Background: To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, potential pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, and effect on liver histology of trabectedin in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) for advanced malignancies.
Patients and methods: Entry criteria for the 36 patients included normal liver function, prior doxorubicin exposure <250 mg/m2, and normal cardiac function. A 1-h PLD (30 mg/m2) infusion was followed immediately by one of six trabectedin doses (0.4, 0.6, 0.75, 0.9, 1.1, and 1.3 mg/m2) infused over 3 h, repeated every 21 days until evidence of complete response (CR), disease progression, or unacceptable toxicity. Plasma samples were obtained to assess PK profiles.
Results: The MTD of trabectedin was 1.1 mg/m2. Drug-related grade 3 and 4 toxic effects were neutropenia (31%) and elevated transaminases (31%). Six patients responded (one CR, five partial responses), with an overall response rate of 16.7%, and 14 had stable disease (less than a 50% reduction and less than a 25% increase in the sum of the products of two perpendicular diameters of all measured lesions and the appearance of no new lesions) >4 months (39%). Neither drug had its PK affected significantly by concomitant administration compared with trabectedin and PLD each given as a single agent.
Conclusion: Trabectedin combined with PLD is generally well tolerated at therapeutic doses of both drugs in pretreated patients with diverse tumor types and appears to provide clinical benefit. These results support the need for additional studies of this combination in appropriate cancer types.
ET-743; ovarian cancer; pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD); sarcomas; trabectedin
To determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD), safety, potential pharmacokinetic (PK) interactions, and effect on liver histology of trabectedin in combination with pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD) for advanced malignancies.
Patients and Methods
Entry criteria for the 36 patients included normal liver function, prior doxorubicin exposure <250 mg/m2, and normal cardiac function. A 1-hour PLD (30 mg/m2) infusion was followed immediately by 1 of 6 trabectedin doses (0.4, 0.6, 0.75, 0.9, 1.1, and 1.3 mg/m2) infused over 3 hours, repeated every 21 days until evidence of complete response (CR), disease progression, or unacceptable txicity. Plasma samples were obtained to assess PK profiles.
The MTD of trabectedin was 1.1 mg/m2. Drug-related grade 3 and 4 toxicities were neutropenia (31%) and elevated transaminases (31%). Six patients responded (1 CR, 5 partial responses), with an overall response rate of 16.7%, and 14 had stable disease >4 months (39%). Neither drug had its PK affected significantly by concomitant administration compared to trabectedin and PLD each given as a single agent.
Trabectedin combined with PLD is generally well tolerated at therapeutic doses of both drugs in pretreated patients with diverse tumor types, and appears to provide clinical benefit. These results support the need for additional studies of this combination in appropriate cancer types.
trabectedin; ET-743; pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD); sarcomas; ovarian cancer
No prospective study has investigated the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the risk of primary liver cancer (PLC) in mainland China, and little is known about the effect of diabetes duration on PLC risk.
Data from two population-based cohorts (the Shanghai Men's Health Study, SMHS, 2002–2006 and the Shanghai Women's Health Study, SWHS, 1996–2000) were thus used to assess the associations among T2DM, diabetes duration and PLC risk in Chinese population.
During follow-up through 2009, 344 incident PLC cases were identified among 60 183 men and 73 105 women. T2DM is significantly associated with the increased risk of PLC in both men [hazard ratio (HR) = 1.63, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06–2.51] and women (HR = 1.64, 95% CI 1.03–2.61). The highest risk of incident liver cancer was observed in the first 5 years after diabetes diagnosis, and decreased substantially with the prolonged diabetes duration (Ptrend < 0.001). No synergistic interaction in the development of PLC was found between diabetes and other known risk factors.
T2DM is associated with the increased risk of subsequent liver cancer within 5 years after diagnosis in Chinese population, suggesting that hyperinsulinaemia rather than hyperglycaemia is more likely to be a primary mediator for this association.
China; cohort study; primary liver cancer; type 2 diabetes
Paclitaxel-induced neuropathy is an adverse event that often leads to therapeutic disruption and patient discomfort. We attempted to replicate a previously reported association between increased neuropathy risk and CYP2C8*3 genotype.
Patients and methods
Demographic, treatment, and toxicity data were collected for paclitaxel-treated breast cancer patients who were genotyped for the CYP2C8*3 K399R (rs10509681) variant. A log-rank test was used in the primary analysis of European-American patients. An additional independent replication was then attempted in a cohort of African-American patients, followed by modeling of the entire patient cohort with relevant covariates.
In the primary analysis of 209 European patients, there was an increased risk of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy related to CYP2C8*3 status [HR (per allele) = 1.93 (95% CI: 1.05–3.55), overall log-rank P = 0.006]. The association was replicated in direction and magnitude of effect in 107 African-American patients (P = 0.043). In the Cox model using the entire mixed-race cohort (n = 411), each CYP2C8*3 allele approximately doubled the patient's risk of grade 2+ neuropathy (P = 0.004), and non-Europeans were at higher neuropathy risk than Europeans of similar genotype (P = 0.030).
The increased risk of paclitaxel-induced neuropathy in patients who carry the CYP2C8*3 variant was replicated in two racially distinct patient cohorts.
chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy; cytochrome P450 2C8*3; paclitaxel; pharmacogenetics; race
Cardiovascular risk attributable to bevacizumab (Avastin®, BEV) for treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) remains unclear. We conducted a population-based cohort study to assess the safety of BEV use among patients aged ≥65.
Patients and methods
We identified CRC patients diagnosed from 2005 to 2007 who received chemotherapy and were followed until 31 December 2009. Outcomes were 3-year risk of arterial thromboembolic events (ATEs), cardiomyopathy or congestive heart failure (CM/CHF), and cardiac death (CD) after chemotherapy initiation. We fitted Cox-proportional hazards (PHs) models with inverse-probability-of-treatment-weights and calculated hazard ratios (HRs) for the risk of adverse events.
We identified 6803 CRC patients (median age: 73 years). Those with cardiac comorbidity were less likely to receive BEV (P < 0.0001). BEV is associated with an elevated risk of ATEs (HR = 1.82, 95% CI = 1.20–2.76, P < 0.001; rate difference: 3.5 additional cases/1000 person-years). We observed no association between BEV and CD or CM/CHF.
In general practice, the cardiovascular risk of BEV in elderly CRC is modest. The observed ATEs risk is lower than reported in clinical trials, which may be due to careful patient selection. Our findings may facilitate clinical decision-making of BEV use in elderly patients.
adverse events; arterial thromboembolic events; bevacizumab; cardiac death; congestive heart failure
Central nervous system (CNS) disease as the site of first relapse after exposure to adjuvant trastuzumab has been reported. We carried out comprehensive meta-analysis to determine the risk of CNS metastases as the first site of recurrence in patients with HER2-positive breast cancer who received adjuvant trastuzumab.
Eligible studies include randomized trials of adjuvant trastuzumab administered for 1 year to patients with HER2-positive breast cancer who reported CNS metastases as first site of disease recurrence. Statistical analyses were conducted to calculate the incidence, relative risk (RR), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using fixed-effects inverse variance and random-effects models.
A total of 9020 patients were included. The incidence of CNS metastases as first site of disease recurrence in HER2-positive patients receiving adjuvant trastuzumab was 2.56% (95% CI 2.07% to 3.01%) compared with 1.94% (95% CI 1.54% to 2.38%) in HER2-positive patients who did not receive adjuvant trastuzumab. The RR of the CNS as first site of relapse in trastuzumab-treated patients was 1.35 (95% CI 1.02–1.78, P = 0.038) compared with control arms without trastuzumab therapy. The ratio of CNS metastases to total number of recurrence events was 16.94% (95% CI 10.85% to 24.07%) and 8.33% (95% CI 6.49% to 10.86%) for the trastuzumab-treated and control groups, respectively. No statistically significant differences were found based on trastuzumab schedule or median follow-up time. No evidence of publication bias was observed.
Adjuvant trastuzumab is associated with a significant increased risk of CNS metastases as the site of first recurrence in HER2-positive breast cancer patients.
breast cancer; central nervous system; hER2; meta-analysis; metastases; trastuzumab
Rituximab-hyper-CVAD alternating with rituximab-high-dose methotrexate and cytarabine is a commonly utilized regimen in the United States for mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) based on phase II single institutional data. To confirm the clinical efficacy of this regimen and determine its feasibility in a multicenter study that includes both academic and community-based practices, a phase II study of this regimen was conducted by SWOG.
Patients and methods
Forty-nine patients with advanced stage, previously untreated MCL were eligible. The median age was 57.4 years (35–69.8 years).
Nineteen patients (39%) did not complete the full scheduled course of treatment due to toxicity. There was one treatment-related death and two cases of secondary myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). There were 10 episodes of grade 3 febrile neutropenia, 19 episodes of grade 3 and 1 episode of grade 4 infection. With a median follow-up of 4.8 years, the median progression-free survival was 4.8 years (5.5 years for those ≤65 years) and the median overall survival (OS) was 6.8 years.
Although this regimen is toxic, it is active for patients ≤65 years of age and can be given both at academic centers and in experienced community centers.
dose-intensive; mantle cell; rituximab
In this meta-analysis, we evaluated associations between statins and recurrence-free survival (RFS) following treatment of localized prostate cancer, with attention to potential benefits among patients treated primarily with radiotherapy (RT) versus radical prostatectomy.
Patients and methods
We identified original studies examining the effect of statins on men who received definitive treatment of localized prostate cancer using a systematic search of the PubMed and EMBASE databases through August 2012. Our search yielded 17 eligible studies from 794 references; 13 studies with hazard ratios (HRs) for RFS were included in the formal meta-analysis.
Overall, statins did not affect RFS (HR 0.90, 95% CI 0.74–1.08). However, in RT patients (six studies), statins were associated with a statistically significant improvement in RFS (HR 0.68; 95% CI 0.49–0.93); this benefit was not observed in radical prostatectomy patients (seven studies). Sensitivity analyses suggested that primary treatment modality may impact the effect of statins on prostate cancer recurrence.
Our meta-analysis suggests a potentially beneficial effect of statins on prostate cancer patients treated with RT but not among radical prostatectomy patients. Although limited by the lack of randomized data, these results suggest that primary treatment modality should be considered in future studies examining associations between statins and oncologic outcomes.
meta-analysis; prostate cancer; radical prostatectomy; radiotherapy; recurrence; statin
Bone marrow-derived endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) are critical for metastatic progression. This study explores the effect of tetrathiomolybdate (TM), an anti-angiogenic copper chelator, on EPCs in patients at high risk for breast cancer recurrence.
Patients and methods
This phase 2 study enrolled breast cancer patients with stage 3 and stage 4 without evidence of disease (NED), and stage 2 if triple-negative. TM 100 mg orally was administered to maintain ceruloplasmin <17 mg/dl for 2 years or until relapse. The primary end point was change in EPCs.
Forty patients (28 stage 2/3, 12 stage 4 NED) were enrolled. Seventy-five percent patients achieved the copper depletion target by 1 month. Ninety-one percent of triple-negative patients copper-depleted compared with 41% luminal subtypes. In copper-depleted patients only, there was a significant reduction in EPCs/ml by 27 (P = 0.04). Six patients relapsed while on study, of which only one patient had EPCs maintained below baseline. The 10-month relapse-free survival was 85.0% (95% CI 74.6%–96.8%). Only grade 3/4 toxicity was hematologic: neutropenia (3.1% of cycles), febrile neutropenia (0.2%), and anemia (0.2%).
TM is safe and appears to maintain EPCs below baseline in copper-depleted patients. TM may promote tumor dormancy and ultimately prevent relapse.
breast cancer; endothelial progenitor cells; tetrathiomolybdate
Preclinical studies have shown that norepinephrine can directly stimulate tumor cell migration and that this effect is mediated by the beta-adrenergic receptor.
Patients and methods
We retrospectively reviewed 722 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) who received definitive radiotherapy (RT). A Cox proportional hazard model was utilized to determine the association between beta-blocker intake and locoregional progression-free survival (LRPFS), distant metastasis-free survival (DMFS), disease-free survival (DFS), and overall survival (OS).
In univariate analysis, patients taking beta-blockers (n = 155) had improved DMFS (P < 0.01), DFS (P < 0.01), and OS (P = 0.01), but not LRPFS (P = 0.33) compared with patients not taking beta-blockers (n = 567). In multivariate analysis, beta-blocker intake was associated with a significantly better DMFS [hazard ratio (HR), 0.67; P = 0.01], DFS (HR, 0.74; P = 0.02), and OS (HR, 0.78; P = 0.02) with adjustment for age, Karnofsky performance score, stage, histology type, concurrent chemotherapy, radiation dose, gross tumor volume, hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and the use of aspirin. There was no association of beta-blocker use with LRPFS (HR = 0.91, P = 0.63).
Beta-blocker use is associated with improved DMFS, DFS, and OS in this large cohort of NSCLC patients. Future prospective trials can validate these retrospective findings and determine whether the length and timing of beta-blocker use influence survival outcomes.
beta-blockers; distant metastasis; non-small-cell lung cancer; radiation therapy
Chemoradiation followed by surgery is the preferred treatment of localized gastroesophageal cancer (GEC). Surgery causes considerable life-altering consequences and achievement of clinical complete response (clinCR; defined as postchemoradiation [but presurgery] endoscopic biopsy negative for cancer and positron emission tomographic (PET) scan showing physiologic uptake) is an enticement to avoid/delay surgery. We examined the association between clinCR and pathologic complete response (pathCR).
Patients and methods
Two hundred eighty-four patients with GEC underwent chemoradiation and esophagectomy. The chi-square test, Fisher exact test, t-test, Kaplan–Meier method, and log-rank test were used.
Of 284 patients, 218 (77%) achieved clinCR. However, only 67 (31%) of the 218 achieved pathCR. The sensitivity of clinCR for pathCR was 97.1% (67/69), but the specificity was low (29.8%; 64/215). Of the 66 patients who had less than a clinCR, only 2 (3%) had a pathCR. Thus, the rate of pathCR was significantly different in patients with clinCR than in those with less than a clinCR (P < 0.001).
clinCR is not highly associated with pathCR; the specificity of clinCR for pathCR is too low to be used for clinical decision making on delaying/avoiding surgery. Surgery-eligible GEC patients should be encouraged to undergo surgery following chemoradiation despite achieving a clinCR.
clinical complete response; esophageal cancer; multimodality therapy; pathologic complete response; prediction
Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in localized prostate cancer improves overall survival and is recommended by National Comprehensive Cancer Network guidelines in certain situations. However, ADT is without benefit in other situations and can actually cause harm. This study examines recent trends in the ADT use and quantifies the cost of guideline-discordant ADT.
Patients and methods
Patients, aged 66–80 years, in the Surveillance Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database with non-metastatic prostate cancer diagnosed between 2004 and 2007 were included for analysis. Prostate-specific antigen, Gleason score, and stage were used to define D'Amico risk categories. Logistic regression was used to examine factors associated with guideline-discordant ADT. Annual direct cost was estimated using 2011 Medicare reimbursement for ADT.
Of 28 654 men included, 12.4% received guideline-discordant ADT. In low-risk patients, 14.9% received discordant ADT, mostly due to simultaneous ADT with radiation. Discordant use was seen in 7.3% of intermediate and 14.9% of high-risk patients, mostly from ADT as primary therapy. The odds of receiving guideline-discordant ADT decreased over time (2007 versus 2004; OR 0.69; 95% CI 0.62–0.76). The estimated annual direct cost from discordant ADT is $42 000 000.
Approximately one in eight patients received ADT discordant with published guidelines. Elimination of discordant use would result in substantial savings.
drug costs; gonadotropin-releasing hormone; health services; prostatic neoplasms; SEER program
Therapy for gastric marginal zone (MALT) lymphoma is largely based on single-arm trials. This observational study compared survival with radiotherapy, rituximab and combination chemoimmunotherapy in this disease.
Patients and methods
Gastric MALT lymphoma cases diagnosed between 1997 and 2007 were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results-Medicare database. Propensity score analysis and competing risk models were used to compare survival in patients with stage IE treated with radiation or chemotherapy, and in patients of all stages treated with rituximab alone or with chemoimmunotherapy.
Among 1134 patients, 21% underwent radiation and 24% chemotherapy as initial treatment. In the balanced cohort of 347 patients with stage IE, radiotherapy alone was associated with a better cause-specific survival [hazard ratio (HR) 0.27, P < 0.001]. Patients receiving systemic therapy had better survival if it incorporated rituximab (HR 0.53, P = 0.017). After adjustment for confounding, the outcomes of those who received rituximab alone or combination chemoimmunotherapy were not statistically different (P = 0.14).
In elderly patients with stage IE gastric MALT lymphoma, radiotherapy was associated with lower risk of lymphoma-related death than chemotherapy. In those requiring systemic treatment, addition of cytotoxic chemotherapy to rituximab in the first-line regimen was not associated with improved survival.
chemotherapy; gastric lymphoma; MALT; propensity score; rituximab; SEER-Medicare
Conflicting evidence exists on the relationship between physical activity (PA) and incident hematologic malignancies. Herein, we used a large cohort study to examine this association.
Patients and methods
Sixty-five thousand three hundred twenty-two volunteers aged 50–76 years were recruited from 2000 to 2002. Incident hematologic malignancies (n = 666) were identified through 2009 by linkage to the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registry. Hazard ratios (HRs) for hematologic malignancies associated with PA averaged over 10 years before baseline were estimated with Cox proportional hazards models, adjusting for factors associated with hematologic cancers or PA.
There was a decreased risk of hematologic malignancies associated with PA (HR = 0.66 [95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.51–0.86] for the highest tertile of all PA, P-trend = 0.005, and HR = 0.60 [95% CI 0.44–0.82] for the highest tertile of moderate/high-intensity PA, P-trend = 0.002). These associations were strongest for myeloid neoplasms (HR = 0.48 [95% CI 0.29–0.79] for the highest tertile of all PA, P-trend = 0.013, and HR = 0.40 [95% CI 0.21–0.77] for the highest tertile of moderate/high-intensity PA, P-trend = 0.016). There were also significant associations between PA and chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma or other mature B-cell lymphomas except plasma cell disorders.
Our study offers the strongest epidemiological evidence, to date, to suggest an association between regular PA and dose-dependent risk reduction for most hematologic malignancies, particularly myeloid neoplasms.
cancer risk; epidemiology; hematologic malignancies; physical activity; prospective cohort study; VITamins And Lifestyle study
Penile cancer (PC) is a rare cancer in western countries, but is more common in parts of the developing world. Due to its rarity and the consequent lack of randomized trials, current therapy is based on retrospective studies and small prospective trials.
Studies of PC therapy were searched in PubMed and abstracts at major conferences.
PC is generally an aggressive malignancy characterized by early locoregional lymph node (LN) spread and later metastases in distant sites. Given the strong predictive value of LN involvement for overall survival, evaluating regional LNs is critical. Advanced LN involvement is increasingly being treated with multimodality therapy incorporating chemotherapy and/or radiation. A single superior cisplatin-based regimen has not been defined. Further advances may occur with a better collaboration on an international scale and comprehensive understanding of tumor biology. To this end, the preventive role of circumcision and understanding of the oncogenic roles of Human Papilloma Virus-16, and smoking may yield advances. Preliminary data suggest a role for agents targeting epidermal growth factor receptor and angiogenesis.
Advances in therapy for PC will require efficient trial designs, synergistic collaboration, incentives to industry and the efforts of patient advocacy groups and venture philanthropists.
biologic agents; chemotherapy; combined modality therapy; molecular targets; penile cancer; radiotherapy
The purpose of this study was to determine the functional proteomic characteristics of residual breast cancer and hormone receptor (HR)-positive breast cancer after neoadjuvant systemic chemotherapy, and their relationship with patient outcomes.
Reverse phase protein arrays of 76 proteins were carried out. A boosting approach in conjunction with a Cox proportional hazard model defined relapse predictors. A risk score (RS) was calculated with the sum of the coefficients from the final model. Survival outcomes and associations of the RS with relapse were estimated. An independent test set was used to validate the results.
Test (n = 99) and validation sets (n = 79) were comparable. CoxBoost revealed a three-biomarker (CHK1pS345, Caveolin1, and RAB25) and a two-biomarker (CD31 and Cyclin E1) model that correlated with recurrence-free survival (RFS) in all residual breast cancers and in HR-positive disease, respectively. Unsupervised clustering split patients into high- and low risk of relapse groups with different 3-year RFS (P ≤ 0.001 both). RS was a substantial predictor of RFS (P = 0.0008 and 0.0083) after adjustment for other substantial characteristics. Similar results were found in validation sets.
We found models that independently predicted RFS in all residual breast cancer and in residual HR-positive disease that may represent potential targets of therapy in this resistant disease.
breast cancer; neoadjuvant chemotherapy; residual disease
The goal of this study was to create a comprehensive model for malignant pleural mesothelioma patient survival utilizing continuous, time-varying estimates of disease volume from computed tomography (CT) imaging in conjunction with clinical covariates.
Patients and methods
Serial CT scans were obtained during the course of clinically standard chemotherapy for 81 patients. The pleural disease volume was segmented for each of the 281 CT scans, and relative changes in disease volume from the baseline scan were tracked over the course of serial follow-up imaging. A prognostic model was built using time-varying disease volume measurements in conjunction with clinical covariates.
Over the course of treatment, disease volume decreased by an average of 19%, and median patient survival was 12.6 months from baseline. In a multivariate survival model, changes in disease volume were significantly associated with patient survival along with disease histology, Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status, and presence of dyspnea.
Analysis of the trajectories of disease volumes during chemotherapy for patients with mesothelioma indicates that increasing disease volume was significantly and independently associated with poor patient prognosis in both univariate and multivariate survival models.
chest CT; malignant pleural mesothelioma; therapy response assessment
To assess the efficacy of an abbreviated Stanford V regimen in patients with early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma (HL).
Patients and methods
Patients with untreated nonbulky stage I–IIA supradiaphragmatic HL were eligible for the G4 study. Stanford V chemotherapy was administered for 8 weeks followed by radiation therapy (RT) 30 Gy to involved fields (IF). Freedom from progression (FFP), disease-specific survival (DSS) and overall survival (OS) were estimated.
All 87 enrolled patients completed the abbreviated regimen. At a median follow-up of 10 years, FFP, DSS and OS are 94%, 99% and 94%, respectively. Therapy was well tolerated with no treatment-related deaths.
Mature results of the abbreviated Stanford V regimen in nonbulky early-stage HL are excellent and comparable to the results from other contemporary therapies.
abbreviated Stanford V regimen; early-stage Hodgkin lymphoma; involved-field radiotherapy
Temozolomide (TMZ) is widely used for chemotherapy of metastatic melanoma. We hypothesized that epigenetic modulators will reverse chemotherapy resistance, and in this article, we report studies that sought to determine the recommended phase 2 dose (RP2D), safety, and efficacy of decitabine (DAC) combined with TMZ.
Patients and methods
In phase I, DAC was given at two dose levels: 0.075 and 0.15 mg/kg intravenously daily × 5 days/week for 2 weeks, TMZ orally 75 mg/m2 qd for weeks 2–5 of a 6-week cycle. The phase II portion used a two-stage Simon design with a primary end point of objective response rate (ORR).
The RP2D is DAC 0.15 mg/kg and TMZ 75 mg/m2. The phase II portion enrolled 35 patients, 88% had M1c disease; 42% had history of brain metastases. The best responses were 2 complete response (CR), 4 partial response (PR), 14 stable disease (SD), and 13 progressive disease (PD); 18% ORR and 61% clinical benefit rate (CR + PR + SD). The median overall survival (OS) was 12.4 months; the 1-year OS rate was 56%. Grade 3/4 neutropenia was common but lasted >7 days in six patients.
The combination of DAC and TMZ is safe, leads to 18% ORR and 12.4-month median OS, suggesting possible superiority over the historical 1-year OS rate, and warrants further evaluation in a randomized setting.
decitabine; melanoma; pharmacokinetic analysis; temozolomide
Epidemiological studies have reported inconsistent associations between cruciferous vegetable (CV) intake and colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. To our knowledge, a comprehensive and quantitative assessment of the association between CV intake and CRC has not been reported.
Relevant articles were identified by searching MEDLINE. We pooled the relative risks (RR) from individual studies using a random-effect model and carried out heterogeneity and publication bias analyses.
Twenty-four case–control and 11 prospective studies were included in our analysis. When all studies were pooled, we yielded a significantly inverse association between CV (RR: 0.82; 95% confidence interval 0.75–0.90) intake and CRC risk. Specific analysis for cabbage and broccoli yielded similar result. When separately analyzed, case–control studies of CV intake yield similar results, and the results from the prospective studies showed borderline statistical significance. Moreover, significant inverse associations were also observed in colon cancer and its distal subsite both among prospective and case–control studies.
Findings from this meta-analysis provide evidence that high intake of CV was inversely associated with the risk of CRC and colon cancer in humans. Further analysis on other specific CV, food preparation methods, stratified results by anatomic cancer site, and subsite of colon cancer should be extended in future study.
colorectal cancer; cruciferous vegetables; dietary; epidemiology; meta-analysis
Despite the fact that the hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents a major health problem, very few interventions are available for this disease, and only sorafenib is approved for the treatment of advanced disease. Of note, only very few interventions have been thoroughly evaluated over time for HCC patients compared with several hundreds in other, equally highly lethal, tumours. Additionally, clinical trials in HCC have often been questioned for poor design and methodological issues. As a consequence, a gap between what is measured in clinical trials and what clinicians have to face in daily practice often occurs. As a result of this scenario, even the most recent guidelines for treatment of HCC patients use low strength evidence to make recommendations. In this review, we will discuss some of the potential methodological issues hindering a rational development of new treatments for HCC patients.
hepatocellular carcinoma; methodology; observational studies; randomized, clinical trials; sorafenib
This manuscript presents exploratory analyses of the incidence and time to development of CNS metastases in patients with first-line HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer in the CLEOPATRA study of pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel. The results showed that pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel delayed the onset of CNS disease compared with placebo, trastuzumab, and docetaxel.
Results from the phase III trial CLEOPATRA in human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-positive first-line metastatic breast cancer demonstrated significant improvements in progression-free and overall survival with pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel over placebo, trastuzumab, and docetaxel. We carried out exploratory analyses of the incidence and time to development of central nervous system (CNS) metastases in patients from CLEOPATRA.
Patients and methods
Patients received pertuzumab/placebo: 840 mg in cycle 1, then 420 mg; trastuzumab: 8 mg/kg in cycle 1, then 6 mg/kg; docetaxel: initiated at 75 mg/m2. Study drugs were administered i.v. every 3 weeks. The log-rank test was used for between-arm comparisons of time to CNS metastases as first site of disease progression and overall survival in patients with CNS metastases as first site of disease progression. The Kaplan–Meier approach was used to estimate median time to CNS metastases as first site of disease progression and median overall survival.
The incidence of CNS metastases as first site of disease progression was similar between arms; placebo arm: 51 of 406 (12.6%), pertuzumab arm: 55 of 402 (13.7%). Median time to development of CNS metastases as first site of disease progression was 11.9 months in the placebo arm and 15.0 months in the pertuzumab arm; hazard ratio (HR) = 0.58, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.39–0.85, P = 0.0049. Overall survival in patients who developed CNS metastases as first site of disease progression showed a trend in favor of pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel; HR = 0.66, 95% CI 0.39–1.11. Median overall survival was 26.3 versus 34.4 months in the placebo and pertuzumab arms, respectively. Treatment comparison of the survival curves was not statistically significant for the log-rank test (P = 0.1139), but significant for the Wilcoxon test (P = 0.0449).
While the incidence of CNS metastases was similar between arms, our results suggest that pertuzumab, trastuzumab, and docetaxel delays the onset of CNS disease compared with placebo, trastuzumab, and docetaxel.
central nervous system; HER2; metastatic breast cancer; pertuzumab; trastuzumab
There is evidence of a long-term benefit of adjuvant post operative chemotherapy for early-stage ovarian cancer. The magnitude of benefit is greatest in patients at a higher risk of recurrence defined as stage 1B/1C grade 2/3, any stage 1 grade 3 or clear cell histology. The use of single agent carboplatin is recommended.
There is no clear consensus regarding systemic treatment of early-stage ovarian cancer (OC). Clinical trials are challenging because of the relatively low incidence and good prognosis. Initial results of the International Collaborative Ovarian Neoplasm (ICON)1 trial demonstrated benefit in both overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) with adjuvant chemotherapy. We report results of 10-year follow-up to establish whether benefits are maintained longer term and discuss how this and other available evidence from randomised trials can be used to guide treatment options regarding the need for, and choice of, adjuvant chemotherapy regimen.
Patients and methods
ICON1 recruited women with OC following primary surgery in whom there was uncertainty as to whether adjuvant chemotherapy was indicated. Patients were randomly assigned to adjuvant or no adjuvant chemotherapy. Platinum-based chemotherapy was recommended and 87% received single-agent carboplatin. Analyses of long-term treatment benefits and interaction with risk groups were carried out. A high-risk group of women was defined with stage 1B/1C grade 2/3, any stage 1 grade 3 or clear-cell histology.
With a median follow-up of 10 years, the estimated hazard ratio (HR) for RFS was 0.69 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.51–0.94, P = 0.02] and OS 0.71 (95% CI 0.52–0.98, P = 0.04) in favour of chemotherapy. In absolute terms, there was a 10% (60%–70%) improvement in RFS and a 9% (64%–73%) improvement in OS; the benefit of chemotherapy might be greater in high-risk disease (18% improvement in OS). Uncertainty remains about the optimal chemotherapy regimen. The only randomised trial data available are from a subset of 120 stage 1 patients in ICON3 where the treatment difference, comparing carboplatin with carboplatin/paclitaxel was estimated with relatively wide CIs [progression-free survival HR = 0.71 (95% CI 0.39–1.32) and OS HR = 0.98 (95% CI 0.49–1.93)].
Extended follow-up from ICON1 confirms that adjuvant chemotherapy should be offered to women with early-stage OC, particularly those with high-risk disease.
Clinical trial numbers
ISRCTN11916376 for ICON1 and ISRCTN57157825 for ICON3.
early-stage ovarian cancer; adjuvant chemotherapy; ICON1; ICON3
Genetic variants could be useful as predictors of radiotherapy outcomes. Here we studied germline MRE11A variants in muscle invasive bladder cancer patients and found six rare variants and one SNP, rs1805363, to be associated with worse radiotherapy outcomes. If successfully validated in an independent radiotherapy cohort, this SNP could be used to select patients for bladder-conserving treatment.
Muscle-invasive bladder cancer (MIBC) can be cured by radical radiotherapy (RT). We previously found tumour MRE11 expression to be predictive of survival following RT in MIBC, and this was independently validated in a separate institute. Here, we investigated germline MRE11A variants as possible predictors of RT outcomes in MIBC, using next-generation sequencing (NGS).
Patients and methods
The MRE11A gene was amplified in germline DNA from 186 prospectively recruited MIBC patients treated with RT and sequenced using bar-coded multiplexed NGS. Germline variants were analysed for associations with cancer-specific survival (CSS). For validation as a prognostic or predictive marker, rs1805363 was then genotyped in a cystectomy-treated MIBC cohort of 256 individuals. MRE11A mRNA isoform expression was measured in bladder cancer cell lines and primary tumour samples.
Carriage of at least one of six (five novel) rare variants was associated with the worse RT outcome (hazard ratio [HR] 4.04, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.42–11.51, P = 0.009). The single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs1805363 (minor allele frequency 11%), was also associated with worse CSS (per-allele HR 2.10, 95% CI 1.34–3.28, Ptrend = 0.001) following RT in MIBC, with a gene-dosage effect observed, but no effect seen on CSS in the cystectomy cohort (Ptrend = 0.89). Furthermore, rs1805363 influenced relative MRE11A isoform expression, with increased isoform 2 expression with carriage of the rs1805363 minor A allele.
Germline MRE11A SNP rs1805363 was predictive of RT, but not of cystectomy outcome in MIBC. If successfully validated in an independent RT-treated cohort, this SNP could be a useful clinical tool for selecting patients for bladder-conserving treatment.
MRE11A; bladder cancer; next-generation sequencing; radiotherapy; cystectomy; biomarkers
The BOLERO-2 trial demonstrated that adding everolimus to exemestane substantially improved clinical benefit with acceptable safety in postmenopausal women with HR+ breast cancer relapsing/progressing on a nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitor. Incidences and severities of everolimus-related toxicity were consistent with other oncology settings, and were manageable using established strategies.
In the BOLERO-2 trial, everolimus (EVE), an inhibitor of mammalian target of rapamycin, demonstrated significant clinical benefit with an acceptable safety profile when administered with exemestane (EXE) in postmenopausal women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) advanced breast cancer. We report on the incidence, time course, severity, and resolution of treatment-emergent adverse events (AEs) as well as incidence of dose modifications during the extended follow-up of this study.
Patients and methods
Patients were randomized (2:1) to receive EVE 10 mg/day or placebo (PBO), with open-label EXE 25 mg/day (n = 724). The primary end point was progression-free survival. Secondary end points included overall survival, objective response rate, and safety. Safety evaluations included recording of AEs, laboratory values, dose interruptions/adjustments, and study drug discontinuations.
The safety population comprised 720 patients (EVE + EXE, 482; PBO + EXE, 238). The median follow-up was 18 months. Class-effect toxicities, including stomatitis, pneumonitis, and hyperglycemia, were generally of mild or moderate severity and occurred relatively early after treatment initiation (except pneumonitis); incidence tapered off thereafter. EVE dose reduction and interruption (360 and 705 events, respectively) required for AE management were independent of patient age. The median duration of dose interruption was 7 days. Discontinuation of both study drugs because of AEs was higher with EVE + EXE (9%) versus PBO + EXE (3%).
Most EVE-associated AEs occur soon after initiation of therapy, are typically of mild or moderate severity, and are generally manageable with dose reduction and interruption. Discontinuation due to toxicity was uncommon. Understanding the time course of class-effect AEs will help inform preventive and monitoring strategies as well as patient education.
Trial registration number
advanced breast cancer; everolimus; mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR); safety