Through the diversity of cytokinin regulated processes, this phytohormone has a profound impact on plant growth and development. Cytokinin signaling is involved in the control of apical and lateral meristem activity, branching pattern of the shoot, and leaf senescence. These processes influence several traits, including the stem diameter, shoot architecture, and perennial life cycle, which define the development of woody plants. To facilitate research about the role of cytokinin in regulation of woody plant development, we have identified genes associated with cytokinin signaling and homeostasis pathways from two hardwood tree species.
Taking advantage of the sequenced black cottonwood (Populus trichocarpa) and peach (Prunus persica) genomes, we have compiled a comprehensive list of genes involved in these pathways. We identified genes belonging to the six families of cytokinin oxidases (CKXs), isopentenyl transferases (IPTs), LONELY GUY genes (LOGs), two-component receptors, histidine containing phosphotransmitters (HPts), and response regulators (RRs). All together 85 Populus and 45 Prunus genes were identified, and compared to their Arabidopsis orthologs through phylogenetic analyses.
In general, when compared to Arabidopsis, differences in gene family structure were often seen in only one of the two tree species. However, one class of genes associated with cytokinin signal transduction, the CKI1-like family of two-component histidine kinases, was larger in both Populus and Prunus than in Arabidopsis.
Cytokinin signaling; Cytokinin homeostasis; Populus trichocarpa; Black cottonwood; Prunus persica; Peach
Maize is an increasingly important food crop in southeast Asia. The elucidation of its genetic architecture, accomplished by exploring quantitative trait loci and useful alleles in various lines across numerous breeding programs, is therefore of great interest. The present study aimed to characterize subtropical maize lines using high-quality SNPs distributed throughout the genome.
We genotyped a panel of 240 subtropical elite maize inbred lines and carried out linkage disequilibrium, genetic diversity, population structure, and principal component analyses on the generated SNP data. The mean SNP distance across the genome was 70 Kb. The genome had both high and low linkage disequilibrium (LD) regions; the latter were dominant in areas near the gene-rich telomeric portions where recombination is frequent. A total of 252 haplotype blocks, ranging in size from 1 to 15.8 Mb, were identified. Slow LD decay (200–300 Kb) at r
≤ 0.1 across all chromosomes explained the selection of favorable traits around low LD regions in different breeding programs. The association mapping panel was characterized by strong population substructure. Genotypes were grouped into three distinct clusters with a mean genetic dissimilarity coefficient of 0.36.
The genotyped panel of subtropical maize lines characterized in this study should be useful for association mapping of agronomically important genes. The dissimilarity uncovered among genotypes provides an opportunity to exploit the heterotic potential of subtropical elite maize breeding lines.
Subtropical maize; Genome-wide SNPs; Linkage disequilibrium; Population structure; Association mapping; Genetic diversity
Group B Sox domain transcription factors play conserved roles in the specification and development of the nervous system in higher metazoans. However, we know comparatively little about how these transcription factors regulate gene expression, and the analysis of Sox gene function in vertebrates is confounded by functional compensation between three closely related family members. In Drosophila, only two group B Sox genes, Dichaete and SoxN, have been shown to function during embryonic CNS development, providing a simpler system for understanding the functions of this important class of regulators.
Using a combination of transcriptional profiling and genome-wide binding analysis we conservatively identify over 1000 high confidence direct Dichaete target genes in the Drosophila genome. We show that Dichaete plays key roles in CNS development, regulating aspects of the temporal transcription factor sequence that confer neuroblast identity. Dichaete also shows a complex interaction with Prospero in the pathway controlling the switch from stem cell self-renewal to neural differentiation. Dichaete potentially regulates many more genes in the Drosophila genome and was found to be associated with over 2000 mapped regulatory elements.
Our analysis suggests that Dichaete acts as a transcriptional hub, controlling multiple regulatory pathways during CNS development. These include a set of core CNS expressed genes that are also bound by the related Sox2 gene during mammalian CNS development. Furthermore, we identify Dichaete as one of the transcription factors involved in the neural stem cell transcriptional network, with evidence supporting the view that Dichaete is involved in controlling the temporal series of divisions regulating neuroblast identity.
Sox; Drosophila; Dichaete; Prospero; Nervous system; Neural stem cells
Hansenula polymorpha DL1 is a methylotrophic yeast, widely used in fundamental studies of methanol metabolism, peroxisome biogenesis and function, and also as a microbial cell factory for production of recombinant proteins and metabolic engineering towards the goal of high temperature ethanol production.
We have sequenced the 9 Mbp H. polymorpha DL1 genome and performed whole-genome analysis for the H. polymorpha transcriptome obtained from both methanol- and glucose-grown cells. RNA-seq analysis revealed the complex and dynamic character of the H. polymorpha transcriptome under the two studied conditions, identified abundant and highly unregulated expression of 40% of the genome in methanol grown cells, and revealed alternative splicing events. We have identified subtelomerically biased protein families in H. polymorpha, clusters of LTR elements at G + C-poor chromosomal loci in the middle of each of the seven H. polymorpha chromosomes, and established the evolutionary position of H. polymorpha DL1 within a separate yeast clade together with the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris and the non-methylotrophic yeast Dekkera bruxellensis. Intergenome comparisons uncovered extensive gene order reshuffling between the three yeast genomes. Phylogenetic analyses enabled us to reveal patterns of evolution of methylotrophy in yeasts and filamentous fungi.
Our results open new opportunities for in-depth understanding of many aspects of H. polymorpha life cycle, physiology and metabolism as well as genome evolution in methylotrophic yeasts and may lead to novel improvements toward the application of H. polymorpha DL-1 as a microbial cell factory.
Hansenula polymorpha; Genome; Methylotrophic yeasts; RNA-seq; Yeast evolution
Infectious cDNA clones are a prerequisite for directed genetic manipulation of RNA viruses. Here, a strategy to facilitate manipulation and rescue of classical swine fever viruses (CSFVs) from full-length cDNAs present within bacterial artificial chromosomes (BACs) is described. This strategy allows manipulation of viral cDNA by targeted recombination-mediated mutagenesis within bacteria.
A new CSFV-BAC (pBeloR26) derived from the Riems vaccine strain has been constructed and subsequently modified in the E2 coding sequence, using the targeted recombination strategy to enable rescue of chimeric pestiviruses (vR26_E2gif and vR26_TAV) with potential as new marker vaccine candidates. Sequencing of the BACs revealed a high genetic stability during passages within bacteria. The complete genome sequences of rescued viruses, after extensive passages in mammalian cells showed that modifications in the E2 protein coding sequence were stably maintained. A single amino acid substitution (D3431G) in the RNA dependent RNA polymerase was observed in the rescued viruses vR26_E2gif and vR26, which was reversion to the parental Riems sequence.
These results show that targeted recombination-mediated mutagenesis provides a powerful tool for expediting the construction of novel RNA genomes and should be applicable to the manipulation of other RNA viruses.
RNA; Genome; Targeted recombination; Bacterial artificial chromosome; Genetic stability; RNA virus; Pestivirus; Classical swine fever virus
Cell growth rate reflects an organism’s physiological state and largely relies on the ability of gene expression to respond to the environment. The relationship between cellular growth rate and gene expression remains unknown.
Growth rate-coordinated changes in gene expression were discovered by analyzing exponentially growing Escherichia coli cells cultured under multiple defined environments, in which osmotic pressure, temperature and starvation status were varied. Gene expression analyses showed that all 3,740 genes in the genome could be simply divided into three clusters (C1, C2 and C3), which were accompanied by a generic trend in the growth rate that was coordinated with transcriptional changes. The direction of transcriptional change in C1 indicated environmental specificity, whereas those in C2 and C3 were correlated negatively and positively with growth rates, respectively. The three clusters exhibited differentiated gene functions and gene regulation task division.
We identified three gene clusters, exhibiting differential gene functions and distinct directions in their correlations with growth rates. Reverses in the direction of the growth rate correlated transcriptional changes and the distinguished duties of the three clusters indicated how transcriptome homeostasis is maintained to balance the total expression cost for sustaining life in new habitats.
The notothenioids comprise a diverse group of fishes that rapidly radiated after isolation by the Antarctic Circumpolar Current approximately 14–25 million years ago. Given that evolutionary adaptation has led to finely tuned traits with narrow physiological limits in these organisms, this system provides a unique opportunity to examine physiological trade-offs and limits of adaptive responses to environmental perturbation. As such, notothenioids have a rich history with respect to studies attempting to understand the vulnerability of polar ecosystems to the negative impacts associated with global climate change. Unfortunately, despite being a model system for understanding physiological adaptations to extreme environments, we still lack fundamental molecular tools for much of the Nototheniidae family.
Specimens of the emerald notothen, Trematomus bernacchii, were acclimated for 28 days in flow-through seawater tanks maintained near ambient seawater temperatures (−1.5°C) or at +4°C. Following acclimation, tissue specific cDNA libraries for liver, gill and brain were created by pooling RNA from n = 5 individuals per temperature treatment. The tissue specific libraries were bar-coded and used for 454 pyrosequencing, which yielded over 700 thousand sequencing reads. A de novo assembly and annotation of these reads produced a functional transcriptome library of T. bernacchii containing 30,107 unigenes, 13,003 of which possessed significant homology to a known protein product. Digital gene expression analysis of these extremely cold adapted fish reinforced the loss of an inducible heat shock response and allowed the preliminary exploration into other elements of the cellular stress response.
Preliminary exploration of the transcriptome of T. bernacchii under elevated temperatures enabled a semi-quantitative comparison to prior studies aimed at characterizing the thermal response of this endemic fish whose size, abundance and distribution has established it as a pivotal species in polar research spanning several decades.
The comparison of these findings to previous studies demonstrates the efficacy of transcriptomics and digital gene expression analysis as tools in future studies of polar organisms and has greatly increased the available genomic resources for the suborder Notothenioidei, particularly in the Trematominae subfamily.
Plant microRNAs are short (~21 nt) non-coding molecules that regulate gene expression by targeting the mRNA cleavage or protein translation inhibition. In this manner, they play many important roles in the cells of living organisms. One of the plant species in which the entire set of miRNAs has not been yet completely identified is Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage). For this reason and for the economic and nutritional importance of this food crop, high-throughput small RNAs sequencing has been performed to discover the novel and conserved miRNAs in mature cabbage leaves.
In this study, raw reads generated from three small RNA libraries were bioinformatically processed and further analyzed to select sequences homologous to known B. oleracea and other plant miRNAs. As a result of this analysis, 261 conserved miRNAs (belonging to 62 families) have been discovered. MIR169, MIR167 and MIR166 were the largest miRNA families, while the highest abundance molecules were miR167, miR166, miR168c and miR157a. Among the generated sequencing reads, miRNAs* were also found, such as the miR162c*, miR160a* and miR157a*. The unannotated tags were used in the prediction and evaluation of novel miRNAs, which resulted in the 26 potential miRNAs proposal. The expressions of 13 selected miRNAs were analyzed by northern blot hybridization. The target prediction and annotation for identified miRNAs were performed, according to which discovered molecules may target mRNAs encoding several potential proteins – e.g., transcription factors, polypeptides that regulate hormone stimuli and abiotic stress response, and molecules participating in transport and cell communication. Additionally, KEGG maps analysis suggested that the miRNAs in cabbage are involved in important processing pathways, including glycolysis, glycerolipid metabolism, flavonoid biosynthesis and oxidative phosphorylation.
Conclusively, for the first time, the large set of miRNAs was identified in mature cabbage leaves. Potential targets designation for these miRNAs may suggest their essential role in many plants primary biological processes. Presented study not only supplements the knowledge about B. oleracea miRNAs, but additionally it may be used in other research concerning the improvement of the cabbage cultivation.
miRNA; Brassica oleracea; Cabbage; Target gene; High-throughput sequencing
Systems biology enables the identification of gene networks that modulate complex traits. Comprehensive metabolomic analyses provide innovative phenotypes that are intermediate between the initiator of genetic variability, the genome, and raw phenotypes that are influenced by a large number of environmental effects. The present study combines two concepts, systems biology and metabolic analyses, in an approach without prior functional hypothesis in order to dissect genes and molecular pathways that modulate differential growth at the onset of puberty in male cattle. Furthermore, this integrative strategy was applied to specifically explore distinctive gene interactions of non-SMC condensin I complex, subunit G (NCAPG) and myostatin (GDF8), known modulators of pre- and postnatal growth that are only partially understood for their molecular pathways affecting differential body weight.
Our study successfully established gene networks and interacting partners affecting growth at the onset of puberty in cattle. We demonstrated the biological relevance of the created networks by comparison to randomly created networks. Our data showed that GnRH (Gonadotropin-releasing hormone) signaling is associated with divergent growth at the onset of puberty and revealed two highly connected hubs, BTC and DGKH, within the network. Both genes are known to directly interact with the GnRH signaling pathway. Furthermore, a gene interaction network for NCAPG containing 14 densely connected genes revealed novel information concerning the functional role of NCAPG in divergent growth.
Merging both concepts, systems biology and metabolomic analyses, successfully yielded new insights into gene networks and interacting partners affecting growth at the onset of puberty in cattle. Genetic modulation in GnRH signaling was identified as key modifier of differential cattle growth at the onset of puberty. In addition, the benefit of our innovative concept without prior functional hypothesis was demonstrated by data suggesting that NCAPG might contribute to vascular smooth muscle contraction by indirect effects on the NO pathway via modulation of arginine metabolism. Our study shows for the first time in cattle that integration of genetic, physiological and metabolomics data in a systems biology approach will enable (or contribute to) an improved understanding of metabolic and gene networks and genotype-phenotype relationships.
Cattle; SEGFAM; Systems biology; Metabolomics; Genome-wide association study; Divergent growth; Puberty
Tandem repeats (TRs) are unstable regions commonly found within genomes that have consequences for evolution and disease. In humans, polymorphic TRs are known to cause neurodegenerative and neuromuscular disorders as well as being associated with complex diseases such as diabetes and cancer. If present in upstream regulatory regions, TRs can modify chromatin structure and affect transcription; resulting in altered gene expression and protein abundance. The most common TRs are short tandem repeats (STRs), or microsatellites. Promoter located STRs are considerably more polymorphic than coding region STRs. As such, they may be a common driver of phenotypic variation. To study STRs located in regulatory regions, we have performed genome-wide analysis to identify all STRs present in a region that is 2 kilobases upstream and 1 kilobase downstream of the transcription start sites of genes.
The Short Tandem Repeats in Regulatory Regions Table, STaRRRT, contains the results of the genome-wide analysis, outlining the characteristics of 5,264 STRs present in the upstream regulatory region of 4,441 human genes. Gene set enrichment analysis has revealed significant enrichment for STRs in cellular, transcriptional and neurological system gene promoters and genes important in ion and calcium homeostasis. The set of enriched terms has broad similarity to that seen in coding regions, suggesting that regulatory region STRs are subject to similar evolutionary pressures as STRs in coding regions and may, like coding region STRs, have an important role in controlling gene expression.
STaRRRT is a readily-searchable resource for investigating potentially polymorphic STRs that could influence the expression of any gene of interest. The processes and genes enriched for regulatory region STRs provide potential novel targets for diagnosing and treating disease, and support a role for these STRs in the evolution of the human genome.
Short tandem repeats; STR; Microsatellites; Simple sequence repeats; SSR; Promoter; Regulatory region; Neurological disease; Neural genes; Evolution
Evidence in yeast indicates that gene expression is correlated with recombination activity and double-strand break (DSB) formation in some hotspots. Studies of nucleosome occupancy in yeast and mice also suggest that open chromatin influences the formation of DSBs. In Drosophila melanogaster, high-resolution recombination maps show an excess of DSBs within annotated transcripts relative to intergenic sequences. The impact of active transcription on recombination landscapes, however, remains unexplored in a multicellular organism. We then investigated the transcription profile during early meiosis in D. melanogaster females to obtain a glimpse at the relevant transcriptional dynamics during DSB formation, and test the specific hypothesis that DSBs preferentially target transcriptionally active genomic regions.
Our study of transcript profiles of early- and late-meiosis using mRNA-seq revealed, 1) significant differences in gene expression, 2) new genes and exons, 3) parent-of-origin effects on transcription in early-meiosis stages, and 4) a nonrandom genomic distribution of transcribed genes. Importantly, genomic regions that are more actively transcribed during early meiosis show higher rates of recombination, and we ruled out DSB preference for genic regions that are not transcribed.
Our results provide evidence in a multicellular organism that transcription during the initial phases of meiosis increases the likelihood of DSB and give insight into the molecular determinants of recombination rate variation across the D. melanogaster genome. We propose that a model where variation in gene expression plays a role altering the recombination landscape across the genome could provide a molecular, heritable and plastic mechanism to observed patterns of recombination variation, from the high level of intra-specific variation to the known influence of environmental factors and stress conditions.
Gene expression; RNA-seq; Maternal effect; Oogenesis; Germarium; Crossing-over; Recombination
Most molecular studies of plant stress tolerance have been performed with Arabidopsis thaliana, although it is not particularly stress tolerant and may lack protective mechanisms required to survive extreme environmental conditions. Thellungiella salsuginea has attracted interest as an alternative plant model species with high tolerance of various abiotic stresses. While the T. salsuginea genome has recently been sequenced, its annotation is still incomplete and transcriptomic information is scarce. In addition, functional genomics investigations in this species are severely hampered by a lack of affordable tools for genome-wide gene expression studies.
Here, we report the results of Thellungiella de novo transcriptome assembly and annotation based on 454 pyrosequencing and development and validation of a T. salsuginea microarray. ESTs were generated from a non-normalized and a normalized library synthesized from RNA pooled from samples covering different tissues and abiotic stress conditions. Both libraries yielded partially unique sequences, indicating their necessity to obtain comprehensive transcriptome coverage. More than 1 million sequence reads were assembled into 42,810 unigenes, approximately 50% of which could be functionally annotated. These unigenes were compared to all available Thellungiella genome sequence information. In addition, the groups of Late Embryogenesis Abundant (LEA) proteins, Mitogen Activated Protein (MAP) kinases and protein phosphatases were annotated in detail. We also predicted the target genes for 384 putative miRNAs. From the sequence information, we constructed a 44 k Agilent oligonucleotide microarray. Comparison of same-species and cross-species hybridization results showed superior performance of the newly designed array for T. salsuginea samples. The developed microarrays were used to investigate transcriptional responses of T. salsuginea and Arabidopsis during cold acclimation using the MapMan software.
This study provides the first comprehensive transcriptome information for the extremophile Arabidopsis relative T. salsuginea. The data constitute a more than three-fold increase in the number of publicly available unigene sequences and will greatly facilitate genome annotation. In addition, we have designed and validated the first genome-wide microarray for T. salsuginea, which will be commercially available. Together with the publicly available MapMan software this will become an important tool for functional genomics of plant stress tolerance.
Arabidopsis thaliana; Cold acclimation; Gene annotation; LEA proteins; MAP kinases; Microarray design; microRNAs; Protein phosphatases; Thellungiella salsuginea; Transcriptome sequencing
Deep RNA sequencing (RNAseq) has opened a new horizon for understanding global gene expression. The functional annotation of non-model mammalian genomes including bovines is still poor compared to that of human and mouse. This particularly applies to tissues without direct significance for milk and meat production, like skin, in spite of its multifunctional relevance for the individual. Thus, applying an RNAseq approach, we performed a whole transcriptome analysis of pigmented and nonpigmented bovine skin to describe the comprehensive transcript catalogue of this tissue.
A total of 39,577 unique primary skin transcripts were mapped to the bovine reference genome assembly. The majority of the transcripts were mapped to known transcriptional units (65%). In addition to the reannotation of known genes, a substantial number (10,884) of unknown transcripts (UTs) were discovered, which had not previously been annotated. The classification of UTs was based on the prediction of their coding potential and comparative sequence analysis, subsequently followed by meticulous manual curation. The classification analysis and experimental validation of selected UTs confirmed that RNAseq data can be used to amend the annotation of known genes by providing evidence for additional exons, untranslated regions or splice variants, by approving genes predicted in silico and by identifying novel bovine loci. A large group of UTs (4,848) was predicted to potentially represent long noncoding RNA (lncRNA). Predominantly, potential lncRNAs mapped in intergenic chromosome regions (4,365) and therefore, were classified as potential intergenic lncRNA. Our analysis revealed that only about 6% of all UTs displayed interspecies conservation and discovered a variety of unknown transcripts without interspecies homology but specific expression in bovine skin.
The results of our study demonstrate a complex transcript pattern for bovine skin and suggest a possible functional relevance of novel transcripts, including lncRNA, in the modulation of pigmentation processes. The results also indicate that the comprehensive identification and annotation of unknown transcripts from whole transcriptome analysis using RNAseq data remains a tremendous future challenge.
Transcriptome; RNAseq; Skin; Pigmentation; Noncoding RNA; Novel transcripts; Cattle
Advances in DNA sequencing and proteomics have facilitated quantitative comparisons of snake venom composition. Most studies have employed one approach or the other. Here, both Illumina cDNA sequencing and LC/MS were used to compare the transcriptomes and proteomes of two pit vipers, Protobothrops flavoviridis and Ovophis okinavensis, which differ greatly in their biology.
Sequencing of venom gland cDNA produced 104,830 transcripts. The Protobothrops transcriptome contained transcripts for 103 venom-related proteins, while the Ovophis transcriptome contained 95. In both, transcript abundances spanned six orders of magnitude. Mass spectrometry identified peptides from 100% of transcripts that occurred at higher than contaminant (e.g. human keratin) levels, including a number of proteins never before sequenced from snakes. These transcriptomes reveal fundamentally different envenomation strategies. Adult Protobothrops venom promotes hemorrhage, hypotension, incoagulable blood, and prey digestion, consistent with mammalian predation. Ovophis venom composition is less readily interpreted, owing to insufficient pharmacological data for venom serine and metalloproteases, which comprise more than 97.3% of Ovophis transcripts, but only 38.0% of Protobothrops transcripts. Ovophis venom apparently represents a hybrid strategy optimized for frogs and small mammals.
This study illustrates the power of cDNA sequencing combined with MS profiling. The former quantifies transcript composition, allowing detection of novel proteins, but cannot indicate which proteins are actually secreted, as does MS. We show, for the first time, that transcript and peptide abundances are correlated. This means that MS can be used for quantitative, non-invasive venom profiling, which will be beneficial for studies of endangered species.
Transcriptome; Illumina; proteome; Mass spectrometry; Venom; Okinawa; Viperidae; Crotalinae; Toxins; Enzymes
Gene copy number variation plays a large role in the evolution of genomes. In Rattus norvegicus and other rodent species, the Y-chromosome has accumulated multiple copies of Sry loci. These copy number variations have been previously linked with changes in phenotype of animal models such as the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). This study characterizes the Y-chromosome in the Sry region of Rattus norvegicus, while addressing functional variations seen in the Sry protein products.
Eleven Sry loci have been identified in the SHR with one (nonHMG Sry) containing a frame shift mutation. The nonHMGSry is found and conserved in the related WKY and SD rat strains. Three new, previously unidentified, Sry loci were identified in this study (Sry3BII, Sry4 and Sry4A) in both SHR and WKY. Repetitive element analysis revealed numerous LINE-L1 elements at regions where conservation is lost among the Sry copies. In addition we have identified a retrotransposed copy of Med14 originating from spliced mRNA, two autosomal genes (Ccdc110 and HMGB1) and a normal mammalian Y-chromosome gene (Zfy) in the Sry region of the rat Y-chromosome. Translation of the sequences of each Sry gene reveals eight proteins with amino acid differences leading to changes in nuclear localization and promoter activation of a Sry-responsive gene. Sry-β (coded by the Sry2 locus) has an increased cytoplasmic fraction due to alterations at amino acid 21. Sry-γ has altered gene regulation of the Sry1 promoter due to changes at amino acid 76.
The duplication of Sry on the Rattus norvegicus Y-chromosome has led to proteins with altered functional ability that may have been selected for functions in addition to testis determination. Additionally, several other genes not normally found on the Y-chromosome have duplicated new copies into the region around the Sry genes. These suggest a role of active transposable elements in the evolution of the mammalian Y-chromosome in species such as Rattus norvegicus.
Y-chromosome; Sry; SHR; Rattus norvegicus; Copy number variations; Y-chromosome evolution
In fish breeding, it is essential to discover and generate fish exhibiting an effective phenotype for the aquaculture industry, but screening for natural mutants by only depending on natural spontaneous mutations is limited. Presently, reverse genetics has become an important tool to generate mutants, which exhibit the phenotype caused by inactivation of a gene. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions INGenomes) is a reverse genetics strategy that combines random chemical mutagenesis with high-throughput discovery technologies for screening the induced mutations in target genes. Although the chemical mutagenesis has been used widely in a variety of model species and also genetic breeding of microorganisms and crops, the application of the mutagenesis in fish breeding has been only rarely reported.
In this study, we developed the TILLING method in fugu with ENU mutagenesis and high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis to detect base pair changes in target sequences. Fugu males were treated 3 times at weekly intervals with various ENU concentrations, and then the collected sperm after the treatment was used to fertilize normal female for generating the mutagenized population (F1). The fertilization and the hatching ratios were similar to those of the control and did not reveal a dose dependency of ENU. Genomic DNA from the harvested F1 offspring was used for the HRM analysis. To obtain a fish exhibiting a useful phenotype (e.g. high meat production and rapid growth), fugu myostatin (Mstn) gene was examined as a target gene, because it has been clarified that the mstn deficient medaka exhibited double-muscle phenotype in common with MSTN knockout mice and bovine MSTN mutant. As a result, ten types of ENU-induced mutations were identified including a nonsense mutation in the investigated region with HRM analysis. In addition, the average mutation frequency in fugu Mstn gene was 1 mutant per 297 kb, which is similar to values calculated for zebrafish and medaka TILLING libraries.
These results demonstrate that the TILLING method in fugu was established. We anticipate that this TILLING approach can be used to generate a wide range of mutant alleles, and be applicable to many farmed fish that can be chemically mutagenized.
TILLING; Fugu; ENU; HRM; Myostatin; Mutagenesis; Fish breeding
Ribosomes are essential ribonucleoprotein complexes that are engaged in translation and thus indispensable for growth. Arabidopsis thaliana ribosomes are composed of 80 distinct ribosomal proteins (RPs), each of which is encoded by two to seven highly similar paralogous genes. Little information is available on how RP genes respond to a shortage of essential mineral nutrients such as phosphate (Pi) or iron (Fe). In the present study, the expression of RP genes and the differential accumulation of RPs upon Pi or Fe deficiency in Arabidopsis roots were comprehensively analyzed.
Comparison of 3,106 Pi-responsive genes with 3,296 Fe-responsive genes revealed an overlap of 579 genes that were differentially expressed under both conditions in Arabidopsis roots. Gene ontology (GO) analysis revealed that these 579 genes were mainly associated with abiotic stress responses. Among the 247 RP genes retrieved from the TAIR10 release of the Arabidopsis genome (98 small subunit RP genes, 143 large subunit RP genes and six ribosome-related genes), seven RP genes were not detected in Arabidopsis roots by RNA sequencing under control conditions. Transcripts from 20 and 100 RP genes showed low and medium abundance, respectively; 120 RP genes were highly expressed in Arabidopsis roots. As anticipated, gene ontology (GO) analysis indicated that most RP genes were related to translation and ribosome assembly, but some of the highly expressed RP genes were also involved in the responses to cold, UV-B, and salt stress. Only three RP genes derived from three ‘sets’ of paralogous genes were differentially expressed between Pi-sufficient and Pi-deficient roots, all of which were induced by Pi starvation. In Fe-deficient plants, 81 RP genes from 51 ’sets’ of paralagous RP genes were significantly down-regulated in response to Fe deficiency. The biological processes ’translation’ (GO: 0006412), ’ribosome biogenesis (GO: 0042254), and ’response to salt (GO: 0009651), cold (GO: 0009409), and UV-B stresses (GO: 0071493)’ were enriched in this subset of RP genes. At the protein level, 21 and two RPs accumulated differentially under Pi- and Fe-deficient conditions, respectively. Neither the differentially expressed RP genes nor the differentially expressed RPs showed any overlap between the two growth types.
In the present study three and 81 differentially expressed RP genes were identified under Pi and Fe deficiency, respectively. At protein level, 21 and two RP proteins were differentially accumulated under Pi- and Fe-deficient conditions. Our study shows that the expression of paralogous genes encoding RPs was regulated in a stress-specific manner in Arabidopsis roots, presumably resulting in an altered composition of ribosomes and biased translation. These findings may aid in uncovering an unexplored mechanism by which plants adapt to changing environmental conditions.
Iron deficiency; Phosphate deficiency; Proteomics; Ribosomal proteins; RNA-seq; Translation
Thalassosaline waters produced by the concentration of seawater are widespread and common extreme aquatic habitats. Their salinity varies from that of sea water (ca. 3.5%) to saturation for NaCl (ca. 37%). Obviously the microbiota varies dramatically throughout this range. Recent metagenomic analysis of intermediate salinity waters (19%) indicated the presence of an abundant and yet undescribed gamma-proteobacterium. Two strains belonging to this group have been isolated from saltern ponds of intermediate salinity in two Spanish salterns and were named “Spiribacter”.
The genomes of two isolates of “Spiribacter” have been fully sequenced and assembled. The analysis of metagenomic datasets indicates that microbes of this genus are widespread worldwide in medium salinity habitats representing the first ecologically defined moderate halophile. The genomes indicate that the two isolates belong to different species within the same genus. Both genomes are streamlined with high coding densities, have few regulatory mechanisms and no motility or chemotactic behavior. Metabolically they are heterotrophs with a subgroup II xanthorhodopsin as an additional energy source when light is available.
This is the first bacterium that has been proven by culture independent approaches to be prevalent in hypersaline habitats of intermediate salinity (half a way between the sea and NaCl saturation). Predictions from the proteome and analysis of transporter genes, together with a complete ectoine biosynthesis gene cluster are consistent with these microbes having the salt-out-organic-compatible solutes type of osmoregulation. All these features are also consistent with a well-adapted fully planktonic microbe while other halophiles with more complex genomes such as Salinibacter ruber might have particle associated microniches.
Halophilic bacteria; Xanthorhodopsin; Hypersaline; Saltern; Spiribacter; Moderate halophile
Many fruits, including watermelon, are proficient in carotenoid accumulation during ripening. While most genes encoding steps in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway have been cloned, few transcriptional regulators of these genes have been defined to date. Here we describe the identification of a set of putative carotenoid-related transcription factors resulting from fresh watermelon carotenoid and transcriptome analysis during fruit development and ripening. Our goal is to both clarify the expression profiles of carotenoid pathway genes and to identify candidate regulators and molecular targets for crop improvement.
Total carotenoids progressively increased during fruit ripening up to ~55 μg g-1 fw in red-ripe fruits. Trans-lycopene was the carotenoid that contributed most to this increase. Many of the genes related to carotenoid metabolism displayed changing expression levels during fruit ripening generating a metabolic flux toward carotenoid synthesis. Constitutive low expression of lycopene cyclase genes resulted in lycopene accumulation. RNA-seq expression profiling of watermelon fruit development yielded a set of transcription factors whose expression was correlated with ripening and carotenoid accumulation. Nineteen putative transcription factor genes from watermelon and homologous to tomato carotenoid-associated genes were identified. Among these, six were differentially expressed in the flesh of both species during fruit development and ripening.
Taken together the data suggest that, while the regulation of a common set of metabolic genes likely influences carotenoid synthesis and accumulation in watermelon and tomato fruits during development and ripening, specific and limiting regulators may differ between climacteric and non-climacteric fruits, possibly related to their differential susceptibility to and use of ethylene during ripening.
Carotenoid biosynthesis; Citrullus lanatus; Fruit ripening; Gene expression; Isoprenoids; Non-climacteric fruits; Transcription factors; Watermelon
Changes in the copy number of DNA sequences are one of the main mechanisms generating genome variability in eukaryotes. These changes are often related to phenotypic effects such as genetic disorders or novel pathogen resistance. The increasing availability of genome sequences through the application of next-generation massive sequencing technologies has allowed the study of genomic polymorphisms at both the interspecific and intraspecific levels, thus helping to understand how species adapt to changing environments through genome variability.
Data on gene presence/absence variation (PAV) in melon was obtained by resequencing a cultivated accession and an old-relative melon variety, and using previously obtained resequencing data from three other melon cultivars, among them DHL92, on which the current draft melon genome sequence is based. A total of 1,697 PAV events were detected, involving 4.4% of the predicted melon gene complement. In all, an average 1.5% of genes were absent from each analyzed cultivar as compared to the DHL92 reference genome. The most populated functional category among the 304 PAV genes of known function was that of stress response proteins (30% of all classified PAVs). Our results suggest that genes from multi-copy families are five times more likely to be affected by PAV than singleton genes. Also, the chance of genes present in the genome in tandem arrays being affected by PAV is double that of isolated genes, with PAV genes tending to be in longer clusters. The highest concentration of PAV events detected in the melon genome was found in a 1.1 Mb region of linkage group V, which also shows the highest density of melon stress-response genes. In particular, this region contains the longest continuous gene-containing PAV sequence so far identified in melon.
The first genome-wide report of PAV variation among several melon cultivars is presented here. Multi-copy and clustered genes, especially those with putative stress-response functions, were found to be particularly affected by PAV polymorphisms. As cucurbits are known to possess a significantly lower number of defense-related genes compared to other plant species, PAV variation may play an important role in generating new pathogen resistances at the subspecies level. In addition, these results show the limitations of single reference genome sequences as the only basis for characterization and cloning of resistance genes.
The study of quantitative trait loci (QTL) in cotton (Gossypium spp.) is focused on traits of agricultural significance. Previous studies have identified a plethora of QTL attributed to fiber quality, disease and pest resistance, branch number, seed quality and yield and yield related traits, drought tolerance, and morphological traits. However, results among these studies differed due to the use of different genetic populations, markers and marker densities, and testing environments. Since two previous meta-QTL analyses were performed on fiber traits, a number of papers on QTL mapping of fiber quality, yield traits, morphological traits, and disease resistance have been published. To obtain a better insight into the genome-wide distribution of QTL and to identify consistent QTL for marker assisted breeding in cotton, an updated comparative QTL analysis is needed.
In this study, a total of 1,223 QTL from 42 different QTL studies in Gossypium were surveyed and mapped using Biomercator V3 based on the Gossypium consensus map from the Cotton Marker Database. A meta-analysis was first performed using manual inference and confirmed by Biomercator V3 to identify possible QTL clusters and hotspots. QTL clusters are composed of QTL of various traits which are concentrated in a specific region on a chromosome, whereas hotspots are composed of only one trait type. QTL were not evenly distributed along the cotton genome and were concentrated in specific regions on each chromosome. QTL hotspots for fiber quality traits were found in the same regions as the clusters, indicating that clusters may also form hotspots.
Putative QTL clusters were identified via meta-analysis and will be useful for breeding programs and future studies involving Gossypium QTL. The presence of QTL clusters and hotspots indicates consensus regions across cultivated tetraploid Gossypium species, environments, and populations which contain large numbers of QTL, and in some cases multiple QTL associated with the same trait termed a hotspot. This study combines two previous meta-analysis studies and adds all other currently available QTL studies, making it the most comprehensive meta-analysis study in cotton to date.
Streptococcus agalactiae, also referred to as Group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a frequent resident of the rectovaginal tract in humans, and a major cause of neonatal infection. In addition, S. agalactiae is a known fish pathogen, which compromises food safety and represents a zoonotic hazard. The complete genome sequence of the piscine S. agalactiae isolate GD201008-001 was compared with 14 other piscine, human and bovine strains to explore their virulence determinants, evolutionary relationships and the genetic basis of host tropism in S. agalactiae.
The pan-genome of S. agalactiae is open and its size increases with the addition of newly sequenced genomes. The core genes shared by all isolates account for 50 ~ 70% of any single genome. The Chinese piscine isolates GD201008-001 and ZQ0910 are phylogenetically distinct from the Latin American piscine isolates SA20-06 and STIR-CD-17, but are closely related to the human strain A909, in the context of the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPRs), prophage, virulence-associated genes and phylogenetic relationships. We identified a unique 10 kb gene locus in Chinese piscine strains.
Isolates from cultured tilapia in China have a close genomic relationship with the human strain A909. Our findings provide insight into the pathogenesis and host-associated genome content of piscine S. agalactiae isolated in China.
Streptococcus agalactiae; Tilapia; Pan-genome; China
Progress in the fields of protein separation and identification technologies has accelerated research into biofluids proteomics for protein biomarker discovery. Urine has become an ideal and rich source of biomarkers in clinical proteomics. Here we performed a proteomic analysis of urine samples from pregnant and non-pregnant patients using gel electrophoresis and high-resolution mass spectrometry. Furthermore, we also apply a non-prefractionation quantitative phosphoproteomic approach using mTRAQ labeling to evaluate the expression of specific phosphoproteins during pregnancy comparison with non-pregnancy.
In total, 2579 proteins (10429 unique peptides) were identified, including 1408 from the urine of pregnant volunteers and 1985 from the urine of non-pregnant volunteers. One thousand and twenty-three proteins were not reported in previous studies at the proteome level and were unique to our study. Furthermore, we obtained 237 phosphopeptides, representing 105 phosphoproteins. Among these phosphoproteins, 16 of them were found to be significantly differentially expressed, of which 14 were up-regulated and two were down-regulated in urine samples from women just before vaginal delivery.
Taken together, these results offer a comprehensive urinary proteomic profile of healthy women during before and after vaginal delivery and novel information on the phosphoproteins that are differentially regulated during the maintenance of normal pregnancy. Our results may provide a better understanding of the mechanisms of pregnancy maintenance, potentially leading to the development of biomarker-based sensitive assays for understanding pregnancy.
Proteomic profile; Quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis; Human urine; Pregnancy and non-pregnancy; mTRAQ labeling