The MgtA protein from Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium mediates Mg2+ uptake from the periplasm into the cytoplasm. Here we report that the PhoP/PhoQ two-component regulatory system, which responds to periplasmic Mg2+, governs mgtA transcription initiation at all investigated Mg2+ concentrations and that the Mg2+-sensing 5′ leader region of the mgtA gene controls transcription elongation into the mgtA coding region when Salmonella is grown in media with <50 μM Mg2+. Overexpression of the Mg2+ transporter CorA, which is believed to increase cytoplasmic Mg2+ levels, decreased mgtA transcription in a manner dependent on a functional mgtA 5′ leader.
The PhoP/PhoQ two-component system controls the extracellular magnesium deprivation response in Salmonella enterica. In addition, several virulence-associated genes that are mainly required for intramacrophage survival during the infection process are under the control of its transcriptional regulation. Despite shared Mg2+ modulation of the expression of the PhoP-activated genes, no consensus sequence common to all of them could be detected in their promoter regions. We have investigated the transcriptional regulation and the interaction of the response regulator PhoP with the promoter regions of the PhoP-activated loci phoPQ, mgtA, slyB, pmrD, pcgL, phoN, pagC, and mgtCB. A direct repeat of the heptanucleotide sequence (G/T)GTTTA(A/T) was identified as the conserved motif recognized by PhoP to directly control the gene expression of the first five loci, among which the first four are ancestral to enterobacteria. On the other hand, no direct interaction of the response regulator with the promoter of phoN, pagC, or mgtCB was apparent by either in vitro or in vivo assays. These loci are Salmonella specific and were probably acquired by horizontal DNA transfer. Besides, sequence analysis of pag promoters revealed the presence of a conserved PhoP box in 6 out of the 12 genes analyzed. Our results strongly suggest that the expression of a set of Mg2+-controlled genes is driven by PhoP via unknown intermediate regulatory mechanisms that could also involve ancillary factors.
OmpW is a minor porin whose biological function has not been clearly defined. Evidence obtained in our laboratory indicates that in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium the expression of OmpW is activated by SoxS upon exposure to paraquat and it is required for resistance. SoxS belongs to the AraC family of transcriptional regulators, like MarA and Rob. Due to their high structural similarity, the genes under their control have been grouped in the mar/sox/rob regulon, which presents a DNA-binding consensus sequence denominated the marsox box. In this work, we evaluated the role of the transcription factors MarA, SoxS and Rob of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium in regulating ompW expression in response to menadione. We determined the transcript and protein levels of OmpW in different genetic backgrounds; in the wild-type and Δrob strains ompW was upregulated in response to menadione, while in the ΔmarA and ΔsoxS strains the induction was abolished. In a double marA soxS mutant, ompW transcript levels were lowered after exposure to menadione, and only complementation in trans with both genes restored the positive regulation. Using transcriptional fusions and electrophoretic mobility shift assays with mutant versions of the promoter region we demonstrated that two of the predicted sites were functional. Additionally, we demonstrated that MarA increases the affinity of SoxS for the ompW promoter region. In conclusion, our study shows that ompW is upregulated in response to menadione in a cooperative manner by MarA and SoxS through a direct interaction with the promoter region.
Multiple antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli can be mediated by induction of the SoxS or MarA protein, triggered by oxygen radicals (in the soxRS regulon) or certain antibiotics (in the marRAB regulon), respectively. These small proteins (SoxS, 107 residues; MarA, 127 residues) are homologous to the C terminus of the XylS-AraC family of proteins and are more closely related to a approximately 100-residue segment in the N terminus of Rob protein, which binds the right arm of the replication origin, oriC. We investigated whether the SoxS-MarA homology in Rob might extend to the regulation of some of the same inducible genes. Overexpression of Rob indeed conferred multiple antibiotic resistance similar to that known for SoxS and MarA (against chloramphenicol, tetracycline, nalidixic acid, and puromycin), as well as resistance to the superoxide-generating compound phenazine methosulfate. The Rob-induced antibiotic resistance depended only partially on the micF antisense RNA that down-regulates the OmpF outer membrane porin to limit antibiotic uptake. Similar antibiotic resistance was conferred by expression of a Rob fragment containing only the N-terminal 123 residues that constitute the SoxS-MarA homology. Both intact Rob and the N-terminal fragment activated expression of stress genes (inaA, fumC, sodA) but with a pattern distinct from that found for SoxS and MarA. Purified Rob protein bound a DNA fragment containing the micF promoter (50% bound at approximately 10(-9) M Rob) as strongly as it did oriC, and it bound more weakly to DNA containing the sodA, nfo, or zwf promoter (50% bound at 10(-8) to 10(-7) M). Rob formed multiple DNA-protein complexes with these fragments, as seen previously for SoxS. These data point to a DNA-binding gene activator module used in different protein contexts.
The Rob protein of Escherichia coli is a member of the AraC-XylS family of prokaryotic transcriptional regulators and is expressed constitutively. Deletion of the rob gene increases susceptibility to organic solvents, while overexpression of Rob increases tolerance to organic solvents and resistance to a variety of antibiotics and to the superoxide-generating compound phenazine methosulfate. To determine whether constitutive levels of Rob regulate basal gene expression, we performed a MudJ transposon screen in a rob deletion mutant containing a plasmid that allows for controlled rob gene expression. We identified eight genes and confirmed that seven are transcriptionally activated by normal expression of Rob from the chromosomal rob gene (inaA, marR, aslB, ybaO, mdlA, yfhD, and ybiS). One gene, galT, was repressed by Rob. We also demonstrated by Northern analysis that basal expression of micF is significantly higher in wild-type E. coli than in a rob deletion mutant. Rob binding to the promoter regions of most of these genes was substantiated in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. However, Mu insertions in individual Rob-regulated genes did not affect solvent sensitivity. This phenotype may depend on changes in the expression of several of these Rob-regulated genes or on other genes that were not identified. Rob clearly affects the basal expression of genes with a broad range of functions, including antibiotic resistance, acid adaptation, carbon metabolism, cell wall synthesis, central intermediary metabolism, and transport. The magnitudes of Rob's effects are modest, however, and the protein may thus play a role as a general transcription cofactor.
Bacterial transcription activators regulate transcription by making essential protein–protein interactions with RNA polymerase, for example, with region 4 of the σ70 subunit (σ70 R4). Rob, SoxS, and MarA comprise a closely related subset of members of the AraC/XylS family of transcription factors that activate transcription of both class I and class II promoters. Recently, we showed that interactions between SoxS and σ70 R4 occlude the binding of σ70 R4 to the −35 promoter element of class II promoters. Although Rob shares many similarities with SoxS, it contains a C-terminal domain (CTD) that the other paralogs do not. Thus, a goal of this study was to determine whether Rob makes protein–protein interactions with σ70 R4 at class II promoters and, if so, whether the interactions occlude the binding of σ70 R4 to the −35 hexamer despite the presence of the CTD. We found that although Rob makes fewer interactions with σ70 R4 than SoxS, the two proteins make the same, unusual, position-dependent interactions. Importantly, we found that Rob occludes σ70 R4 from binding the −35 hexamer, just as does SoxS. Thus, the CTD does not substantially alter the way Rob interacts with σ70 R4 at class II promoters. Moreover, in contrast to inferences drawn from the co-crystal structure of Rob bound to robbox DNA, which showed that only one of Rob’s dual helix–turn–helix (HTH) DNA binding motifs binds a recognition element of the promoter’s robbox, we determined that the two HTH motifs each bind a recognition element in vivo.
SoxS; genetic epistasis; σ70 R4; prerecruitment; Rob−micF crystal structure
The AraC family transcription factor MarA activates ∼40 genes (the marA/soxS/rob regulon) of the Escherichia coli chromosome resulting in different levels of resistance to a wide array of antibiotics and to superoxides. Activation of marA/soxS/rob regulon promoters occurs in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA; however, the order of activation does not parallel the strength of MarA binding to promoter sequences. To understand this lack of correspondence, we developed a computational model of transcriptional activation in which a transcription factor either increases or decreases RNA polymerase binding, and either accelerates or retards post-binding events associated with transcription initiation. We used the model to analyze data characterizing MarA regulation of promoter activity. The model clearly explains the lack of correspondence between the order of activation and the MarA-DNA affinity and indicates that the order of activation can only be predicted using information about the strength of the full MarA-polymerase-DNA interaction. The analysis further suggests that MarA can activate without increasing polymerase binding and that activation can even involve a decrease in polymerase binding, which is opposite to the textbook model of activation by recruitment. These findings are consistent with published chromatin immunoprecipitation assays of interactions between polymerase and the E. coli chromosome. We find that activation involving decreased polymerase binding yields lower latency in gene regulation and therefore might confer a competitive advantage to cells. Our model yields insights into requirements for predicting the order of activation of a regulon and enables us to suggest that activation might involve a decrease in polymerase binding which we expect to be an important theme of gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.
When environmental conditions change, cell survival can depend on sudden production of proteins that are normally in low demand. Protein production is controlled by transcription factors which bind to DNA near genes and either increase or decrease RNA production. Many puzzles remain concerning the ways transcription factors do this. Recently we collected data relating the intracellular level of a single transcription factor, MarA, to the increase in expression of several genes related to antibiotic and superoxide resistance in Escherichia coli. These data indicated that target genes are turned on in a well-defined order with respect to the level of MarA, enabling cells to mount a response that is commensurate to the level of threat detected in the environment. Here we develop a computational model to yield insight into how MarA turns on its target genes. The modeling suggests that MarA can increase the frequency with which a transcript is made while decreasing the overall presence of the transcription machinery at the start of a gene. This mechanism is opposite to the textbook model of transcriptional activation; nevertheless it enables cells to respond quickly to environmental challenges and is likely of general importance for gene regulation in E. coli and beyond.
The Escherichia coli tolC encodes a major outer membrane protein with multiple functions in export (e. g., diverse xenobiotics, hemolysin) and as an attachment site for phage and colicins. tolC is regulated in part by MarA, SoxS and Rob, three paralogous transcriptional activators which bind a sequence called the marbox and which activate multiple antibiotic and superoxide resistance functions. Two previously identified tolC promoters, p1 and p2, are not regulated by MarA, SoxS or Rob but p2 is activated by EvgAS and PhoPQ which also regulate other functions. Using transcriptional fusions and primer extension assays, we show here that tolC has two additional strong overlapping promoters, p3 and p4, which are downstream of p1, p2 and the marbox and are activated by MarA, SoxS and Rob. p3 and p4 are configured so that a single marbox suffices to activate transcription from both promoters. At the p3 promoter, the marbox is separated by 20 bp from the −10 hexamer for RNA polymerase but at the p4 promoter, the same marbox is separated by 30 bp from the −10 hexamer. The multiple tolC promoters may allow the cell to respond to diverse environments by coordinating tolC transcription with other appropriate functions.
gene regulation; outer membrane protein; transcriptional start sites; efflux pumps; antibiotic resistance
Salmonella typhimurium has three distinct transport systems for Mg2+: CorA, MgtA, and MgtB. The mgtCB operon encodes two proteins, MgtC, a hydrophobic protein with a predicted molecular mass of 22.5 kDa, and MgtB, a 102-kDa P-type ATPase Mg2+ transport protein. The mgtCB locus has been identified as part of a new Salmonella pathogenicity island, SPI-3. Transcription of mgtCB is regulated by extracellular Mg2+ via the two-component PhoPQ regulatory system important for virulence. To elucidate MgtC’s role in a low-Mg2+ environment, we looked at growth and transport in strains lacking the CorA and MgtA Mg2+ transporters but expressing MgtB, MgtC, or both. mgtC mgtB+ and mgtC+ mgtB+ strains exhibited growth in N minimal medium without added Mg2+ with a 1- to 2-h lag phase. An mgtC+ mgtB strain was also able to grow in N minimal medium without added Mg2+ but only after a 24-h lag phase. In N minimal medium containing 10 mM Mg2+, all strains grew after a short lag phase; the mgtC+ mgtB strain grew to a higher optical density at 600 nm than an mgtC+ mgtB+ strain and was comparable to wild type. The lengthy lag phase before growth in an mgtC+ mgtB strain was not due to lack of expression of MgtC. Western blot analysis indicated that substantial MgtC protein is present by 2 h after suspension in N minimal medium. Surprisingly, in an mgtC+ mgtB+ strain, MgtC was undetectable during Mg2+ starvation, although large amounts of MgtB were observed. The lack of expression of MgtC is not dependent on functional MgtB, since a strain carrying a nonfunctional MgtB with a mutation (D379A) also did not make MgtC. Since, during invasion of eukaryotic cells, S. typhimurium appears to be exposed to a low-pH as well as a low-Mg2+ environment, the growth of an mgtC+ mgtB strain was tested at low pH with and without added Mg2+. While significant quantities of MgtC could be detected after suspension at pH 5.2, the mgtC+ mgtB strain was unable to grow at pH 5.2 whether or not Mg2+ was present. Finally, using 63Ni2+ and 57Co2+ as alternative substrates for the unavailable 28Mg2+, cation uptake could not be detected in an mgtC+ mgtB strain after Mg2+ starvation. We conclude that MgtC is not a Mg2+ transporter and that it does not have a primary role in the survival of S. typhimurium at low pH.
The PhoP-PhoQ two-component system is essential for virulence in Salmonella typhimurium. This system controls expression of some 40 different proteins, yet most PhoP-regulated genes remain unknown. To identify PhoP-regulated genes, we isolated a library of 50,000 independent lac gene transcriptional fusion strains and investigated whether production of beta-galactosidase was regulated by PhoP. We recovered 47 lac gene fusions that were activated and 7 that were repressed when PhoP was expressed. Analysis of 40 such fusions defined some 30 loci, including mgtA and mgtCB, which encode two of the three Mg2+ uptake systems of S. typhimurium; ugd, encoding UDP-glucose dehydrogenase; phoP, indicative that the phoPQ operon is autoregulated; and an open reading frame encoding a protein with sequence similarity to VanX, a dipeptidase required for resistance to vancomycin. Transcription of PhoP-activated genes was regulated by the levels of Mg2+ in a PhoP-dependent manner. Strains with mutations in phoP or phoQ were defective for growth in low-Mg2+ media. The mgtA and mgtCB mutants reached lower optical densities than the wild-type strain in low-Mg2+ liquid media but displayed normal growth on low-Mg2+ solid media. Six PhoP-activated genes were identified as essential to form colonies on low-Mg'+ solid media. Cumulatively, our experiments establish that the PhoP-PhoQ system governs the adaptation to magnesium-limiting environments.
The Rob protein, isolated on the basis of its ability to bind to the right arm of the Escherichia coli origin of chromosomal replication, is about 50% identical in amino acid sequence to SoxS and MarA, the direct regulators of the superoxide (soxRS) and multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) regulons, respectively. Having previously demonstrated that SoxS (as a MalE-SoxS fusion protein) and MarA are essentially identical in their abilities to activate in vitro transcription of genes of the sox-mar regulons, we investigated the properties of Rob as a transcriptional activator. We found that Rob (i) activates the transcription of zwf,fpr,fumC, micF, nfo, and sodA, (ii) requires a 21-bp soxbox-marbox-robbox sequence to activate zwf transcription, (iii) protects the soxbox/marbox/robbox from attack by DNase 1, (iv) is ambidextrous, i.e., requires the C-terminal domain of the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase for activation of zwf but not fumC or micF, (v) bends zwf and fumC DNA, and (vi) binds zwf and fumC DNA as a monomer. Since these transcription activation properties of Rob are virtually identical to those of MalE-SoxS and MarA, it appears as if the E. coli genome encodes three genes with the same functional capacity. However, in contrast to SoxS and MarA, whose syntheses are induced by specific environmental stimuli and elicit a clear defense response, Rob is expressed constitutively and its normal function is unknown.
Transcriptional analysis of a constitutively active mutant of the EvgA/EvgS two-component system of Escherichia coli resulted in enhanced expression of 13 PhoP/PhoQ-regulated genes, crcA, hemL, mgtA, ompT, phoP, phoQ, proP, rstA, rstB, slyB, ybjG, yrbL, and mgrB. This regulatory network between the two systems also occurred as a result of overproduction of the EvgA regulator; however, enhanced transcription of the phoPQ genes did not further activate expression of the PhoP/PhoQ-regulated genes. These results demonstrated signal transduction from the EvgA/EvgS system to the PhoP/PhoQ system in E. coli and also identified the genes that required the two systems for enhanced expression. This is one example of the intricate signal transduction networks that are posited to exist in E. coli.
In Escherichia coli, Rob activates transcription of the SoxRS/MarA/Rob regulon. Previous work revealed that Rob resides in 3–4 immunostainable foci, that dipyridyl and bile salts are inducers of its activity, and that inducers bind to Rob’s C-terminal domain (CTD). We propose that sequestration inactivates Rob by blocking its access to the transcriptional machinery and that inducers activate Rob by mediating its dispersal, allowing interaction with RNA polymerase. To test “sequestration-dispersal” as a new mechanism for regulating the activity of transcriptional activators, we fused Rob’s CTD to SoxS and used indirect immunofluorescence microscopy to determine the effect of inducers on SoxS-Rob’s cellular localization. Unlike native SoxS, which is uniformly distributed throughout the cell, SoxS-Rob is sequestered without inducer, but is rapidly dispersed when cells are treated with inducer. In this manner, Rob’s CTD serves as an anti-sigma factor in regulating the co-sigma factor-like activity of SoxS when fused to it. Rob’s CTD also protects its N-terminus from Lon protease, since Lon’s normally rapid degradation of SoxS is blocked in the chimera. Accordingly, Rob’s CTD has novel regulatory properties that can be bestowed on another E. coli protein.
gene regulation; intracellular localization; immunofluorescence microscopy; anti-sigma factor; proteolysis
Escherichia coli K-12 strains are normally tolerant to n-hexane and susceptible to cyclohexane. Constitutive expression of marA of the multiple antibiotic resistance (mar) locus or of the soxS or robA gene product produced tolerance to cyclohexane. Inactivation of the mar locus or the robA locus, but not the soxRS locus, increased organic solvent susceptibility in the wild type and Mar mutants (to both n-hexane and cyclohexane). The organic solvent hypersusceptibility is a newly described phenotype for a robA-inactivated strain. Multicopy expression of mar, soxS, or robA induced cyclohexane tolerance in strains with a deleted or inactivated chromosomal mar, soxRS, or robA locus; thus, each transcriptional activator acts independently of the others. However, in a strain with 39 kb of chromosomal DNA, including the mar locus, deleted, only the multicopy complete mar locus, consisting of its two operons, produced cyclohexane tolerance. Deletion of acrAB from either wild-type E. coli K-12 or a Mar mutant resulted in loss of tolerance to both n-hexane and cyclohexane. Organic solvent tolerance mediated by mar, soxS, or robA was not restored in strains with acrAB deleted. These findings strongly suggest that active efflux specified by the acrAB locus is linked to intrinsic organic solvent tolerance and to tolerance mediated by the marA, soxS, or robA gene product in E. coli.
Three paralogous transcriptional activators MarA, SoxS, and Rob, activate >40 Escherichia coli promoters. To understand why MarA does not activate certain promoters as strongly as SoxS, we compared MarA, MarA mutants, and SoxS for their abilities to activate 16 promoters and to bind their cognate marbox binding sites. Replacement of the MarA glutamic acid residue 89 with alanine greatly increased the marbox binding and activation of many class I promoters. Like cells constitutive for SoxS, cells expressing the MarA with the E89A mutation were more resistant to superoxides than those harboring WT MarA. The activities of several other E89 substitutions ranked as follows: E89A > E89G > E89V > WT > E89D. Increased binding and activation occurred only at class I promoters when the 12th base of the promoter's marbox (a position at which there is no known interaction between the marbox and MarA) was not a T residue. Furthermore, WT MarA binding to a synthetic marbox in vitro was enhanced when the phosphate group between positions 12 and 13 was eliminated on one strand. The results demonstrate that relatively minor changes in a single amino acid side chain (e.g., alanine to valine or glutamic acid to aspartic acid) can strongly influence activity despite any evidence that the side chain is involved in positive interactions with either DNA or RNA polymerase. We present a model which attributes the differences in binding and activation to the interference between the β- and γ-carbons of the amino acid at position 89 and the phosphate group between positions 12 and 13.
We identified Mg2+-responsive promoters of the phoPQ, mgtA, and mgrB genes of Escherichia coli K-12 by S1 nuclease analysis. Expression of these genes was induced by magnesium limitation and depended on PhoP and PhoQ. The transcription start sites were also determined, which allowed us to find a (T/G)GTTTA direct repeat in their corresponding promoter regions.
The paralogous transcriptional activators, MarA, SoxS and Rob, activate a common set of promoters, the marA/soxS/rob regulon of Escherichia coli, by binding a cognate site (marbox) upstream of each promoter. The extent of activation varies from one promoter to another and is only poorly correlated with the in vitro affinity of the activator for the specific marbox. Here, we examine the dependence of promoter activation on the level of activator in vivo by manipulating the steady-state concentrations of MarA and SoxS in Lon protease mutants and measuring promoter activation using lacZ transcriptional fusions. We found that: (i) the MarA concentrations needed for half-maximal stimulation varied by at least 19-fold among the 10 promoters tested; (ii) most marboxes were not saturated when there were 24,000 molecules of MarA per cell; (iii) the correlation between MarA concentration needed for half-maximal promoter activity in vivo with marbox binding affinity in vitro was poor and (iv) the two activators differed in their promoter activation profiles. The marRAB and sodA promoters could both be saturated by MarA and SoxS in vivo. However, saturation by MarA resulted in greater marRAB and lesser sodA transcription than did saturation by SoxS implying that the two activators interact with RNAP in different ways at the different promoters. Thus, the concentration and nature of activator determines which regulon promoters are activated and the extent of their activation.
gene regulation; AraC protein family; stress response
Transcriptional regulators, such as SoxS, RamA, MarA, and Rob, which upregulate the AcrAB efflux pump, have been shown to be associated with multidrug resistance in clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria. In addition to the multidrug resistance phenotype, these regulators have also been shown to play a role in the cellular metabolism and possibly the virulence potential of microbial cells. As such, the increased expression of these proteins is likely to cause pleiotropic phenotypes. Klebsiella pneumoniae is a major nosocomial pathogen which can express the SoxS, MarA, Rob, and RamA proteins, and the accompanying paper shows that the increased transcription of ramA is associated with tigecycline resistance (M. Veleba and T. Schneiders, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 56:4466–4467, 2012). Bioinformatic analyses of the available Klebsiella genome sequences show that an additional AraC-type regulator is encoded chromosomally. In this work, we characterize this novel AraC-type regulator, hereby called RarA (Regulator of antibiotic resistance A), which is encoded in K. pneumoniae, Enterobacter sp. 638, Serratia proteamaculans 568, and Enterobacter cloacae. We show that the overexpression of rarA results in a multidrug resistance phenotype which requires a functional AcrAB efflux pump but is independent of the other AraC regulators. Quantitative real-time PCR experiments show that rarA (MGH 78578 KPN_02968) and its neighboring efflux pump operon oqxAB (KPN_02969_02970) are consistently upregulated in clinical isolates collected from various geographical locations (Chile, Turkey, and Germany). Our results suggest that rarA overexpression upregulates the oqxAB efflux pump. Additionally, it appears that oqxR, encoding a GntR-type regulator adjacent to the oqxAB operon, is able to downregulate the expression of the oqxAB efflux pump, where OqxR complementation resulted in reductions to olaquindox MICs.
Cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs), a component of the mammalian immune system, protect the host from bacterial infections. The roles of the Escherichia coli transcriptional regulators MarA, SoxS and Rob in susceptibility to these peptides were examined. Overexpression of marA, either in an antibiotic-resistant marR mutant or from a plasmid, decreased bacterial susceptibility to CAMPs. Overexpression of the soxS gene from a plasmid, which decreased susceptibility to antibiotics, unexpectedly caused no decrease in CAMP susceptibility; instead it produced increased susceptibility to different CAMPs. Deletion or overexpression of rob had little effect on CAMP susceptibility. The marRAB operon was upregulated when E. coli was incubated in sublethal amounts of CAMPs polymyxin B, LL-37 or human β-defensin-1; however, this upregulation required Rob. Deletion of acrAB increased bacterial susceptibility to polymyxin B, LL-37 and human β-defensin-1 peptides. Deletion of tolC yielded an even greater increase in susceptibility to these peptides and also led to increased susceptibility to human α-defensin-2. Inhibition of cellular proton-motive force increased peptide susceptibility for wild-type and acrAB deletion strains; however, it decreased susceptibility of tolC mutants. These findings demonstrate that CAMPs are both inducers of marA-mediated drug resistance through interaction with Rob and also substrates for efflux in E. coli. The three related transcriptional regulators show different effects on bacterial cell susceptibility to CAMPs.
Bacterial mRNAs often contain leader sequences that respond to specific metabolites or ions by altering expression of the associated downstream protein coding sequences. Here we report that the leader RNA of the Mg2+ transporter gene mgtA of Salmonella enterica, which was previously known to function as a Mg2+-sensing riboswitch, harbors an 18-codon proline-rich open reading frame – termed mgtL – that permits intracellular proline to regulate mgtA expression. Interfering with mgtL translation by genetic, pharmacological or environmental means was observed to increase the mRNA levels from the mgtA coding region. Substitution of the mgtL proline codons by other codons abolished the response to proline and to hyperosmotic stress but not to Mg2+. Our findings show that mRNA leader sequences can consist of complex regulatory elements that utilize different mechanisms to sense separate signals and mediate an appropriate cellular response.
Bacteria possess multiple mechanisms to survive exposure to various chemical stresses and antimicrobial compounds. In the enteric bacterium Escherichia coli, three homologous transcription factors—MarA, SoxS, and Rob—play a central role in coordinating this response. Three separate systems are known to regulate the expression and activities of MarA, SoxS, and Rob. However, a number of studies have shown that the three do not function in isolation but rather are coregulated through transcriptional cross talk. In this work, we systematically investigated the extent of transcriptional cross talk in the mar-sox-rob regulon. While the three transcription factors were found to have the potential to regulate each other's expression when ectopically expressed, the only significant interactions observed under physiological conditions were between mar and rob systems. MarA, SoxS, and Rob all activate the marRAB promoter, more so when they are induced by their respective inducers: salicylate, paraquat, and decanoate. None of the three proteins affects the soxS promoter, though unexpectedly, it was mildly repressed by decanoate by an unknown mechanism. SoxS is the only one of the three proteins to repress the rob promoter. Surprisingly, salicylate somewhat activates transcription of rob, while decanoate represses it a bit. Rob, in turn, activates not only its downstream promoters in response to salicylate but also the marRAB promoter. These results demonstrate that the mar and rob systems function together in response to salicylate.
Salmonella typhimurium has three distinct Mg2+ transport systems: CorA, MgtA, and MgtB, each encoded by its respective gene. corA and mgtB have been previously sequenced and characterized. This report details the sequence and properties of mgtA. Like mgtB, mgtA encodes a P-type ATPase. The mgtA gene encodes a slightly smaller protein than does mgtB, with a predicted molecular mass of about 95 kDa, running at 91 kDa on protein gels, which compares with values of 101 and 102 kDa, respectively, for the MgtB protein. The deduced amino acid sequence of MgtA is only 50% identical to that of MgtB, with a further 25% conservative amino acid substitutions, surprisingly low for such otherwise functionally similar proteins from the same organism. Codon usage for each gene is normal for S. typhimurium, however, indicating that neither gene is the result of a recent acquisition from another organism. A single open reading frame at mgtA encodes MgtA, in contrast to mgtB, which is shown to be an operon encoding (5' to 3') the 22.5-kDa MgtC and the MgtB proteins. Genetic constructs were used to show that deletion of MgtC does not alter the expression or transport properties of MgtB, making the role of the companion MgtC protein unclear. (The S. typhimurium homolog of treR, which encodes a putative repressor for trehalose uptake, is encoded by a gene adjacent to mgtA, and its sequence is also reported. Finally, exteremely strong Mg(2+) regulation of the mgtA and mgtB promoters but not of the corA or treR promoters was demonstrated by cloning the appropriate DNA sequences with luxAB and measuring enhancement of light production as a function of extracellular Mg(2+) concentration. Lowering the extracellular Mg(2+) concentration from 10 mM to 1 or 10 microM elicited a transcriptional response of several thousandfold from both the mgtA and mgtB promoters.
Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium has at least nine
multidrug efflux pumps. Among these pumps, AcrAB is effective in generating
drug resistance and has wide substrate specificity. Here we report that
indole, bile, and an Escherichia coli conditioned medium induced the
AcrAB pump in Salmonella through a specific regulator, RamA. The
RamA-binding sites were located in the upstream regions of acrAB and
tolC. RamA was required for indole induction of acrAB. Other
regulators of acrAB such as MarA, SoxS, Rob, SdiA, and AcrR did not
contribute to acrAB induction by indole in Salmonella.
Indole activated ramA transcription, and overproduction of RamA
caused increased acrAB expression. In contrast, induction of
ramA was not required for induction of acrAB by bile. Cholic
acid binds to RamA, and we suggest that bile acts by altering pre-existing
RamA. This points to two different AcrAB regulatory modes through RamA. Our
results suggest that RamA controls the Salmonella AcrAB-TolC
multidrug efflux system through dual regulatory modes in response to
Paralogous transcriptional regulators MarA, Rob, and SoxS act individually and together to control expression of more than 80 Escherichia coli genes. Deletion of marA, rob, and soxS from an E. coli clinical isolate prevents persistence beyond 2 days postinfection in a mouse model of pyelonephritis. We used microarray analysis to identify 242 genes differentially expressed between the triple deletion mutant and its parent strain at 2 days postinfection in the kidney. One of these, znuC of the zinc transport system ZnuACB, displayed decreased expression in the triple mutant compared to that in the parental strain, and deletion of znuC from the parental strain reduced persistence. The marA rob soxS triple deletion mutant was less viable in vitro under limited-Zn and Zn-depleted conditions, while disruption of znuC caused a reduction in the growth rates for the parental and triple mutant strains to equally low levels under limited-Zn or Zn-depleted conditions. Complementation of the triple mutant with soxS, but not marA or rob, restored the parental growth rate in Zn-depleted medium, while deletion of only soxS from the parental strain led to low growth in Zn-depleted medium. Both results suggested that SoxS is a major regulator responsible for growth under Zn-depleted conditions. Gel shift experiments failed to show direct binding of SoxS to the znuCB promoter, thus suggesting indirect control of znuCB expression by SoxS. While SoxS expression in the triple mutant fully restored persistence, increased expression of znuACB via a plasmid in this mutant only partially restored wild-type levels of persistence in the kidney. This work implicates SoxS control of znuCB expression as a key factor in persistence of E. coli in murine pyelonephritis.
Expression of the marA or soxS genes is induced by exposure of Escherichia coli to salicylate or superoxides, respectively. This, in turn, enhances the expression of a common set of promoters (the mar/soxRS regulons), resulting in both multiple antibiotic and superoxide resistance. Since MarA protein is highly homologous to SoxS, and since a MalE-SoxS fusion protein has recently been shown to activate soxRS regulon transcription, the ability of MarA to activate transcription of these genes was tested. MarA was overexpressed as a histidine-tagged fusion protein, purified, cleaved with thrombin (leaving one N-terminal histidine residue), and renatured. Like MalE-SoxS, MarA (i) activated the transcription of zwf, fpr, fumC, micF, nfo, and sodA; (ii) required a 21-bp "soxbox" sequence to activate zwf transcription; and (iii) was "ambidextrous," i.e., required the C-terminal domain of the alpha subunit of RNA polymerase for activation of zwf but not fumC or micF. Thus, the mar and soxRS systems use activators with very similar specificities and mechanisms of action to respond to different environmental signals.