopic asthma. In contrast, the BHR to methacholine was related to BMI.
doi:10.4168/aair.2012.4.6.341
PMCID: PMC3479227  PMID: 23115730
AMP; atopic asthma; bronchial hyper-responsiveness; methacholine
7.  Pathophysiological characterization of asthma transitions across adolescence 
Respiratory Research  2014;15(1):153.
Background
Adolescence is a period of change, which coincides with disease remission in a significant proportion of subjects with childhood asthma. There is incomplete understanding of the changing characteristics underlying different adolescent asthma transitions. We undertook pathophysiological characterization of transitional adolescent asthma phenotypes in a longitudinal birth cohort.
Methods
The Isle of Wight Birth Cohort (N = 1456) was reviewed at 1, 2, 4, 10 and 18-years. Characterization included questionnaires, skin tests, spirometry, exhaled nitric oxide, bronchial challenge and (in a subset of 100 at 18-years) induced sputum. Asthma groups were “never asthma” (no asthma since birth), “persistent asthma” (asthma at age 10 and 18), “remission asthma” (asthma at age 10 but not at 18) and “adolescent-onset asthma” (asthma at age 18 but not at age 10).
Results
Participants whose asthma remitted during adolescence had lower bronchial reactivity (odds ratio (OR) 0.30; CI 0.10 -0.90; p = 0.03) at age 10 plus greater improvement in lung function (forced expiratory flow 25-75% gain: 1.7 L; 1.0-2.9; p = 0.04) compared to persistent asthma by age 18. Male sex (0.3; 0.1-0.7; p < 0.01) and lower acetaminophen use (0.4; 0.2-0.8; p < 0.01) independently favoured asthma remission, when compared to persistent asthma. Asthma remission had a lower total sputum cell count compared to never asthma (31.5 [25–75 centiles] 12.9-40.4) vs. 47.0 (19.5-181.3); p = 0.03). Sputum examination in adolescent-onset asthma showed eosinophilic airway inflammation (3.0%, 0.7-6.6), not seen in persistent asthma (1.0%, 0–3.9), while remission group had the lowest sputum eosinophil count (0.3%, 0–1.4) and lowest eosinophils/neutrophils ratio of 0.0 (Interquartile range: 0.1).
Conclusion
Asthma remission during adolescence is associated with lower initial BHR and greater gain in small airways function, while adolescent-onset asthma is primarily eosinophilic.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12931-014-0153-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12931-014-0153-7
PMCID: PMC4256730  PMID: 25472820
8.  Bronchial hyper-responsiveness, subepithelial fibrosis, and transforming growth factor-β1 expression in patients with long-standing and recently diagnosed asthma 
Introduction:
Chronic inflammation in asthmatic airways leads to bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) and the development of structural changes. Important features of remodeling include the formation of subepithelial fibrosis due to increased collagen deposition in the reticular basement membrane. Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β might be a central mediator of tissue fibrosis and remodeling.
Materials and Methods:
Immunohistochemistry was used to measure collagen III deposition and TGF-β1 expression in biopsies from patients with long-standing asthma treated with inhaled corticosteroids, patients with recently diagnosed asthma, and control subjects. Computer-assisted image analysis was used to evaluate total basement membrane (TBM) thickness.
Results:
Asthmatics, particularly those with long-standing asthma, had thicker TBMs than healthy subjects. Collagen III deposition was comparable in the studied groups. BHR was not correlated with features of mucosal inflammation and was lower in steroid-treated patients with long-standing asthma than in subjects with newly diagnosed asthma untreated with steroids. Epithelial TGF-β1 expression negatively correlated with collagen III deposition and TBM thickness.
Conclusions:
The study showed that TBM thickness, but not collagen III deposition, could be a differentiating marker of asthmatics of different disease duration and treatment. The lack of correlation between BHR and features of mucosal inflammation suggests the complexity of BHR development. Corticosteroids can reduce BHR in asthmatics, but it seems to be less effective in reducing subepithelial fibrosis. The role of epithelial TGF-β1 needs to be further investigated since the possibility that it plays a protective and anti-inflammatory role in asthmatic airways cannot be excluded.
doi:10.1007/s00005-008-0044-z
PMCID: PMC2805797  PMID: 19043669
bronchial hyper-responsiveness; subepithelial fibrosis; airway remodeling; transforming growth factor-β
9.  Cromoglycate drugs suppress eicosanoid generation in U937 cells by promoting the release of Anx-A1 
Biochemical Pharmacology  2009;77(12):1814-1826.
Graphical abstract
Using biochemical, epifluorescence and electron microscopic techniques in a U937 model system, we investigated the effect of anti-allergic drugs di-sodium cromoglycate and sodium nedocromil on the trafficking and release of the anti-inflammatory protein Annexin-A1 (Anx-A1) when this was triggered by glucocorticoid (GC) treatment. GCs alone produced a rapid (within 5 min) concentration-dependent activation of PKCα/β (Protein Kinase C; EC 2.7.11.13) and phosphorylation of Anx-A1 on Ser27. Both phosphoproteins accumulated at the plasma membrane and Anx-A1 was subsequently externalised thereby inhibiting thromboxane (Tx) B2 generation. When administered alone, cromoglycate or nedocromil had little effect on this pathway however, in the presence of a fixed sub-maximal concentration of GCs, increasing amounts of the cromoglycate-like drugs caused a striking concentration-dependent enhancement of Anx-A1 and PKCα/β phosphorylation, membrane recruitment and Anx-A1 release from cells resulting in greatly enhanced inhibition of TxB2 generation. GCs also stimulated phosphatase accumulation at the plasma membrane of U937 cells. Both cromoglycate and nedocromil inhibited this enzymatic activity as well as that of a highly purified PP2A phosphatase preparation. We conclude that stimulation by the cromoglycate-like drugs of intracellular Anx-A1 trafficking and release (hence inhibition of eicosanoid release) is secondary to inhibition of a phosphatase PP2A (phosphoprotein phosphatase; EC 3.1.3.16), which probably forms part of a control loop to limit Anx-A1 release. These experiments provide a basis for a novel mechanism of action for the cromolyns, a group of drugs that have long puzzled investigators.
doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2009.03.010
PMCID: PMC2888050  PMID: 19428336
Sodium nedocromil; Glucocorticoids; Okadaic acid; PKC; PP2A phosphatase
10.  Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide and Impulse Oscillometry in Children With Allergic Rhinitis 
Purpose
Airway inflammation, bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR), and bronchodilator response (BDR) are representative characteristics of asthma. Because allergic rhinitis (AR) is a risk factor for asthma development, we evaluated these 3 characteristics in AR using measurement of fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a methacholine challenge test (MCT), and impulse oscillometry (IOS).
Methods
This study included 112 children with asthma (asthma group), 196 children with AR (AR group), and 32 control subjects (control group). We compared pulmonary function parameters and FeNO levels among the 3 groups. The AR group was subdivided into 2 categories: the AR group with BHR and the AR group without, and again pulmonary function and FeNO levels were compared between the 2 subgroups.
Results
FeNO levels were more increased in the AR and asthma groups than in the control group; within the AR group, FeNO was higher in the AR group with BHR than in the AR group without. The BDR was more increased in the AR group than in the control group when percent changes in reactance at 5 Hz (Δ X5) and reactance area (Δ AX) were compared. In the AR group, however, there was no difference in Δ X5 and Δ AX between the AR group with BHR and the AR group without.
Conclusions
Reversible airway obstruction on IOS and elevated FeNO levels were observed in children with AR. Because elevated FeNO levels can indicate airway inflammation and because chronic inflammation may lead to BHR, FeNO levels may be associated with BHR in AR. IOS can be a useful tool for detecting lower airway involvement of AR independent of BHR assessed in the MCT.
doi:10.4168/aair.2014.6.1.27
PMCID: PMC3881396  PMID: 24404390
Asthma; allergic rhinitis; bronchial hyper-responsiveness; bronchodilator effect; child; nitric oxide
11.  Bronchial hyperresponsiveness in lung transplant recipients: lack of correlation with airway inflammation 
Thorax  1997;52(6):551-556.
BACKGROUND: Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine has been reported to occur in most lung transplant recipients. BHR to physical stimuli such as exercise and non-isotonic aerosols has not been as extensively studied in this subject population. This report aims to assess the presence and degree of BHR to methacholine and hypertonic saline in stable lung transplant recipients and to relate it to the presence of airway inflammation. METHODS: Ten patients undergoing bilateral sequential lung transplantation and six heart-lung transplant recipients, all with stable lung function, were recruited 66- 1167 days following transplantation. Subjects underwent a methacholine challenge and bronchoscopy for sampling of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, transbronchial and endobronchial biopsy tissues. Hypertonic saline challenge was performed six days later. RESULTS: Nine of the 16 transplant recipients had positive methacholine challenges (geometric mean PD20 0.18 mg, interquartile range 0.058-0.509) and three of these subjects also had positive hypertonic saline challenges (PD15 = 2.3, 33.0, and 51.5 ml). No clear relationship was found between BHR to either methacholine or hypertonic saline and levels of mast cells, eosinophils or lymphocytes in samples of biopsy tissue or lavage fluid. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the lung transplant recipients studied were responsive to methacholine and unresponsive to hypertonic saline. BHR was not clearly related to airway inflammation, suggesting an alternative mechanism for BHR following lung transplantation from that usually assumed in asthma. 



PMCID: PMC1758572  PMID: 9227723
12.  Randomised placebo-controlled study of the effect of paracetamol on asthma severity in adults 
BMJ Open  2014;4(2):e004324.
Objective
To investigate the effect of regular paracetamol on bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) and asthma control in adult asthma.
Setting
Single research-based outpatient clinic.
Participants
94 adults with mild-to-moderate asthma received randomised treatment; 85 completed the study. Key inclusion criteria were age 18–65 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) >70% predicted, provocation concentration of methacholine causing a 20% reduction in FEV1 (PC20) between 0.125 and 16 mg/mL. Key exclusion criteria included an asthma exacerbation within the previous 2 months, current regular use of paracetamol, use of high-dose aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, current or past cigarette smoking >10 pack-years.
Interventions
In a 12-week randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group study, participants received 12 weeks of 1 g paracetamol twice daily or placebo twice daily.
Primary and secondary outcome measures
The primary outcome variable was BHR, measured as the PC20 at week 12. Secondary outcome variables included FEV1, fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) and asthma control questionnaire (ACQ) score.
Results
At 12 weeks, the mean (SD) logarithm base two PC20 was 1.07 (2.36) in the control group (N=54) and 0.62 (2.09) in the paracetamol group (N=31). After controlling for baseline PC20, the mean difference (paracetamol minus placebo) was −0.48 doubling dose worsening in BHR in the paracetamol group (95% CI −1.28 to 0.32), p=0.24. There were no statistically significant differences (paracetamol minus placebo) in log FeNO (0.09 (95% CI −0.097 to 0.27)), FEV1 (−0.07 L (95% CI −0.15 to 0.01)) or ACQ score (−0.04 (95% CI −0.27 to 0.18)).
Conclusions
There was no significant effect of paracetamol on BHR and asthma control in adults with mild-to-moderate asthma. However, the study findings are limited by low power and the upper confidence limits did not rule out clinically relevant adverse effects.
Trial Registration
Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number: NZCTR12609000551291.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2013-004324
PMCID: PMC3927716  PMID: 24525393
13.  Effects of Respiratory Mycoplasma pneumoniae Infection on Allergen-Induced Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness and Lung Inflammation in Mice  
Infection and Immunity  2003;71(3):1520-1526.
Airway mycoplasma infection may be associated with asthma pathophysiology. However, the direct effects of mycoplasma infection on asthma remain unknown. Using a murine allergic-asthma model, we evaluated the effects of different timing of airway Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection on bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), lung inflammation, and the protein levels of Th1 (gamma interferon [IFN-γ]) and Th2 (interleukin 4 [IL-4]) cytokines in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. When mycoplasma infection occurred 3 days before allergen (ovalbumin) sensitization and challenge, the infection reduced the BHR and inflammatory-cell influx into the lung. This was accompanied by a significant induction of Th1 responses (increased IFN-γ and decreased IL-4 production). Conversely, when mycoplasma infection occurred 2 days after allergen sensitization and challenge, the infection initially caused a temporary reduction of BHR and then increased BHR, lung inflammation, and IL-4 levels. Our data suggest that mycoplasma infection could modulate both physiological and immunological responses in the murine asthma model. Our animal models may also provide a new means to understand the role of infection in asthma pathogenesis and give evidence for the asthma hygiene hypothesis.
doi:10.1128/IAI.71.3.1520-1526.2003
PMCID: PMC148884  PMID: 12595471
14.  A double blind placebo controlled group comparative study of ophthalmic sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium in the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis. 
In a 4 week double masked comparative study, patients received 2% nedocromil sodium (48), 2% sodium cromoglycate (48), or placebo eye drops (42), four times daily, for the treatment of vernal keratoconjunctivitis (VKC). Clinical examinations of eye condition and symptom severity were made before and after a 1 week baseline before starting test treatment, and after 1, 2, and 4 weeks of treatment. Patients kept daily diary card records of symptom severity and concomitant therapy. At the clinic, significant improvements were seen with both active treatments after 2-4 weeks. During the final visit, significant benefits over placebo were recorded for five ocular signs with nedocromil sodium and three with sodium cromoglycate, bulbar and lower tarsal chemosis being better controlled by nedocromil sodium (p < 0.05 v sodium cromoglycate). Diary card trends showed improvement with all three treatments, which was greatest with nedocromil sodium and least with placebo. Compared with placebo, both the active drugs produced statistically significant improvements in general eye condition during weeks 1-2, and nedocromil sodium significantly reduced itching within the first week. Overall, nedocromil sodium had the greatest effect on symptoms, although diary card data revealed no statistically significant differences between the two active drugs. In conclusion, both 2% nedocromil sodium and 2% sodium cromoglycate were effective in controlling VKC when administered four times daily into the eyes, while the marked anti-inflammatory activity of nedocromil sodium was apparent in its more pronounced overall therapeutic effect.
PMCID: PMC504789  PMID: 8025071
15.  Asthma and other wheezing disorders in children 
Clinical Evidence  2006;2006:0302.
Introduction
Asthma is more common in children with a personal or family history of atopy, increased severity and frequency of wheezing episodes, and presence of variable airway obstruction or bronchial hyperresponsiveness. Precipitating factors for symptoms and acute episodes include infection, house dust mites, allergens from pet animals, exposure to tobacco smoke, and anxiety.
Methods and outcomes
We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of treatments for acute asthma in children? What are the effects of single-agent prophylaxis in children taking as-needed inhaled beta agonists for asthma? What are the effects of additional prophylactic treatments in childhood asthma inadequately controlled by standard-dose inhaled corticosteroids? What are the effects of treatments and of prophylactic treatments for acute wheezing in infants? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library and other important databases up to October 2005 (BMJ Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA).
Results
We found 84 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions.
Conclusions
In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: beta2 agonists (high-dose nebulised, long-acting [inhaled salmeterol], short-acting [oral salbutamol or by nebuliser, or metered-dose inhaler/spacer versus nebuliser]), corticosteroids (oral prednisolone, systemic, inhaled higher or lower doses [beclometasone]), ipratropium bromide (single or multiple dose inhaled), leukotriene receptor antagonists (oral montelukast), nedocromil (inhaled), oxygen, sodium cromoglycate (inhaled), or theophylline (oral or intravenous).
Key Points
Childhood asthma can be difficult to distinguish from viral wheeze and can affect up to 20% of children.
The consensus is that oxygen, high dose nebulised beta2 agonists and systemic corticosteroids should be used to treat an acute asthma attack. High dose beta2 agonists may be equally effective when given intermittently or continuously via a nebuliser, or from a metered dose inhaler using a spacer, in children with an acute asthma attack.Admission to hospital may be averted by adding ipratropium bromide to beta2 agonists, or by using high dose nebulised or oral corticosteroids.
Prophylactic inhaled corticosteroids improve symptoms and lung function in children with asthma. Their effect on final adult height is unclear. Inhaled nedocromil, inhaled long acting beta2 agonists, oral theophylline and oral leukotriene receptor antagonists are less effective than corticosteroids.Inhaled sodium cromoglycate does not seem to improve symptoms.
CAUTION: Monotherapy with long acting beta2 agonists reduces the frequency of asthma episodes, but may increase the chance of severe asthma episodes and death when those episodes occur. Intravenous theophylline may improve lung function in children with severe asthma, but can cause cardiac arrhythmias and convulsions.
We don't know whether adding higher doses of corticosteroids, long acting beta2 agonists, oral leukotriene receptor antagonists or oral theophylline to standard treatment improves symptoms or lung function in children with uncontrolled asthma.
In infants with acute wheeze, short acting beta2 agonists via a nebuliser or a spacer may improve symptoms, but we don't know whether high dose inhaled or oral corticosteroids or inhaled ipratropium bromide are beneficial.
Oral short acting beta2 agonists and inhaled high dose corticosteroids may prevent or improve wheeze in infants but can cause adverse effects. We don't know whether lower dose inhaled or oral corticosteroids, inhaled ipratropium bromide or inhaled short acting beta2 agonists improve wheezing episodes in infants.
PMCID: PMC2907635
16.  Allergic rhinitis and asthma: inflammation in a one-airway condition 
BMC Pulmonary Medicine  2006;6(Suppl 1):S5.
Background
Allergic rhinitis and asthma are conditions of airway inflammation that often coexist.
Discussion
In susceptible individuals, exposure of the nose and lungs to allergen elicits early phase and late phase responses. Contact with antigen by mast cells results in their degranulation, the release of selected mediators, and the subsequent recruitment of other inflammatory cell phenotypes. Additional proinflammatory mediators are released, including histamine, prostaglandins, cysteinyl leukotrienes, proteases, and a variety of cytokines, chemokines, and growth factors. Nasal biopsies in allergic rhinitis demonstrate accumulations of mast cells, eosinophils, and basophils in the epithelium and accumulations of eosinophils in the deeper subepithelium (that is, lamina propria). Examination of bronchial tissue, even in mild asthma, shows lymphocytic inflammation enriched by eosinophils. In severe asthma, the predominant pattern of inflammation changes, with increases in the numbers of neutrophils and, in many, an extension of the changes to involve smaller airways (that is, bronchioli). Structural alterations (that is, remodeling) of bronchi in mild asthma include epithelial fragility and thickening of its reticular basement membrane. With increasing severity of asthma there may be increases in airway smooth muscle mass, vascularity, interstitial collagen, and mucus-secreting glands. Remodeling in the nose is less extensive than that of the lower airways, but the epithelial reticular basement membrane may be slightly but significantly thickened.
Conclusion
Inflammation is a key feature of both allergic rhinitis and asthma. There are therefore potential benefits for application of anti-inflammatory strategies that target both these anatomic sites.
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-6-S1-S5
PMCID: PMC1698498  PMID: 17140423
17.  Associations of airway inflammation and responsiveness markers in non asthmatic subjects at start of apprenticeship 
Background
Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness (BHR) is considered a hallmark of asthma. Other methods are helpful in epidemiological respiratory health studies including Fractional Exhaled Nitric Oxide (FENO) and Eosinophils Percentage (EP) in nasal lavage fluid measuring markers for airway inflammation along with the Forced Oscillatory Technique measuring Airway resistance (AR). Can their outcomes discriminate profiles of respiratory health in healthy subjects starting apprenticeship in occupations with a risk of asthma?
Methods
Rhinoconjunctivitis, asthma-like symptoms, FEV1 and AR post-Methacholine Bronchial Challenge (MBC) test results, FENO measurements and EP were all investigated in apprentice bakers, pastry-makers and hairdressers not suffering from asthma. Multiple Correspondence Analysis (MCA) was simultaneously conducted in relation to these groups and this generated a synthetic partition (EI). Associations between groups of subjects based on BHR and EI respectively, as well as risk factors, symptoms and investigations were also assessed.
Results
Among the 441 apprentice subjects, 45 (10%) declared rhinoconjunctivitis-like symptoms, 18 (4%) declared asthma-like symptoms and 26 (6%) suffered from BHR. The mean increase in AR post-MBC test was 21% (sd = 20.8%). The median of FENO values was 12.6 ppb (2.6-132 range). Twenty-six subjects (6.7%) had EP exceeding 14%. BHR was associated with atopy (p < 0.01) and highest FENO values (p = 0.09). EI identified 39 subjects with eosinophilic inflammation (highest values of FENO and eosinophils), which was associated with BHR and atopy.
Conclusions
Are any of the identified markers predictive of increased inflammatory responsiveness or of development of symptoms caused by occupational exposures? Analysis of population follow-up will attempt to answer this question.
doi:10.1186/1471-2466-10-37
PMCID: PMC2913998  PMID: 20604945
18.  Effects of nedocromil sodium in the treatment of non-allergic subjects with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. 
Thorax  1994;49(10):1022-1024.
BACKGROUND--Nedocromil sodium, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is effective in the treatment of asthma. Its efficacy in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has not been investigated. METHODS--Fifty four non-allergic patients with COPD were randomised to 10 weeks of treatment with placebo or nedocromil sodium (4 x 8 mg/day) in a double blind study. RESULTS--Nedocromil sodium treatment had no effect on airway responsiveness to histamine, methacholine, and adenosine-5'-monophosphate, pulmonary function, and symptom scores. Both patients and clinicians favoured treatment with nedocromil sodium, however, and the number of dropouts (because of exacerbations) was fewer during treatment with the drug. CONCLUSIONS--Longer trials will be necessary to assess if nedocromil sodium can reduce the frequency of exacerbations and the decrease in pulmonary function, eventually leading to a better quality of life in patients with COPD.
PMCID: PMC475242  PMID: 7974297
19.  Effects of sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium on histamine secretion from human lung mast cells. 
Thorax  1988;43(10):756-761.
Sodium cromoglycate and nedocromil sodium produced a dose dependent inhibition of histamine secretion from human pulmonary mast cells obtained by bronchoalveolar lavage and by enzymatic dissociation of lung parenchyma. Both compounds were significantly more active against the lavage cells than against the dispersed lung cells, and nedocromil sodium was an order of magnitude more effective than sodium cromoglycate against both cell types. Tachyphylaxis was observed with the parenchymal cells but not with the lavage cells. Nedocromil sodium and sodium cromoglycate also inhibited histamine release from the lavage cells of patients with sarcoidosis and extrinsic asthma.
PMCID: PMC461499  PMID: 2462755
20.  Cromoglycate and nedocromil enhanced the reactive oxygen species-dependent suppressions with, but not without, dexamethasone in ischaemic and histamine paw oedema of mice 
Mediators of Inflammation  1997;6(5-6):369-374.
Anti-inflammatory actions of two anti-allergic drugs, alone or with dexamethasone (Dex) were examined in two models, because inflammation is claimed to be important for allergic events, especially for asthma. Cromoglycate and nedocromil were tested in ischaemic- and histamineinduced paw oedema models of mice. These antiallergic drugs (1–100 mg/kg, i.p.) failed to suppress these oedemata, but enhanced the suppressions by a low dose of dexamethasone (0.1 mg/kg, s.c.) at 3–8 h after Dex injection. The mode of effects by anti-allergic drugs resembled that of a natural antioxidant (α-tocopherol, β-carotene etc.), and was different from that of an immunosuppressant like FK506. The enhancing potencies of the two anti-allergic drugs were similar at 6 h after Dex in both oedemata, and were diminished by superoxide dismutase (SOD) or catalase (i.p.). Cycloheximide completely abolished suppressions. Nedocromil, but not cromoglycate, inhibits inflammatory events. Therefore, there are common unknown actions by which the two anti-allergics enhance suppression by Dex. A possible mechanism of this action was supposed to enhance the superoxide and/or hydrogen peroxide-dependent glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signalling in the target cells.
doi:10.1080/09629359791514
PMCID: PMC2365879  PMID: 18472872
21.  A Novel Synthetic Mycolic Acid Inhibits Bronchial Hyperresponsiveness and Allergic Inflammation in a Mouse Model of Asthma 
Purpose
Recognition of microbes is important to trigger the innate immune system. Mycolic acid (MA) is a component of the cell walls of mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin. MA has immunogenic properties, which may modulate the innate and adaptive immune response. This study aimed to investigate whether a novel synthetic MA (sMA) inhibits allergic inflammatory responses in a mouse model of asthma.
Methods
BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with sMA followed by sensitization and challenge with ovalbumin (OVA). Mice were examined for bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), the influx of inflammatory cells into the lung tissues, histopathological changes in the lungs and CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in the spleen, and examined the response after the depleting regulatory T cells (Tregs) with an anti-CD25mAb.
Results
Treatment of mice with sMA suppressed the asthmatic response, including BHR, bronchoalveolar inflammation, and pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation. Anti-CD25mAb treatment abrogated the suppressive effects of sMA in this mouse model of asthma and totally depleted CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells in the spleen.
Conclusions
sMA attenuated allergic inflammation in a mouse model of asthma, which might be related with CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cell.
doi:10.4168/aair.2014.6.1.83
PMCID: PMC3881406  PMID: 24404398
Mycolic acid; asthma; allergic inflammation; regulatory T cells; mice
22.  Bacillus Calmette-Guérin Suppresses Asthmatic Responses via CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells and Dendritic Cells 
Purpose
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is known to suppress the asthmatic responses in a murine model of asthma and to induce dendritic cells (DCs) maturation. Mature DCs play a crucial role in the differentiation of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which are known to regulate allergic inflammatory responses. To investigate whether BCG regulates Tregs in a DCs-mediated manner, we analyzed in a murine model of asthma.
Methods
BALB/c mice were injected intraperitoneally with BCG or intravenously with BCG-stimulated DCs and then sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Mice were analysed for bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), the influx of inflammatory cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, and histopathological changes in the lung. To identify the mechanisms, IgE, IgG1 and IgG2a in the serum were analysed and the CD25+ Tregs in the mice were depleted with anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody (mAb).
Results
BCG and the transfer of BCG-stimulated DCs both suppressed all aspects of the asthmatic responses, namely, BHR, the production of total IgE and OVA-specific IgE and IgGs, and pulmonary eosinophilic inflammation. Anti-CD25mAb treatment reversed these effects.
Conclusions
BCG can attenuate the allergic inflammation in a mouse model of asthma by a Tregs-related mechanism that is mediated by DCs.
doi:10.4168/aair.2014.6.3.201
PMCID: PMC4021237  PMID: 24843794
BCG; dendritic cells; T-lymphocytes, regulatory; asthma; allergic inflammation; mouse
23.  Early use of inhaled nedocromil sodium in children following an acute episode of asthma 
Thorax  1999;54(4):308-315.
BACKGROUND—Current guidelines on the treatment of childhood asthma recommend the introduction of an anti-inflammatory drug in children who have persistent symptoms and require regular treatment with a bronchodilator. The efficacy and safety of inhaled nedocromil sodium (Tilade Mint aerosol) administered using a Fisonair spacer at a dose of 4 mg three times daily was compared with placebo in the treatment of asthmatic children aged 6-12 years who are symptomatic and recovering from an acute exacerbation of asthma.
METHODS—A group comparative, double blind, placebo controlled trial was performed in children who were recovering from an acute episode of asthma following treatment in the emergency department of the hospital or in children referred from their general practitioner following a wheezing episode and documented evidence of at least two previous episodes of wheezing. A two week baseline period on existing bronchodilator treatment was followed by a 12 week treatment period on either nedocromil sodium (2 mg/puff) or placebo. Both treatments were administered using a Fisonair spacer at a dose of two puffs three times daily. Changes from baseline values in daytime asthma and night time asthma symptom scores, usage of rescue bronchodilators, mean peak expiratory flow (PEF) recorded twice daily on diary cards, patients' opinion of treatment, and withdrawals due to treatment failure were measured during the primary treatment period (last six weeks of treatment).
RESULTS—One hundred and forty two children aged 6-12 years entered the baseline period. Sixty three were withdrawn due to failure to meet the entry criteria (18) or the criteria for asthma symptom severity (15) or reversibility (9), because they developed uncontrolled asthma (2), because they took disallowed treatment (2), or for other non-trial related reasons (17). Seventy nine patients (46boys) of mean age 8.8 years entered the treatment period. There were significant differences in the changes from baseline values during the last six weeks of treatment in favour of nedocromil sodium compared with placebo in the primary variables of daytime asthma and night time asthma, morning and evening PEF, and the usage of rescue inhaled bronchodilators; 53% of patients reported nedocromil sodium to be very or moderately effective compared with 44% placebo. Improvement in asthma symptoms, PEF, and reduction in use of rescue bronchodilators did not reach statistical significance until after six weeks of treatment. Twenty two patients were withdrawn or dropped out during the treatment phase, 12 due to uncontrolled asthma or persistence of asthma symptoms, four due to suspected adverse drug reactions (nedocromil sodium 3 (headaches 2, angio-oedema/urticaria 1), placebo 1(persistent cough)), and six due to non-treatment related reasons. Seventy one adverse events were reported by 27patients in the nedocromil group and 75 by 30 patients in the placebo group.
CONCLUSIONS—Asthma symptoms, use of bronchodilators, and lung function can be improved significantly in children recovering from an acute exacerbation of asthma or wheeze and currently receiving treatment with bronchodilators alone by the addition of inhaled nedocromil sodium at a dose of 4 mg three times daily administered using a Fisonair holding chamber.


PMCID: PMC1745469  PMID: 10092691
24.  Ca2+-signaling in airway smooth muscle cells is altered in T-bet knock-out mice 
Respiratory Research  2006;7(1):33.
Background
Airway smooth muscle cells (ASMC) play a key role in bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR). A major component of the signaling cascade leading to ASMC contraction is calcium. So far, agonist-induced Ca2+-signaling in asthma has been studied by comparing innate properties of inbred rat or mouse strains, or by using selected mediators known to be involved in asthma. T-bet knock-out (KO) mice show key features of allergic asthma such as a shift towards TH2-lymphocytes and display a broad spectrum of asthma-like histological and functional characteristics. In this study, we aimed at investigating whether Ca2+-homeostasis of ASMC is altered in T-bet KO-mice as an experimental model of asthma.
Methods
Lung slices of 100 to 200 μm thickness were obtained from T-bet KO- and wild-type mice. Airway contraction in response to acetylcholine (ACH) was measured by video-microscopy and Ca2+-signaling in single ASMC of lung slices was assessed using two-photon-microscopy.
Results
Airways from T-bet KO-mice showed increased baseline airway tone (BAT) and BHR compared to wild-type mice. This could be mimicked by incubation of lung slices from wild-type mice with IL-13. The increased BAT was correlated with an increased incidence of spontaneous changes in intracellular Ca2+-concentrations, whereas BHR correlated with higher ACH-induced Ca2+-transients and an increased proportion of ASMC showing Ca2+-oscillations. Emptying intracellular Ca2+-stores using caffeine or cyclopiazonic acid induced higher Ca2+-elevations in ASMC from T-bet KO- compared to wild-type mice.
Conclusion
Altered Ca2+-homeostasis of ASMC contributes to increased BAT and BHR in lung slices from T-bet KO-mice as a murine asthma model. We propose that a higher Ca2+-content of the intracellular Ca2+-stores is involved in the pathophysiology of these changes.
doi:10.1186/1465-9921-7-33
PMCID: PMC1395308  PMID: 16504082
25.  Exposure to Beta-(1,3)-D-Glucan in House Dust at Age 7–10 Is Associated with Airway Hyperresponsiveness and Atopic Asthma by Age 11–14 
PLoS ONE  2014;9(6):e98878.
Background
Mould exposure has been linked to childhood asthma and bronchial hyper-responsiveness. Few studies have assessed beta-(1,3)-d-glucan (beta-glucan), a significant fungal cell wall constituent, in relation to asthma in adolescence.
Objective
To determine whether house dust-derived beta-glucan exposure at age 7–10 is associated with the development and persistence of atopic and non-atopic asthma, and bronchial hyper-responsiveness (BHR) by age 11–14.
Methods
Dust samples were collected from the 1995 Study of Asthma, Genes, and Environment (SAGE) birth cohort. This cohort was derived from Manitoba provincial healthcare administrative records of children high and low risk for asthma. Samples were collected from the homes of 422 children at age 7–10 and analyzed using beta-glucan and endotoxin-specific Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate assays. Asthma, atopy, and BHR status of each child were also assessed at ages 7–10 and 11–14.
Results
At age 7–10, beta-glucan dust levels in the home were associated with persistent atopic asthma at age 11–14 (OR 1.79 for each unit increase in levels, 95% CI 1.14–2.81), independent of endotoxin exposure, and Alternaria or Cladosporium sensitization. The likelihood of BHR almost doubled with unit increases in dust beta-glucan in asthmatic children. In children without asthma, exposure to high beta-glucan levels at age 7–10 also elevated risk for BHR in adolescence (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.05–2.89). New-onset atopic asthma was twice more likely following high beta-glucan exposure in children without asthma but the association did not reach statistical significance. No associations were evident with concurrent asthma phenotype at age 7–10 or non-atopic asthma at age 11–14.
Conclusion
These findings implicate home beta-glucan exposure at school-age as a risk factor for persistent atopic asthma and new-onset BHR. The higher prevalence of BHR in urban adolescents may be propagated by this home exposure.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0098878
PMCID: PMC4048218  PMID: 24905346

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