We carried out a genome-wide association study of genetic predictors of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) level in 531 self-reported non-Hispanic Caucasian Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients enrolled in the Brigham Rheumatoid Arthritis Sequential Study (BRASS). For replication, we then analyzed 289 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with P < 0.001 in BRASS in an independent population of 849 RA patients from the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium (NARAC). BRASS and NARAC samples were genotyped using the Affymetrix 100K and Illumina 550K platforms respectively. Association between SNPs and anti-CCP titer was tested using general linear models. The five most significant SNPs from BRASS all were within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region (P ≤ 3.5 × 10−6). After controlling for the human leukocyte antigen shared epitope (HLA-SE), the top SNPs still yielded P values < 0.0002. In NARAC, a single SNP from the MHC region near BTNL2 and HLA-DRA, rs1980493 (r2 = 0.85 with the top five SNPs from BRASS), was associated significantly with CCP titer (P = 6.1 × 10−5) even after adjustment for the HLA-SE (P = 0.0002). The top SNPs found in BRASS and NARAC had r2 = 0.46 and 0.64, respectively, to HLA-DRB1 DR3 alleles. These results confirm that the most significant genome region affecting anti-CCP titers in RA is the MHC region. We identified a SNP in moderate linkage disequilibrium (LD) with HLA-DR3, which may influence anti-CCP titer independently of the HLA-SE.
We studied rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium (NARAC) data (1499 subjects; 757 families). Identical methods were applied for studying RA in the Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 (GAW15) simulated data (with a prior knowledge of the simulation answers). Fifty replications of GAW15 simulated data had 3497 ± 20 subjects in 1500 nuclear families. Two new statistical methods were applied to transform the original phenotypes on these data, the item response theory (IRT) to create a latent variable from nine classifying predictors and a Blom transformation of the anti-CCP (anti-cyclic citrinullated protein) variable. We performed linear mixed-effects (LME) models to study the additive associations of 404 Illumina-genotyped single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the NARAC data, and of 17,820 SNPs of the GAW15 simulated data. In the GAW15 simulated data, the association with anti-CCP Blom transformation showed a 100% sensitivity for SNP1 located in the major histocompatibility complex gene. In contrast, the association of SNP1 with the IRT latent variable showed only 24% sensitivity. From the simulated data, we conclude that the Blom transformation of the anti-CCP variable produced more reliable results than the latent variable from the qualitative combination of a group of RA risk factors. In the NARAC data, the significant RA-SNPs associations found with both phenotype-transformation methods provided a trend that may point toward dynein and energy control genes. Finer genotyping in the NARAC data would grant more exact evidence for the contributions of chromosome 6 to RA.
There are now over 30 confirmed loci predisposing to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Studies have been largely undertaken in patients with anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) positive RA, and some genetic associations appear stronger in this subgroup than in anti-CCP negative disease, although few studies have had adequate power to address the question. The authors therefore investigated confirmed RA susceptibility loci in a large cohort of anti-CCP negative RA subjects.
RA patients and controls, with serological and genetic data, were available from UK Caucasian patients (n=4068 anti-CCP positive, 2040 anti-CCP negative RA) and 13,009 healthy controls. HLA-DRB1 genotypes and 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms were tested for association between controls and anti-CCP positive or negative RA.
The shared epitope (SE) showed a strong association with anti-CCP positive and negative RA, although the effect size was significantly lower in the latter (effect size ratio=3.18, p<1.0E-96). A non-intronic marker at TNFAIP3, GIN1/C5orf30, STAT4, ANKRD55/IL6ST, BLK and PTPN22 showed association with RA susceptibility, irrespective of the serological status, the latter three markers remaining significantly associated with anti-CCP negative RA, after correction for multiple testing. No significant association with anti-CCP negative RA was detected for other markers (eg, AFF3, CD28, intronic marker at TNFAIP3), though the study power for those markers was over 80%.
In the largest sample size studied to date, the authors have shown that the strength of association, the effect size and the number of known RA susceptibility loci associated with disease is different in the two disease serotypes, confirming the hypothesis that they might be two genetically different subsets.
The diagnostic, predictive and prognostic role of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) antibodies in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients is widely accepted. Moreover, detection of these antibodies in subjects presenting with undifferentiated arthritis (UA) is associated with a significant risk to develop the disease. On the other hand, clinical and prognostic significance of evaluating anti-CCP levels in subjects with inflammatory arthritis at disease onset has not been fully clarified. The goal of this prospective study is to analyze the value and prognostic significance of anti-CCP titer quantification in UA subjects.
Serial anti-CCP assays were measured in 192 consecutive patients presenting with UA lasting less than 12 weeks. Clinical and serological data and arthritis outcome were evaluated every 6 months until two years of follow-up.
Anti-CCP positivity, at both low and high titer, and arthritis of hand joints significantly predicted RA at two years, risk increasing in subjects with high anti-CCP titers at baseline. Moreover, time to RA diagnosis was shorter in patients with high anti-CCP2 titers at enrollment with respect to those with low antibody concentration.
Presence of anti-CCP antibodies, at both low and high concentration, is significantly associated with RA development in subjects with recent onset UA. However, time interval from the onset of the first symptoms to the fulfilment of the classification criteria appears to be directly related to the initial anti-CCP level.
The presence or absence of antibodies to citrullinated peptides/proteins (ACPA) is an important parameter that helps a clinician set a diagnosis of early rheumatoid arthritis and, hence, initiate treatment. There are several commercial tests available to measure ACPA levels, although it can be difficult to decide what the best test for a given clinical question is. We analyzed literature data in which the diagnostic and other properties of various ACPA tests are compared. The results show that for diagnostic purposes the CCP2 test has the highest specificity, the highest sensitivity in stratified studies and the highest positive predictive value. For the prediction of future joint destruction the CCP2, MCV, and CCP3 tests may be used. The ability to predict the likelihood of not achieving sustained disease-modifying antirheumatic drug-free remission was highest for the CCP2 test. Finally, the levels of anti-CCP2 and anti-CCP3 (and possibly anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin) in rheumatoid arthritis patients are not significantly influenced by TNFα blocking agents.
Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies are strongly associated with increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). While the anti-CCP level is commonly dichotomized for clinical use, the best threshold for and utility of the titer as a continuous variable to predict development of RA are uncertain.
Using data from the Nurses’ Health Study and Nurses’ Health Study II longitudinal cohorts, we examined the sensitivity, specificity, and hazard of RA at various thresholds of the anti-CCP. Incident RA was confirmed using the Connective Tissue Disease Screening Questionnaire and medical record review in 93 women from among 62,437 participants with blood samples. Three controls per case were randomly chosen, matching on cohort, age, and menopausal status. Stored plasma was tested for anti-CCP antibodies with the second-generation Diastat™ ELISA. Five threshold values were assessed for sensitivity, specificity, and time to diagnosis of RA. Hazard of RA was assessed with conditional logistic regression models adjusting for smoking and reproductive factors.
Using the suggested threshold of > 5 U/ml for anti-CCP positivity, specificity was 100%, but sensitivity was only 28%. A threshold of > 2 U/ml had a higher sensitivity (51%), and similar specificity (80%), with an odds ratio of 11.2 (95% confidence interval 4.7–26.9) for RA. Anti-CCP level as an ordinal variable was strongly associated with time to RA onset, with higher values predicting shorter time to RA onset.
A lower threshold for anti-CCP positivity was more sensitive in predicting RA development. Higher ranges of the level were informative in predicting time to RA onset.
RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS; ANTI-CYCLIC CITRULLINATED PEPTIDE; STATISTICAL METHODS
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic, complex autoimmune inflammatory disorder with poorly known etiology. Approximately 1% of the adult population is afflicted with RA. Linkage analysis of RA can be complicated by the presence of phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. It is shown that the ordered-subset analysis (OSA) technique reduces heterogeneity, increases statistical power for detecting linkage and helps to define the most informative data set for follow-up analysis. We applied OSA to the family data from the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium study as part of the Genetic Analysis Workshop 15 (GAW15). We have incorporated two continuous covariates, 'age of onset' and 'anti-CCP level' (anti-cyclic citrinullated peptide), into our genome-wide ordered-subset linkage analysis using 809 Illumina SNP markers in 5713 individuals from 606 Caucasian RA families. A statistically significant increase in nonparametric linkage (NPL) scores was observed with covariate 'age of onset' in chromosomes 4 (p = 0.000003) and 9 (p = 0.002). With the covariate 'anti-CCP level', statistically significant increases in NPL scores were observed in chromosomes 2 (p = 0.0001), 18 (p = 0.00007), and 19 (p = 0.0003). Once we identified the linked genomic region, we then attempted to identify the best plausible parametric model at that linked locus. Our results show significant improvement in evidence for linkage and demonstrate that OSA is a useful technique to detect linkage under heterogeneity.
To correlate the presence of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies and rheumatoid factor (RF) with ocular symptoms typical of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
The records of 451 patients who had been examined by an ophthalmologist and tested for anti-CCP antibodies over a 3-year period at the Mayo Clinic were reviewed. Records of 255 patients with titers of anti-CCP and RF were analyzed for ocular surface and inflammatory disease associated with ocular RA.
Of the 33 anti-CCP+/RF+ patients, all were diagnosed with RA; ocular surface disease was present in 11 (33%) and inflammatory disease in 7 (21%). Of the 17 anti-CCP–/RF+ patients, 4 were diagnosed with an unspecified inflammatory arthritis and 1 with rheumatoid arthritis; a separate 5 (29%) had ocular surface disease. Out of 5 anti-CCP+/RF– patients, 3 were diagnosed with RA but none had ocular symptoms. Out of 200 anti-CCP–/RF– patients, 32 (16%) had ocular surface disease and 2 (1%) had ocular inflammation. Of the 74 patients diagnosed with any form of inflammatory arthritis, anti-CCP+/RF+ patients had more and worse inflammatory ocular RA disease compared to the other groups.
Patients who were both anti-CCP and RF positive tended to have more and worse ocular disease. In patients diagnosed with an inflammatory arthritis, the presence of anti-CCP antibodies and RF provides useful information to ophthalmologists for identifying patients most at risk for inflammatory ocular disease.
Focusing on chromosome 1, a recursive partitioning linkage algorithm (RP) was applied to perform linkage analysis on the rheumatoid arthritis NARAC data, incorporating covariates such as HLA-DRB1 genotype, age at onset, severity, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), and life time smoking. All 617 affected sib pairs from the ascertained families were used, and an RP linkage model was used to identify linkage possibly influenced by covariates. This algorithm includes a likelihood ratio (LR)-based splitting rule, a pruning algorithm to identify optimal tree size, and a bootstrap method for final tree selection.
The strength of the linkage signals was evaluated by empirical p-values, obtained by simulating marker data under null hypothesis of no linkage. Two suggestive linkage regions on chromosome 1 were detected by the RP linkage model, with identified associated covariates HLA-DRB1 genotype and age at onset. These results suggest possible gene × gene and gene × environment interactions at chromosome 1 loci and provide directions for further gene mapping.
Using the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium genome-wide association dataset, we applied ridged, multiple least-squares regression to identify genetic variants with apparent unique contributions to variation of anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP), a newly identified clinical risk factor for development of rheumatoid arthritis. Within a 2.7-Mbp region on chromosome 6 around the well studied HLA-DRB1 locus, ridge regression identified a single-nucleotide polymorphism that was associated with anti-CCP variation when including the additive effects of other single-nucleotide polymorphisms in a multivariable analysis, but that showed only a weak direct association with anti-CCP. This suggests that multivariable methods can be used to identify potentially relevant genetic variants in regions of interest that would be difficult to detect based on direct associations.
To evaluate the role of Anti-Cyclic Citrullinated Peptide (anti-CCP) antibody and Rheumatoid Factor (RF) in Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) patients.
The present study comprised of 60 clinically diagnosed rheumatoid arthritis patients and 30 apparently healthy subjects as controls. Among 60 RA patients, 30 were <2 years duration and 30 were 3 to 15 years duration. Anti-CCP and RF levels were analyed by ELISA and immunoturbidimetric assay respectively. Disease activity was assessed by disease duration, duration of morning stiffness, hand deformity and radiological findings. Anti-CCP and rheumatoid factor were measured.
A valid comparison showed that autoantibodies directed to citrullinated antigen–anti-CCP are superior to RF for the detection of RA. Anti-CCP antibodies have an independent role in predicting radiological damage and progression in RA patients.
With their excellent specificity, anti-CCP antibodies can be used as serological marker in establishing the diagnosis of RA. Anti-CCP antibodies discriminated accurately between erosive and nonerosive RA making them a potentially good prognostic marker for the disease.
Rheumatoid arthritis; Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies; Rheumatoid factor
Classification of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is increasingly important as new therapies can halt the disease in its early stages. Antibodies to cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP) are widely used for RA diagnosis, but are not in the 1987 American College of Rheumatology (ACR) Criteria for RA Classification. We developed and tested the performance characteristics of new criteria for RA classification, incorporating anti-CCP.
We identified all subjects seen in our Arthritis Center with rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-CCP tested simultaneously between January 1 and June 30, 2004 and reviewed their medical records for the ACR criteria, rheumatologists' diagnoses, RF and anti-CCP. We revised the ACR criteria in two ways: (1) adding anti-CCP, (2) replacing rheumatoid nodules and erosions with anti-CCP (CCP 6 criteria). We compared sensitivity and specificity of all criteria, in all subjects and in subjects with arthritis symptoms ≤ 6 months.
Medical records of 292 subjects were analysed: mean age was 54 years, 82% were women, and mean symptom duration was 4.1 years. 17% were RF+ and 14% were anti-CCP+ at initial testing. 78 (27%) had definite RA per treating rheumatologist at latest follow-up.
The CCP 6 criteria increased sensitivity for RA classification for all subjects regardless of symptom duration: 74% vs. 51% for ACR criteria with a loss in specificity (81% vs. 91%). Sensitivity was greatly improved in subjects with symptoms ≤ 6 months: 25% vs. 63% for ACR criteria with a decrease in specificity.
The CCP 6 criteria improved upon the sensitivity of the ACR criteria, most remarkably for subjects with symptoms ≤ 6 months and could be used for classification of subjects for RA in clinical studies.
Rheumatoid arthritis; cyclic citrullinated peptide; classification; early RA
Rheumatoid arthritis has a complex mode of inheritance. Although HLA-DRB1 and PTPN22 are well-established susceptibility loci, other genes that confer a modest level of risk have been identified recently. We carried out a genomewide association analysis to identify additional genetic loci associated with an increased risk of rheumatoid arthritis.
We genotyped 317,503 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in a combined case-control study of 1522 case subjects with rheumatoid arthritis and 1850 matched control subjects. The patients were seropositive for autoantibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP). We obtained samples from two data sets, the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium (NARAC) and the Swedish Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (EIRA). Results from NARAC and EIRA for 297,086 SNPs that passed quality-control filters were combined with the use of Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel stratified analysis. SNPs showing a significant association with disease (P<1×10-8) were genotyped in an independent set of case subjects with anti-CCP-positive rheumatoid arthritis (485 from NARAC and 512 from EIRA) and in control subjects (1282 from NARAC and 495 from EIRA).
We observed associations between disease and variants in the major-histocompatibility-complex locus, in PTPN22, and in a SNP (rs3761847) on chromosome 9 for all samples tested, the latter with an odds ratio of 1.32 (95% confidence interval, 1.23 to 1.42; P = 4×10-14). The SNP is in linkage disequilibrium with two genes relevant to chronic inflammation: TRAF1 (encoding tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1) and C5 (encoding complement component 5).
A common genetic variant at the TRAF1-C5 locus on chromosome 9 is associated with an increased risk of anti-CCP-positive rheumatoid arthritis.
Antibodies to citrullinated proteins (anti-cyclic-citrullinated peptide [anti-CCP] antibodies) are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and precede the onset of disease symptoms, indicating a pathogenetic role for these antibodies in RA. We recently showed that distinct genetic risk factors are associated with either anti-CCP-positive disease or anti-CCP-negative disease. These data are important as they indicate that distinct pathogenic mechanisms are underlying anti-CCP-positive disease or anti-CCP-negative disease. Likewise, these observations raise the question of whether anti-CCP-positive RA and anti-CCP-negative RA are clinically different disease entities. We therefore investigated whether RA patients with anti-CCP antibodies have a different clinical presentation and disease course compared with patients without these autoantibodies. In a cohort of 454 incident patients with RA, 228 patients were anti-CCP-positive and 226 patients were anti-CCP-negative. The early symptoms, tender and swollen joint count, and C-reactive protein level at inclusion, as well as the swollen joint count and radiological destruction during 4 years of follow-up, were compared for the two groups. There were no differences in morning stiffness, type, location and distribution of early symptoms, patients' rated disease activity and C-reactive protein at inclusion between RA patients with and without anti-CCP antibodies. The mean tender and swollen joint count for the different joints at inclusion was similar. At follow-up, patients with anti-CCP antibodies had more swollen joints and more severe radiological destruction. Nevertheless, the distribution of affected joints, for swelling, bone erosions and joint space narrowing, was similar. In conclusion, the phenotype of RA patients with or without anti-CCP antibodies is similar with respect to clinical presentation but differs with respect to disease course.
We applied nonparametric quantitative trait linkage analysis to two rheumatoid arthritis quantitative phenotypes, IgM rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibody titer measurements, using 5700 genome-wide Illumina single-nucleotide polymorphism genotypes on 658 Caucasian North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium families. Peak LOD scores for both quantitative traits were located in the human leukocyte antigen region 6p21 (15.8 and 13.8 for RF and anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide, respectively) followed by 11p12 (3.2 and 3.6). In addition, there were LOD scores of 3.2 on 2q32 for RF and 3.6 on 4q24 for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide. The resulting linkage signals for both phenotypes are very similar to previous results for rheumatoid arthritis as a qualitative variable, with rheumatoid factor measurements being most closely aligned. Interestingly, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide exhibits a stronger linkage peak on 2p14 than rheumatoid factor and rheumatoid arthritis, and stronger linkage on 4q24. Finally, we used ordered subset analyses to determine if sub-ranges of these two traits increased rheumatoid arthritis linkage signals; however, our analyses did not reveal significant effects of the quantitative traits on rheumatoid arthritis linkage signals in this population.
We have previously reported that high levels of antibodies specific for native human type II collagen (anti-CII) at the time of RA diagnosis were associated with concurrent but not later signs of inflammation. This was associated with CII/anti-CII immune complex (IC)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vitro. In contrast, anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti-CCP) were associated both with late inflammation and late radiological destruction in the same RA cohort. We therefore hypothesized that anti-CII are also associated with early erosions.
Two-hundred-and-fifty-six patients from an early RA cohort were included. Baseline levels of anti-CII, anti-CCP and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin were analyzed with ELISA, and rheumatoid factor levels were determined by nephelometry. Radiographs of hands and feet at baseline, after one and after two years were quantified using the 32-joints Larsen erosion score.
Levels of anti-CII were bimodally distributed in the RA cohort, with a small (3.1%, 8/256) group of very high outliers with a median level 87 times higher than the median for the healthy control group. Using a cut-off discriminating the outlier group that was associated with anti-CII IC-induced production of proinflammatory cytokines in vitro, baseline anti-CII antibodies were significantly (p = 0.0486) associated with increased radiographic damage at the time of diagnosis. Anti-CII-positive patient had also significantly increased HAQ score (p = 0.0303), CRP (p = 0.0026) and ESR (p = 0.0396) at the time of diagnosis but not during follow-up. The median age among anti-CII-positive subjects was 12 years higher than among the anti-CII-negative patients.
In contrary to anti-CCP, anti-CII-positive patients with RA have increased joint destruction and HAQ score at baseline. Anti-CII thus characterizes an early inflammatory/destructive phenotype, in contrast to the late appearance of an inflammatory/destructive phenotype in anti-CCP positive RA patients. The anti-CII phenotype might account for part of the elderly acute onset RA phenotype with rather good prognosis.
To evaluate the changes in anti‐cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies (anti‐CCP) and rheumatoid factor (RF) following etanercept treatment in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.
The study included 90 patients with rheumatoid arthritis who failed treatment with disease modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs). All patients were allowed to continue treatment with DMARDs; 52 of them received etanercept as a twice weekly 25 mg subcutaneous injection for three months, and the others did not. Serum samples were collected at baseline and one month intervals during the treatment course. The serum levels of anti‐CCP and RF were tested by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and nephelometry, respectively.
At baseline, 45 of the 52 etanercept treated patients (86.5%) and 32 of the 38 controls (84.2%) were positive for anti‐CCP. Tests for RF were positive in 78.9% and 84.2% of patients with or without etanercept treatment, respectively. The serum levels of anti‐CCP and RF decreased significantly after a three month etanercept treatment (p = 0.007 and p = 0.006, respectively). The average decrease from baseline calculated for each individual patient in the etanercept treated group was 31.3% for anti‐CCP and 36% for RF. The variation in anti‐CCP was positively correlated with the variation in disease activity, swollen and tender joint counts, RF, and C reactive protein.
Etanercept combined with DMARDs leads to a much greater decrease than DMARDs alone in the serum levels of anti‐CCP and RF in rheumatoid arthritis, compatible with a reduction in clinical disease activity.
etanercept; cyclic citrullinated peptide; rheumatoid factor; rheumatoid arthritis
Objective: To compare the diagnostic utility of laboratory variables,
including matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide
(CCP) antibodies, rheumatoid factor (RF), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR),
and C-reactive protein (CRP) in
patients with erosive and non-erosive rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
Methods: We assembled a training set, consisting of 60 patients with RA,
all fulfilling the revised criteria of the American College of Rheumatology. A
commercial enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was used both to
test for anti-CCP antibodies (second generation ELISA kit) and MMP; RF were
detected by latex-enhanced immunonephelometric assay. CRP
was measured by latex turbidimetric immunoassay.
Results: The levels of anti-CCP antibody titers and ESR were significantly
higher in patients with erosive disease than those in non-erosive RA patients
(p < 0.001 and 0.0341) respectively. Moreover, a higher frequency of elevated
titers of anti-CCP antibodies was found in RA patients with erosions compared
to patients with non-erosive RA (78.3% vs. 43.2% respectively). The ROC curves
of anti-CCP passed closer to the upper left corner than those other markers and
area under the curve (AUC) of anti-CCP was significantly larger than AUC of other
markers (0.755 for anti-CCP,
0.660 for ESR, 0.611 for CRP, 0.577 for RF, and 0.484 for MMP-3 female).
A positive predictive value was higher for anti-CCP antibodies in comparison to
other markers. We did not find significant statistical correlation between anti-CCP
antibody titers and inflammatory markers such as ESR or CRP. However, we
confirmed the correlation of elevated titers of anti-CCP antibodies and RF in both
groups of patients whereas
the degree of correlation was more significant in non-erosive patients.
Conclusion: The results of our study suggest that the presence of elevated
anti-CCP antibody titers have better diagnostic
performance than MMP-3, RF, CRP and ESR in patients with erosive RA.
We wanted to assess the importance of the levels of anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (anti-CCP) and immunoglobulin M (IgM) rheumatoid factor (RF) in predicting development of persistent arthritis from undifferentiated arthritis (UA), and to investigate whether there is an added predictive value for persistent arthritis in testing for both anti-CCP and IgM RF.
Patients with UA (exclusion of definite non-rheumatoid arthritis (RA) diagnoses) included in the Norwegian very early arthritis clinic were assessed for development of persistent arthritic disease. The effect of antibody level on the likelihood of persistent arthritis was investigated, and the sensitivity and specificity for persistent arthritis for anti-CCP and IgM RF, separately and combined, was determined.
A total of 376 UA patients were included (median arthritis duration 32 days). 59 (15.7%) patients were IgM RF positive, and 62 (16.5%) anti-CCP positive. One hundred, seventy-four (46.3%) had persistent disease after one year. Overlap of anti-CCP and IgM RF positivity was 58%. Sensitivity/specificity for persistent arthritis was 28/95% for IgM RF alone, 30/95% for anti-CCP alone, and 37/92% for positivity of both anti-CCP and IgM RF. The likelihood for persistent disease increased with increasing levels of both anti-CCP and IgM RF.
The likelihood of developing persistent arthritis in UA patients increases with the level of anti-CCP and IgM RF. Testing both anti-CCP and IgM RF has added predictive value in UA patients. This study suggests that antibody level should be taken into account when making risk assessments in patients with UA.
Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies have been of diagnostic value in Northern European Caucasian patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). In these populations, anti-CCP antibodies are associated with the HLA-DRB1 shared epitope. We assessed the diagnostic value of anti-CCP antibodies in Greek patients with RA where the HLA shared epitope was reported in a minority of patients.
Using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) (CCP2) kit, we tested anti-CCP antibodies in serum samples from 155 Greek patients with RA, 178 patients with other rheumatic diseases, and 100 blood donors. We also determined rheumatoid factor (RF) and compared it to anti-CCP antibodies for area under the curve (AUC), sensitivity, specificity and likelihood ratios.
Sensitivity of anti-CCP2 antibodies and RF for RA was 63.2% and 59.1%, and specificity was 95.0% and 91.2%, respectively. When considered simultaneously, the AUC for anti-CCP antibodies was 0.90 with 95% CI of 0.87 to 0.93 and the AUC for RF was 0.71 with 95% CI of 0.64 to 0.77. The presence of both antibodies increased specificity to 98.2%. Anti-CCP antibodies were positive in 34.9% of RF-negative RA patients. Anti-CCP antibodies showed a correlation with the radiographic joint damage. Anti-CCP-positive RA patients had increased the swollen joint count and serum CRP concentration compared to anti-CCP-negative RA patients (Mann-Whitney U test, p = 0.01, and p < 0.001, respectively). However, no correlation was found between anti-CCP antibodies and DAS28 score (r = 0.13, p = 0.12).
In Greek patients with RA, anti-CCP2 antibodies exhibit a better diagnostic value than RF and a correlation with radiological joint damage and therefore are useful in everyday rheumatology practice.
The goal of this study was to identify single-locus and epistasis effects of SNP markers on anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) that is associated with rheumatoid arthritis, using the North American Rheumatoid Arthritis Consortium data. A square root transformation of the phenotypic values of anti-CCP with sex, smoking status, and a selected subset of 20 single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers in the model achieved residual normality (p > 0.05). Three single-locus effects of two SNPs were significant (p < 10-4). The epistasis analysis tested five effects of each pair of SNPs, the two-locus interaction, additive × additive, additive × dominance, dominance × additive, and dominance × dominance effects. A total of ten epistasis effects of eight pairs of SNPs on 11 autosomes and the X chromosome had significant epistasis effects (p < 10-7). Three of these epistasis effects reached significance levels of p < 10-8, p < 10-9, and p < 10-10, respectively. Two potential SNP epistasis networks were identified. The results indicate that the genetic factors underlying anti-CCP may include single-gene action and gene interactions and that the gene-interaction mechanism underlying anti-CCP could be a complex mechanism involving pairwise epistasis effects and multiple SNPs.
Given the role of CD247 in the response of the T cells, its entailment in autoimmune diseases and in order to better clarify the role of this gene in RA susceptibility, we aimed to analyze CD247 gene variants previously associated with other autoimmune diseases (rs1052237, rs2056626 and rs864537) in a large independent European Caucasian population. However, no evidence of association was found for the analyzed CD247 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) with RA and with the presence/absence of anti-cyclic citrullinated polypeptide. We performed a meta-analysis including previously published GWAS data from the rs864537 variant, revealing an overall genome-wide significant association between this CD247 SNP and RA with anti-CCP (OR = 0.90, CI 95% = 0.87–0.93, Poverall = 2.1×10−10). Our results show for first time a GWAS-level association between this CD247 polymorphism and RA risk.
This study determined the prevalence and determinants of seropositivity for rheumatoid factor (RF), anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibody, and anti-mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) antibody in unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs) of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients.
A total of 337 subjects (135 with RA and 202 FDRs) were enrolled in this case-control study. Serum RF, anti-CCP antibody, and anti-MCV antibody were assayed. Subjects in multicase families (≥ 2 affected FDRs within the same family) were identified. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to identify risk factors associated with RA-related autoantibodies.
Seropositivity for RF, anti-CCP antibody, or anti-MCV antibody was detected in 14.4%, 5.0%, or 13.4% of unaffected FDRs, respectively. Anti-CCP antibody seropositivity was more prevalent in FDRs in multicase families (17.8%) than in those not in multicase families (1.3%, p < 0.0001). Significant correlations between RA-associated autoantibodies were detected in the FDR group (between RF and anti-CCP antibody: r = 0.366, p < 0.0001; between RF and anti-MCV antibody: r = 0.343, p < 0.0001; and between anti-CCP antibody and anti-MCV antibody: r = 0.849, p < 0.0001). After adjustment for age and sex, anti-CCP antibody seropositivity in FDRs was significantly associated with being in a multicase family (odds ratio, 49.8; 95% confidence interval, 5.6 to 441.6).
The association between anti-CCP antibody seropositivity in unaffected FDRs and being in a multicase family suggests that genetic and/or environmental factors may increase the risk for RA development in unaffected FDRs.
Rheumatoid arthritis; First-degree relative; Rheumatoid factor; Citrullinated antigen
Anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide autoantibodies (anti-CCP) are the most specific serologic marker for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Genetic polymorphisms in a citrullinating (or deiminating) enzyme, peptidyl arginine deiminase type IV (PADI4) have been reproducibly associated with RA susceptibility in several populations. We investigated whether PADI4 polymorphisms contribute to anti-CCP-negative as well as -positive RA, whether they influence disease severity (erosive joint status), and whether they interact with two major risk factors for RA, Human Leukocyte Antigen-DRB1 (HLA-DRB1) shared epitope (SE) alleles and smoking, depending on anti-CCP and erosive joint status.
All 2,317 unrelated Korean subjects including 1,313 patients with RA and 1,004 unaffected controls were genotyped for three nonsynonymous (padi4_89, padi4_90, and padi4_92) and one synonymous (padi4_104) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in PADI4 and for HLA-DRB1 by direct DNA sequence analysis. Odds ratios (OR) were calculated by multivariate logistic regression. Interaction was evaluated by attributable proportions (AP), with 95% confidence intervals (CI).
A functional haplotype of the three fully correlated nonsynonymous SNPs in PADI4 was significantly associated with susceptibility to not only anti-CCP-positive (adjusted OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.34 to 2.23) but also -negative RA (adjusted OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.15 to 2.68). A strong association with both non-erosive (adjusted OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.29 to 2.05) and erosive RA (adjusted OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.14 to 2.31) was observed for PADI4 haplotype. Gene-gene interactions between the homozygous RA-risk PADI4 haplotype and SE alleles were significant in both anti-CCP-positive (AP 0.45, 95% CI 0.20 to 0.71) and -negative RA (AP 0.61, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.92). Theses interactions were also observed for both non-erosive (AP 0.48, 95% CI 0.25 to 0.72) and erosive RA (AP 0.46, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.78). In contrast, no interaction was observed between smoking and PADI4 polymorphisms.
A haplotype of nonsynonymous SNPs in PADI4 contributes to development of RA regardless of anti-CCP or erosive joint status. The homozygous PADI4 haplotype contribution is affected by gene-gene interactions with HLA-DRB1 SE alleles.
To find out whether autoantibodies to citrullinated telopeptides of type I and II collagens and to cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCPs) predict the development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA).
A case‐control study (matched for sex, age and municipality) was nested within a Finnish cohort of 19072 adults who had neither arthritis nor a history of it at the baseline examination during 1973–7. 124 subjects developed RA by late 1989, and of these, 89 were positive for rheumatoid factor (RF). Preillness serum specimens were analysed for autoantibodies against arginine (A)‐ or citrulline (C)‐containing synthetic telopeptides using a chemiluminescence method and for anti‐CCPs Mark2 with an enzyme‐linked immunosorbent assay method.
The mean levels of autoantibodies to citrulline‐containing telopeptides and the C/A ratios of type I and II collagens and to CCP were higher in subjects who later developed RF‐positive RA. In the highest tertiles of C/A (I), C/A (II) ratios and anti‐CCPs levels, the relative risk of RF‐positive RA was significantly increased. In the multifactorial model, only anti‐CCPs retained its statistical significance. However, the interaction term of C/A (II) ratio and anti‐CCPs proved to be statistically significant (p = 0.02). The subjects ranked into the highest tertiles of both C/A (II) ratio and anti‐CCPs had an odds ratio of 20.06 (95% confidence interval, 4.37 to 92.06) of developing RF‐positive RA compared with those in the lowest tertiles of these antibodies. None of the autoantibodies predicted RF‐negative RA.
Autoantibodies to citrullinated telopeptides of type I and II collagen and to CCPs exert a synergistic effect on the risk of seropositive RA.