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1.  Production and Multiplication of Native Compost Fungal Activator by Using Different Substrates and Its Influence on Growth and Development of Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia” 
In vitro experiment was carried out to see the effect of saw dusts of Pinus kesiya, Shorea robusta, and Callicarpa arborea on Trichoderma harzianum, isolate TH-13 mass production, along with its biotization effect on Capsicum chinensis Jacq. “Bhut Jolokia.” Early mycelium initiation (2 days) occurred in S. robusta followed by P. kesiya and C. arborea (3.5 days). The sporulation was observed earlier in S. robusta (100% after 6 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 8 days) and C. arborea (16.7% after 9 days) but no sporulation was observed in control. The complete sporulation was also earlier in S. robusta (100% after 10 days) than P. kesiya (33.4% after 15 days) and C. arborea (16.4% after 18 days). Higher conidial yield (86 × 106) was also in S. robusta than P. kesiya (70 × 106) and C. arborea (45 × 106), respectively. The increase in height (60–70 cm), number of leaves (600–650), and yield of chili (120–150 fruits) were also more in inoculated C. chinensis seedlings than control. It is concluded that S. robusta saw dust is the best substrate for mass production of compost fungal activator and can be used in nursery practices for quality stock production of various crops/plantations.
doi:10.1155/2015/481363
PMCID: PMC4303005  PMID: 25632354
2.  Assessing the Effect of Composting Cassava Peel Based Substrates on the Yield, Nutritional Quality, and Physical Characteristics of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer 
Cassava peel based substrate formulations as an alternative substrate were used to grow mushrooms. The effect of two compost heights, three composting periods on the mycelia growth, physical characteristics, yield, and nutritional qualities of Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq. ex Fr.) Kummer was studied. Mean mycelia growth of 16.2 cm after a period of seven (7) weeks was the best for 1.5 m compost height. Cap diameter and stipe length differed significantly (P < 0.05) with the compost heights (0.8 m and 1.5 m). The yield on compost height of 1.5 m, composted for 5 days, differed significantly (P < 0.05) from that of 0.8 m and gave increasing yields as follows: cassava peels and manure, cassava peels only, cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio), and cassava peels and corn cobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure. Composting periods (3 and 7 days) gave varying yields depending on the compost height. Based on the findings an interaction of 1.5 m compost height and 5 days composting period on cassava peels and corncobs (1 : 1 ratio) with chicken manure produced the best results. The nutritional quality of the mushrooms also differed significantly (P < 0.05), indicating that cassava peels could be used as a possible substrate in cultivation of mushroom.
doi:10.1155/2014/571520
PMCID: PMC4281436  PMID: 25580299
3.  Biotransformation of Indigo Pigment by Indigenously Isolated Pseudomonas sp. HAV-1 and Assessment of Its Antioxidant Property 
Chemical synthesis of indigo poses harsh environmental hazards and adverse human health effects. This necessitates an environment-friendly and producer-friendly approach for indigo production. The present study was thus significant as it reports an indigenously isolated potential indigo pigment producing culture identified as Pseudomonas sp. HAV-1 with noteworthy antioxidant property. The bioindigo pigment was characterized using various analytical techniques. The pigment production was enhanced from 412 μg mL−1 to 700 μg mL−1 by optimizing the growth parameters. Furthermore, the antioxidant property of indigo pigment is hitherto unexplored. This property can significantly append to its therapeutic potential. The bioindigo pigment produced by Pseudomonas sp. HAV-1 depicted 2.2 μM ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant property. More to the point, the present work addresses a footstep towards green production of indigo.
doi:10.1155/2014/109249
PMCID: PMC4251628  PMID: 25485156
4.  Ethanol Production from Extruded Thermoplastic Maize Meal by High Gravity Fermentation with Zymomonas mobilis 
A comparative study of extruded and ground maize meals as raw materials for the production of regular (12°P) and high gravity (20°P) worts was devised. Extruded water solubility index (WSI) was higher (9.8 percentage units) and crude fat was lower (2.64 percentage units) compared to ground maize. Free-amino nitrogen compounds (FAN), pH, and glucose were evaluated in regular and high gravity worts produced from ground or extruded maize. Extrusion improved glucose content and ethanol yield. In 20°P mashes, extrusion is enhanced by 2.14% initial glucose compared with regular ground mashes. The 12°P and 20°P extruded treatments averaged 12.2% and 8.4% higher ethanol, respectively, compared to the uncooked counterpart. The 20°P worts fermented with Zymomonas mobilis produced 9.56% more ethanol than the 12°P counterpart. The results show that the combination of extrusion and fermentation of 20°P worts improved ethanol yield per kg flour until 20.93%. This pretreatment stimulates Z. mobilis fermentation efficiency.
doi:10.1155/2014/654853
PMCID: PMC4235189  PMID: 25530885
5.  Comparative Studies of Oleaginous Fungal Strains (Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma reesei) for Effective Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Oil Production 
Biological wastewater treatment typically requires the use of bacteria for degradation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds present in wastewater. The high lipid containing biomass can be used to extract oil and the contents can be termed as bio-oil (or biodiesel or myco-diesel after transesterification). The separate experiments were conducted on actual wastewater samples with 5% v/v inoculum of Mucor circinelloides MTCC1297 and Trichoderma reesei NCIM992 strains. The observed reductions in chemical oxygen demand (COD) were 88.72% and 86.75% in 96 hrs and the observed substrate based biomass yields were 0.21 mg VSS/mg COD and 0.22 mg VSS/mg COD for M. circinelloides reactor and for T. reesei reactor, respectively. The resulted bio-oil production from wastewater treatment by M. circinelloides and T. reesei reactors was 142.2 mg/L and 74.1 mg/L, whereas biomass containing bio-oil contents (%w/w) were 22.11% and 9.82%, respectively. In this experiment, the fungal wastewater treatment was also compared with conventional bacterial process with respect to specific growth rate, biomass production, and oil content. This study suggests that wastewater can be used as a potential feedstock for bio-oil production with the use of oleaginous fungal strains and which could be a possible route of waste to energy.
doi:10.1155/2014/479370
PMCID: PMC4233713  PMID: 25530884
6.  Overcome of Carbon Catabolite Repression of Bioinsecticides Production by Sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis through Adequate Fermentation Technology 
The overcoming of catabolite repression, in bioinsecticides production by sporeless Bacillus thuringiensis strain S22 was investigated into fully controlled 3 L fermenter, using glucose based medium. When applying adequate oxygen profile throughout the fermentation period (75% oxygen saturation), it was possible to partially overcome the catabolite repression, normally occurring at high initial glucose concentrations (30 and 40 g/L glucose). Moreover, toxin production yield by sporeless strain S22 was markedly improved by the adoption of the fed-batch intermittent cultures technology. With 22.5 g/L glucose used into culture medium, toxin production was improved by about 36% when applying fed-batch culture compared to one batch. Consequently, the proposed fed-batch strategy was efficient for the overcome of the carbon catabolite repression. So, it was possible to overproduce insecticidal crystal proteins into highly concentrated medium.
doi:10.1155/2014/698587
PMCID: PMC4182890  PMID: 25309756
7.  Antidepressant Fluoxetine Modulates the In Vitro Inhibitory Activity of Buffalo Brain Cystatin: A Thermodynamic Study Using UV and Fluorescence Techniques 
Cystatins constitute a superfamily of homologous proteins. The major role of cystatins is to regulate the unwanted proteolysis and to protect the organism against endogenous proteases released from lysosomes, invading microorganisms and parasites that use cysteine proteases to enter the body. Imbalance in regulation of proteolytic activity may lead to a wide range of human diseases. An enormous progress has been made in understanding of protein degradation process under normal and pathological conditions; infact proteases are now clearly viewed as important drug targets. Fluoxetine a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) is an antidepressant. It is used to treat major depressive disorders. In the present study binding of fluoxetine to cystatin was studied by UV and fluorescence quenching technique. Intrinsic fluorescence of fluoxetine complexed with purified buffalo brain cystatin (BC) was measured by selectively exciting the tryptophan residues. Gradual quenching was observed on complex formation. When cystatin was added to fluoxetine solutions at a molar ratio of 1 : 0.5, it not only quenched more than half of its fluorescence but also reduced the activity of cystatin. Stern-Volmer plots obtained from experiments carried out at 25°C showed the quenching of fluorescence to be a collisional phenomenon. Our results suggest the prime binding site for fluoxetine on BC to be at or near tryptophan residues. Fluoxetine quenched the fluorescence by a static process, which specifically indicates the formation of a complex.
doi:10.1155/2014/319397
PMCID: PMC4131466  PMID: 25170426
8.  Isolation and Characterization of Bacteriophages Infecting Nocardioforms in Wastewater Treatment Plant 
Activated sludge plants (ASP) are associated with the stable foaming problem worldwide. Apart from the physical and chemical treatment methods, biological treatment method has been least explored and may prove to be a novel and ecofriendly approach to tackle the problem of stable foam formation. In ASP Nocardia species are commonly found and are one of the major causes for forming sticky and stable foam. This study describes the isolation and characterization of three Nocardia bacteriophages NOC1, NOC2, and NOC3 for the control of Nocardia species. The bacteriophages isolated in this study have shown promising results in controlling foam producing bacterial growth under laboratory conditions, suggesting that it may prove useful in the field as an alternative biocontrol agent to reduce the foaming problem. To the best of our knowledge to date no work has been published from India related to biological approach for the control of foaming.
doi:10.1155/2014/151952
PMCID: PMC4129933  PMID: 25140256
9.  Optimization of Medium Composition for the Production of Neomycin by Streptomyces fradiae NCIM 2418 in Solid State Fermentation 
Neomycin production of Streptomyces fradiae NCIM 2418 was optimized by using response surface methodology (RSM), which is powerful mathematical approach comprehensively applied in the optimization of solid state fermentation processes. In the first step of optimization, with Placket-Burman design, ammonium chloride, sodium nitrate, L-histidine, and ammonium nitrate were established to be the crucial nutritional factors affecting neomycin production significantly. In the second step, a 24 full factorial central composite design and RSM were applied to determine the optimal concentration of significant variable. A second-order polynomial was determined by the multiple regression analysis of the experimental data. The optimum values for the important nutrients for the maximum were obtained as follows: ammonium chloride 2.00%, sodium nitrate 1.50%, L-histidine 0.250%, and ammonium nitrate 0.250% with a predicted value of maximum neomycin production of 20,000 g kg−1 dry coconut oil cake. Under the optimal condition, the practical neomycin production was 19,642 g kg−1 dry coconut oil cake. The determination coefficient (R2) was 0.9232, which ensures an acceptable admissibility of the model.
doi:10.1155/2014/674286
PMCID: PMC4070395  PMID: 25009746
10.  Fermented Fruits and Vegetables of Asia: A Potential Source of Probiotics 
As world population increases, lactic acid fermentation is expected to become an important role in preserving fresh vegetables, fruits, and other food items for feeding humanity in developing countries. However, several fermented fruits and vegetables products (Sauerkraut, Kimchi, Gundruk, Khalpi, Sinki, etc.) have a long history in human nutrition from ancient ages and are associated with the several social aspects of different communities. Among the food items, fruits and vegetables are easily perishable commodities due to their high water activity and nutritive values. These conditions are more critical in tropical and subtropical countries which favour the growth of spoilage causing microorganisms. Lactic acid fermentation increases shelf life of fruits and vegetables and also enhances several beneficial properties, including nutritive value and flavours, and reduces toxicity. Fermented fruits and vegetables can be used as a potential source of probiotics as they harbour several lactic acid bacteria such as Lactobacillus plantarum, L. pentosus, L. brevis, L. acidophilus, L. fermentum, Leuconostoc fallax, and L. mesenteroides. As a whole, the traditionally fermented fruits and vegetables not only serve as food supplements but also attribute towards health benefits. This review aims to describe some important Asian fermented fruits and vegetables and their significance as a potential source of probiotics.
doi:10.1155/2014/250424
PMCID: PMC4058509  PMID: 25343046
11.  Characterization of Modified Magnetite Nanoparticles for Albumin Immobilization 
Magnetite Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) were prepared by chemical coprecipitation method. Silica-coated magnetite NPs were prepared by sol-gel reaction, subsequently coated with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) via silanization reaction, and then were activated with 2,4,6-trichloro-1,3,5-triazine (TCT) and covalently immobilized with bovine serum albumin (BSA). The size and structure of the particles were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and dynamic light scattering (DLS) techniques. The immobilization was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD analysis showed that the binding process has not done any phase change to Fe3O4. The immobilization time for this process was 4 h and the amount of immobilized BSA for the initial value of 1.05 mg BSA was about 120 mg/gr nanoparticles. Also, the influences of three different buffer solutions and ionic strength on covalent immobilization were evaluated.
doi:10.1155/2014/705068
PMCID: PMC4054909  PMID: 24963410
12.  Algae Oil: A Sustainable Renewable Fuel of Future 
A nonrenewable fuel like petroleum has been used from centuries and its usage has kept on increasing day by day. This also contributes to increased production of greenhouse gases contributing towards global issues like global warming. In order to meet environmental and economic sustainability, renewable, carbon neutral transport fuels are necessary. To meet these demands microalgae are the key source for production of biodiesel. These microalgae do produce oil from sunlight like plants but in a much more efficient manner. Biodiesel provides more environmental benefits, and being a renewable resource it has gained lot of attraction. However, the main obstacle to commercialization of biodiesel is its cost and feasibility. Biodiesel is usually used by blending with petro diesel, but it can also be used in pure form. Biodiesel is a sustainable fuel, as it is available throughout the year and can run any engine. It will satisfy the needs of the future generation to come. It will meet the demands of the future generation to come.
doi:10.1155/2014/272814
PMCID: PMC4026879  PMID: 24883211
13.  Parametric Optimization of Cultural Conditions for Carboxymethyl Cellulase Production Using Pretreated Rice Straw by Bacillus sp. 313SI under Stationary and Shaking Conditions 
Carboxymethyl cellulase (CMCase) provides a key opportunity for achieving tremendous benefits of utilizing rice straw as cellulosic biomass. Out of total 80 microbial isolates from different ecological niches one bacterial strain, identified as Bacillus sp. 313SI, was selected for CMCase production under stationary as well as shaking conditions of growth. During two-stage pretreatment, rice straw was first treated with 0.5 M KOH to remove lignin followed by treatment with 0.1 N H2SO4 for removal of hemicellulose. The maximum carboxymethyl cellulase activity of 3.08 U/mL was obtained using 1% (w/v) pretreated rice straw with 1% (v/v) inoculum, pH 8.0 at 35°C after 60 h of growth under stationary conditions, while the same was obtained as 4.15 U/mL using 0.75% (w/v) pretreated substrate with 0.4% (v/v) inoculum, pH 8.0 at 30°C, under shaking conditions of growth for 48 h. For maximum titre of CMCase carboxymethyl cellulose was optimized as the best carbon source under both cultural conditions while ammonium sulphate and ammonium nitrate were optimized as the best nitrogen sources under stationary and shaking conditions, respectively. The present study provides the useful data about the optimized conditions for CMCase production by Bacillus sp. 313SI from pretreated rice straw.
doi:10.1155/2014/651839
PMCID: PMC4020544  PMID: 24868469
14.  Cloning, Sequencing, and In Silico Analysis of β-Propeller Phytase Bacillus licheniformis Strain PB-13 
β-Propeller phytases (BPPhy) are widely distributed in nature and play a major role in phytate-phosphorus cycling. In the present study, a BPPhy gene from Bacillus licheniformis strain was expressed in E. coli with a phytase activity of 1.15 U/mL and specific activity of 0.92 U/mg proteins. The expressed enzyme represented a full length ORF “PhyPB13” of 381 amino acid residues and differs by 3 residues from the closest similar existing BPPhy sequences. The PhyPB13 sequence was characterized in silico using various bioinformatic tools to better understand structural, functional, and evolutionary aspects of BPPhy class by multiple sequence alignment and homology search, phylogenetic tree construction, variation in biochemical features, and distribution of motifs and superfamilies. In all sequences, conserved sites were observed toward their N-terminus and C-terminus. Cysteine was not present in the sequence. Overall, three major clusters were observed in phylogenetic tree with variation in biophysical characteristics. A total of 10 motifs were reported with motif “1” observed in all 44 protein sequences and might be used for diversity and expression analysis of BPPhy enzymes. This study revealed important sequence features of BPPhy and pave a way for determining catalytic mechanism and selection of phytase with desirable characteristics.
doi:10.1155/2014/841353
PMCID: PMC4017775  PMID: 24864215
15.  Statistical Optimization of Media Components for Production of Fibrinolytic Alkaline Metalloproteases from Xenorhabdus indica KB-3 
Xenorhabdus indica KB-3, a well-known protease producer, was isolated from its entomopathogenic nematode symbiont Steinernema thermophilum. Since medium constituents are critical to the protease production, the chemical components of the selected medium (soya casein digest broth) were optimized by rotatable central composite design (RCCD) using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of all five chemical components (considered as independent variables), namely tryptone, soya peptone, dextrose, NaCl, and dipotassium phosphate, on protease production (dependent variable) were studied, and it was found that tryptone and dextrose had maximum influence on protease production. The protease production was increased significantly by 66.31% under optimal medium conditions (tryptone—5.71, soya peptone—4.9, dextrose—1.45, NaCl—6.08, and dipotassium phosphate—0.47 in g/L). To best of knowledge, there are no reports on optimization of medium component for protease production by X. indica KB-3 using RSM and their application in fibrinolysis. This study will be useful for industrial processes for production of protease enzyme from X. indica KB-3 for its application in the field of agriculture and medicine.
doi:10.1155/2014/293434
PMCID: PMC4017731  PMID: 24864214
16.  Biocontrol Activity of the Local Strain of Metschnikowia pulcherrima on Different Postharvest Pathogens 
The strains of the yeast Metschnikowia pulcherrima have strong biocontrol activity against various microorganisms. Biocontrol activity of M. pulcherrima largely depends on its iron immobilizing pigment pulcherrimin. Biocontrol activity of pulcherrimin producing strain, M. pulcherrima UMY15, isolated from local vineyards, was tested on different molds that cause food spoilage. M. pulcherrima UMY15 was a very effective biocontrol agent against Penicillium roqueforti, P. italicum, P. expansum, and Aspergillus oryzae in in-vitro plate tests. However, the inhibitory activity of M. pulcherrima UMY15 was less effective on Fusarium sp. and A. niger species in biocontrol assays. In addition, M. pulcherrima UMY15 strain completely inhibited the germination and mycelia growth of A. oryzae, A. parasiticus, and Fusarium sp. spores on artificial wounds of apples when they coinoculated with M. pulcherrima UMY15. Moreover, when coinoculated, M. pulcherrima UMY15 strain also inhibited the growth of P. roqueforti, P. italicum, P. expansum, A. oryzae, Fusarium sp., and Rhizopus sp. in grape juice, indicating that M. pulcherrima UMY15 can be used as a very effective biocontrol yeast against various species of postharvest pathogens, including Penicillium, Aspergillus, Fusarium, and Rhizopus.
doi:10.1155/2014/397167
PMCID: PMC4016867  PMID: 24860671
17.  Evaluation of Novel Design Strategies for Developing Zinc Finger Nucleases Tools for Treating Human Diseases 
Zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) are associated with cell death and apoptosis by binding at countless undesired locations. This cytotoxicity is associated with the binding ability of engineered zinc finger domains to bind dissimilar DNA sequences with high affinity. In general, binding preferences of transcription factors are associated with significant degenerated diversity and complexity which convolutes the design and engineering of precise DNA binding domains. Evolutionary success of natural zinc finger proteins, however, evinces that nature created specific evolutionary traits and strategies, such as modularity and rank-specific recognition to cope with binding complexity that are critical for creating clinical viable tools to precisely modify the human genome. Our findings indicate preservation of general modularity and significant alteration of the rank-specific binding preferences of the three-finger binding domain of transcription factor SP1 when exchanging amino acids in the 2nd finger.
doi:10.1155/2014/970595
PMCID: PMC3997970  PMID: 24808958
18.  Characterization of β-Glucosidase Produced by Aspergillus niger under Solid-State Fermentation and Partially Purified Using MANAE-Agarose 
β-Glucosidase (BGL) is a hydrolytic enzyme with specificity for a wide variety of glycoside substrates, being an enzyme with a large range of biotechnological applications. However, enzyme properties can be different depending both on the microorganism and the cultivation procedure employed. Therefore, in order to explore potential biocatalytical applications of novel enzymes, their characterization is essential. In this work, a BGL synthesized by a selected strain of Aspergillus niger cultivated under solid-state fermentation (SSF) was partially purified and fully characterized in terms of optimum pH, temperature, and thermostability. The single-step purification using MANAE-agarose in a chromatographic column yielded an enzyme solution with specific activity (17.1 IU/mg protein) adequate for the characterization procedures. Electrophoresis SDS-PAGE and size-exclusion chromatography analysis resulted in an estimated molecular mass of 60 kDa. Higher enzyme activities were found in the range between 40 and 65°C and between pH 4 and 5.5, indicating an interesting characteristic for application in the hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass for biofuels production. Thermostability studies of purified BGL resulted in half-lives at 37°C of 56.3 h and at 50°C of 5.4 h. These results provide support for further studies of this enzyme towards revealing its potential biotechnological applications.
doi:10.1155/2014/317092
PMCID: PMC3988745  PMID: 24940510
19.  Production of Bioactive Compounds by Actinomycetes and Their Antioxidant Properties 
An actinomycete was isolated from mangrove soil collected from Nellore region of Andhra Pradesh, India, and screened for its ability to produce bioactive compounds. The cultural, morphological, and biochemical characters and 16S rRNA sequencing suggest that the isolated strain is Nocardiopsis alba. The bioactive compounds produced by this strain were purified by column chromatography. The in vitro antioxidant capacity of the isolated compounds (fractions) was estimated and fraction F2 showed very near values to the standard ascorbic acid. The potential fraction obtained by column chromatography was subjected to HPLC for further purification, then this purified fraction F2 was examined by FTIR, NMR, and mass spectroscopy to elucidate its chemical structure. By spectral data, the structure of the isolated compound was predicted as “(Z)-1-((1-hydroxypenta-2,4-dien-1-yl)oxy)anthracene-9,10-dione.”
doi:10.1155/2014/217030
PMCID: PMC3984769  PMID: 24790761
20.  Kojic Acid Production from Agro-Industrial By-Products Using Fungi 
A total of 278 different isolates of filamentous fungi were screened using synthetic medium for respective ability to produce kojic acid. Nineteen, six, and five isolates proved to be low, moderate, and high kojic acid producers, respectively. Levels of kojic acid produced were generally increased when shaking cultivation was used rather than those obtained using static cultivation. A trial for the utilization of 15 agro-industrial wastes or by-products for kojic acid production by the five selected higher kojic acid producer isolates was made. The best by-product medium recorded was molasses for kojic acid. A. flavus numbers 7 and 24 were able to grow and produce kojic acid on only 12 out of 15 wastes or by-products media. The best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 7 was rice fragments followed by molasses, while the best medium used for kojic acid production by A. flavus number 24 was the molasses followed by orange, pea, and rice fragments. An attempt for production of kojic acid using a 1.5 L laboratory fermentor has been made. Aspergillus flavus number 7 was used and grown on molasses medium; maximum level (53.5 g/L) of kojic acid was obtained after eight days of incubation.
doi:10.1155/2014/642385
PMCID: PMC3981187  PMID: 24778881
21.  Expeditious Quantification of Lignocellulolytic Enzymes from Indigenous Wood Rot and Litter Degrading Fungi from Tropical Dry Evergreen Forests of Tamil Nadu 
In this study thirty wood rotting and litter degrading basidiomycetes were screened for the production of lignocellulolytic enzymes such as, laccase, peroxidase, and cellulase using rapid micro quantification assay. Out of the 30 indigenous isolates Trametes gibbosa was identified to be a potential lignocellulolytic enzyme producer, producing a maximum amount of cellulase (299.66 ± 1.59 IU/L) and laccase (257.94 ± 1.79 U/L). Moreover, it is the second leading producer of peroxidase enzyme (170.19 ± 1.98 U/L). Tricholomopsis sp. a wood rot basidiomycete was found to be the leading lignin decomposer with maximum peroxidase activity (287.84 ± 2 U/L) and second maximum laccase activity (250.19 ± 1.83 U/L). However, its cellulolytic potential was found to be moderate (100.04 ± 1.13 U/L). A higher level of lignocellulolytic enzymes was recorded in wood rotting basidiomycetes, whereas very low levels of lignolytic enzymes were found in litter inhabiting basidiomycetes. However, their cellulolytic potential was found to be moderate.
doi:10.1155/2014/127848
PMCID: PMC3955672  PMID: 24719770
22.  In Vitro Flower Induction from Shoots Regenerated from Cultured Axillary Buds of Endangered Medicinal Herb Swertia chirayita H. Karst. 
In vitro flowering and effective micropropagation protocol were studied in Swertia chirayita, an important medicinal plant using axillary bud explants. The Murashige and Skoog's medium (MS) supplemented with benzyl amino purine (BAP) 1.0 mg L−1 and adenine sulfate 70.0 mg L−1 was found optimum for production of multiple shoots. In the present study, incubation of flowering cultures on BAP supplemented medium (during shoot multiplication) was found necessary for flowering (6 weeks). However, concentrations of auxins-like IBA (0–2.0 mg/L) were ineffective to form reproductive buds. Subculture duration, photoperiod, and carbon source type do have influence on the in vitro flowering. The mature purple flowers were observed when the cultures were maintained in the same medium. This is the very first report that describes in vitro flowering system to overcome problems associated with flower growth and development as well as lay foundation for fruit and seed production in vitro in Swertia chirayita.
doi:10.1155/2014/264690
PMCID: PMC3953610  PMID: 24707404
23.  Thermostability of Probiotics and Their α-Galactosidases and the Potential for Bean Products 
Soybeans and other pulses contain oligosaccharides which may cause intestinal disturbances such as flatulence. This study was undertaken to investigate α-galactosidase-producing probiotics added to frozen foods which can survive warming treatments used in thawing and consumption of the pulses. The maximum α-galactosidase activity (1.26 U/mg protein) was found in Bifidobacterium breve S46. Lactobacillus casei had the highest α-galactosidase thermostability among the various strains, with D values of 35, 29, and 9.3 minutes at 50°C, 55°C, and 60°C, respectively. The enzyme activity was less affected than viable cells by heating. However, the D values of two bacterial enzymes were lower than those of three commercial α-galactosidase-containing products. Freshly grown cells and their enzymes were more stable than the rehydrated cultures and their enzymes. Practical Application. Enzymes and cultures can be added to foods in order to enhance the digestibility of carbohydrates in the gastrointestinal tract. However since many foods are warmed, it is important that the thermostability of the enzymes be assessed. This paper provides data on the stability of α-galactosidase, which could potentially be added to food matrices containing stachyose or raffinose, such as beans.
doi:10.1155/2014/472723
PMCID: PMC3948641  PMID: 24744923
24.  Solid State Fermentation of a Raw Starch Digesting Alkaline Alpha-Amylase from Bacillus licheniformis RT7PE1 and Its Characteristics 
The thermodynamic and kinetic properties of solids state raw starch digesting alpha amylase from newly isolated Bacillus licheniformis RT7PE1 strain were studied. The kinetic values Qp, Yp/s, Yp/X, and qp were proved to be best with 15% wheat bran. The molecular weight of purified enzyme was 112 kDa. The apparent Km and Vmax values for starch were 3.4 mg mL−1 and 19.5 IU mg−1 protein, respectively. The optimum temperature and pH for α-amylase were 55°C, 9.8. The half-life of enzyme at 95°C was 17h. The activation and denaturation activation energies were 45.2 and 41.2 kJ mol−1, respectively. Both enthalpies (ΔH∗) and entropies of activation (ΔS∗) for denaturation of α-amylase were lower than those reported for other thermostable α-amylases.
doi:10.1155/2014/495384
PMCID: PMC3918720  PMID: 24587909
25.  High Level Ethanol from Sugar Cane Molasses by a New Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Strain in Industrial Scale 
A new local strain of S. cerevisiae F-514, for ethanol production during hot summer season, using Egyptian sugar cane molasses was applied in Egyptian distillery factory. The inouluum was propagated through 300 L, 3 m3, and 12 m3 fermenters charged with diluted sugar cane molasses containing 4%-5% sugars. The yeast was applied in fermentation vessels 65 m3 working volume to study the varying concentrations of urea, DAP, orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and its combinations as well as magnesium sulfate and inoculum size. The fermenter was allowed to stay for a period of 20 hours to give time for maximum conversion of sugars into ethanol. S. cerevisiae F-514 at molasses sugar level of 18% (w/v), inoculum size of 20% (v/v) cell concentration of 3.0 × 108/mL, and combinations of urea, diammonium phosphate (DAP), orthophosphoric acid (OPA), and magnesium sulfate at amounts of 20, 10, 5, and 10 kg/65 m3 working volume fermenters, respectively, supported maximum ethanol production (9.8%, v/v), fermentation efficiency (FE) 88.1%, and remaining sugars (RS) 1.22%. The fermentation resulted 13.4 g dry yeast/L contained 34.6% crude protein and 8.2% ash. By selecting higher ethanol yielding yeast strain and optimizing, the fermentation parameters both yield and economics of the fermentation process can be improved.
doi:10.1155/2013/253286
PMCID: PMC3864069  PMID: 24363937

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