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1.  The antileishmanial agent licochalcone A interferes with the function of parasite mitochondria. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1995;39(12):2742-2748.
Our previous studies have shown that licochalcone A, an oxygenated chalcone, has antileishmanial (M. Chen, S.B. Christensen, J. Blom, E. Lemmich, L. Nadelmann, K. Fich, T.G. Theander, and A. Kharazmi, Antimicrob, Agents Chemother. 37:2550-2556, 1993; M. Chen, S.B. Christensen, T.G. Theander, and A. Khrazmi, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:1339-1344, 1994) and antimalarial (M. Chen, T.G. Theander, S.B. Christensen, L. Hviid, L. Zhai, and A. Kaharazmi, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 38:1470-1475, 1994) activities. We have observed that licochalcone A alters the ultrastructure of the mitochondria of Leishmania promastigotes (Chen et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:2550-2556, 1993). The present study was designed to examine this observation further and investigate the mechanism of action of antileishmanial activity of licochalcone A. Electron microscopic studies showed that licochalcone A altered the ultrastructure of Leishmania major promastigote and amastigote mitochondria in a concentration-dependent manner without damaging the organelles of macrophages or the phagocytic function of these cells. Studies on the function of the parasite mitochondria showed that licochalcone A inhibited the respiration of the parasite by the parasites. Moreover, licochalcone A inhibited the activity of the parasite mitochondrial dehydrogenase. The inhibition of the activity of the parasite mitochondrial enzyme correlated well with the changes in the ultrastructure of the mitochondria shown by electron microscopy. These findings demonstrate that licochalcone A alters the ultrastructure and function of the mitochondria of Leishmania parasites.
PMCID: PMC163022  PMID: 8593012
2.  Subcellular distribution of daptomycin given alone or with tobramycin in renal proximal tubular cells. 
Previous studies in experimental animals showed that daptomycin, a lipopeptide antibiotic, protects against aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity (C. A. Wood, H. C. Finkbeiner, S. J. Kohlhepp, P. W. Kohnen, and D. N. Gilbert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1280-1285, 1989; D. Beauchamp, M. Pellerin, P. Gourde, M. Pettigrew, and M. G. Bergeron, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:139-147, 1990). In order to better understand the mechanism involved in this protective effect, the subcellular distribution of daptomycin was investigated in the proximal tubular cells of animals treated with daptomycin alone or in combination with tobramycin. A first group of female Sprague-Dawley rats received a single intravenous injection of daptomycin at a dose of 100 mg/kg of body weight and were killed at 10 min, 1 h, or 24 h after the injection. Other groups of rats were treated during 10 days with saline (NaCl, 0.9%), tobramycin at dosages of 20 mg/kg/12 h, daptomycin at dosages of 10 mg/kg/12 h, or the combination tobramycin-daptomycin at the same dosages. At the time of sacrifice, the renal cortex of the right kidney of each animal was dissected, and small blocks of tissue were fixed, dehydrated, and embedded in Araldite 502 epoxy resin. The subcellular distribution of daptomycin and tobramycin was determined on ultrathin sections by immunogold labeling. Ten minutes after the injection of daptomycin alone, gold particles were seen over the brush border membrane and on the membranes of the endocytic vacuoles of proximal tubular cells. One hour after the injection, a similar distribution was seen and numerous gold particles were found over the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells. The results suggest that daptomycin might protect against aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity by interfering with the interaction between the aminoglycoside and phospholipids inside the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells.
PMCID: PMC284424  PMID: 8192441
3.  Paradoxical activity of beta-lactam antibiotics against Proteus vulgaris in experimental infection in mice. 
In previous papers (Y. Ikeda and T. Nishino, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 32:1073-1077, 1988; Y. Ikeda, T. Nishino, and T. Tanino, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 31:865-869, 1987), we reported that many of the 7-aminothiazolyl cephalosporins, such as cefmenoxime, showed paradoxically reduced activity against Proteus vulgaris at higher concentrations, whereas these paradoxical effects were not observed for other types of cephalosporins, such as cefbuperazone and cefoperazone. In this study, we compare the therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime with that of cefbuperazone and explore the in vivo paradoxical effect of cefmenoxime by using an experimental infection model in mice. In an intraperitoneal infection with P. vulgaris 11, the survival rate with cefmenoxime was increased to 43% at 3.13 mg/kg but was lower at higher doses. On the other hand, cefbuperazone did not show such a paradoxical therapeutic effect. In mice infected with P. vulgaris 11, cefmenoxime levels in both serum and peritoneal washings were rapidly reduced and beta-lactamase activities in the peritoneal cavity were increased at higher cefmenoxime doses. These findings suggested that high levels of cefmenoxime at the infection site induced increased production of beta-lactamase, which then rapidly inactivated the antibiotic. We conclude that the paradoxical therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime against P. vulgaris occurs by the same mechanisms as the in vitro effect and that the high beta-lactamase inducibility and low beta-lactamase stability may account for the paradoxical therapeutic effect of cefmenoxime against P. vulgaris.
PMCID: PMC171526  PMID: 2183712
4.  Single-dose cephalexin therapy for acute bacterial urinary tract infections and acute urethral syndrome with bladder bacteriuria. 
The efficacy of single-dose therapy with 3 g of cephalexin was evaluated in 129 women with symptoms of acute uncomplicated lower urinary tract infections. Of 91 patients with significant bacteriuria, 61 (67%) were cured of their original infection; this was similar to the 54 to 79% cure rates reported in unselected populations of women of a wide age range treated for acute uncomplicated urinary tract infections with a single dose of amoxicillin or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (J. Rosenstock, L. P. Smith, M. Gurney, K. Lee, W. G. Weinberg, J. N. Longfield, W. B. Tauber, and W. W. Karney, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 27:652-654, 1985; N. E. Tolkoff-Rubin, M. E. Wilson, P. Zuromskis, I. Jacoby, A. R. Martin, and R. H. Rubin, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 25:626-629, 1984). The cure rates of (87%) for our younger patients, those less than 25 years of age, was better than that (46%) for our patients over 40 years of age (P less than 0.001). Patients with infections that were negative in an antibody-coated bacteria test were cured at a significantly higher rate than those with infections that were positive in an antibody-coated bacteria test (71 versus 19%; P = 0.003). Those patients with infections caused by cephalexin-susceptible organisms were cured at a rate similar to that for patients with infections caused by cephalexin-resistant organisms (68 versus 50%; P = 0.62). The cure rate for suburban patients was 90%, versus 45% for inner-city patients (P = 0.008). Of the 28 women with acute urethral syndrome due to low-level bacteriuria, 27 were cured.
PMCID: PMC180398  PMID: 3717940
5.  Genetic Identification of the Bacteriocins Produced by Enterococcus faecium IT62 and Evidence that Bacteriocin 32 Is Identical to Enterocin IT▿  
Enterococcus faecium IT62, a strain isolated from ryegrass in Japan, produces three bacteriocins (enterocins L50A, L50B, and IT) that have been previously purified and the primary structures of which have been determined by amino acid sequencing (E. Izquierdo, A. Bednarczyk, C. Schaeffer, Y. Cai, E. Marchioni, A. Van Dorsselaer, and S. Ennahar, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 52:1917-1923, 2008). Genetic analysis showed that the bacteriocins of E. faecium IT62 are plasmid encoded, but with the structural genes specifying enterocin L50A and enterocin L50B being carried by a plasmid (pTAB1) that is separate from the one (pTIT1) carrying the structural gene of enterocin IT. Sequencing analysis of a 1,475-bp region from pTAB1 identified two consecutive open reading frames corresponding, with the exception of 2 bp, to the genes entL50A and entL50B, encoding EntL50A and EntL50B, respectively. Both bacteriocins are synthesized without N-terminal leader sequences. Genetic analysis of a sequenced 1,380-bp pTIT1 fragment showed that the genes entIT and entIM, encoding enterocin IT and its immunity protein, respectively, were both found in E. faecium VRE200 for bacteriocin 32. Enterocin IT, a 6,390-Da peptide made up of 54 amino acids, has been previously shown to be identical to the C-terminal part of bacteriocin 32, a 7,998-Da bacteriocin produced by E. faecium VRE200 whose structure was deduced from its structural gene (T. Inoue, H. Tomita, and Y. Ike, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., 50:1202-1212, 2006). By combining the biochemical and genetic data on enterocin IT, it was concluded that bacteriocin 32 is in fact identical to enterocin IT, both being encoded by the same plasmid-borne gene, and that the N-terminal leader peptide for this bacteriocin is 35 amino acids long and not 19 amino acids long as previously reported.
PMCID: PMC2681497  PMID: 19273675
6.  Relative to Quinine and Quinidine, Their 9-Epimers Exhibit Decreased Cytostatic Activity and Altered Heme Binding but Similar Cytocidal Activity versus Plasmodium falciparum 
The 9-epimers of quinine (QN) and quinidine (QD) are known to exhibit poor cytostatic potency against P. falciparum (Karle JM, Karle IL, Gerena L, Milhous WK, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 36:1538–1544, 1992). We synthesized 9-epi-QN (eQN) and 9-epi-QD (eQD) via Mitsunobu esterification-saponification and evaluated both cytostatic and cytocidal antimalarial activities. Relative to the cytostatic activity of QN and QD, we observed a large decrease in cytostatic activity (higher 50% inhibitory concentration [IC50s]) against QN-sensitive strain HB3, QN-resistant strain Dd2, and QN-hypersensitive strain K76I, consistent with previous work. However, we observed relatively small changes in cytocidal activity (the 50% lethal dose), similar to observations with chloroquine (CQ) analogues with a wide range of IC50s (see the accompanying paper [A. P. Gorka, J. N. Alumasa, K. S. Sherlach, L. M. Jacobs, K. B. Nickley, J. P. Brower, A. C. de Dios, and P. D. Roepe, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 57:356–364, 2013]). Compared to QN and QD, the 9-epimers had significantly reduced hemozoin inhibition efficiency and did not affect pH-dependent aggregation of ferriprotoporphyrin IX (FPIX) heme. Magnetic susceptibility measurements showed that the 9-epimers perturb FPIX monomer-dimer equilibrium in favor of monomer, and UV-visible (VIS) titrations showed that eQN and eQD bind monomer with similar affinity relative to QN and QD. However, unique ring proton shifts in the presence of zinc(II) protoporphyrin IX (ZnPIX) indicate that binding of the 9-epimers to monomeric heme is via a distinct geometry. We isolated eQN- and eQD-FPIX complexes formed under aqueous conditions and analyzed them by mass, fluorescence, and UV-VIS spectroscopies. The 9-epimers produced low-fluorescent adducts with a 2:1 stoichiometry (drug to FPIX) which did not survive electrospray ionization, in contrast to QN and QD complexes. The data offer important insight into the relevance of heme interactions as a drug target for cytostatic versus cytocidal dosages of quinoline antimalarial drugs and further elucidate a surprising structural diversity of quinoline antimalarial drug-heme complexes.
PMCID: PMC3535971  PMID: 23114754
7.  Attenuation by daptomycin of gentamicin-induced experimental nephrotoxicity. 
Previously, daptomycin was shown to reduce tobramycin nephrotoxicity in vivo (D. Beauchamp, M. Pellerin, P. Gourde, M. Pettigrew, and M. G. Bergeron, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:139-147, 1990; C. A. Wood, H. C. Finkbeiner, S. J. Kohlhepp, P. W. Kohnen, and D. C. Gilbert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1280-1285, 1989). Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with saline (NaCl, 0.9%), daptomycin (10 mg/kg of body weight every 12 h, subcutaneously), gentamicin (30 mg/kg/12 h, intraperitoneally) or with a combination of daptomycin plus gentamicin over a 10-day period. Animals were killed 4, 10, and 20 days after the end of treatment. Four days after the end of drug administration, gentamicin and daptomycin levels in the renal cortices of animals treated with the combination of daptomycin and gentamicin were significantly higher than in those of rats given gentamicin or daptomycin alone (P < 0.01). Despite the higher cortical concentrations of gentamicin, rats given the combination of gentamicin and daptomycin had less reduction in renal cortex sphingomyelinase activity, less evidence of regeneration of cellular cortical cells ([3H]thymidine incorporation into cortex DNA), lower creatinine concentration in serum, and less histopathologic evidence of injury than rats given gentamicin alone. By immunogold technique, both daptomycin and gentamicin were localized to the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells, regardless of whether animals received the drugs alone or in combination. Interestingly, myeloid body formation occurred in both those animals given gentamicin alone and those given daptomycin plus gentamicin. No significant changes were observed for all groups between 10 and 20 days after the end of therapy, suggesting that the toxicity of gentamicin was not delayed by the concomitant injection of daptomycin. The results confirm that daptomycin can attenuate experimental gentamicin nephrotoxicity.
PMCID: PMC188145  PMID: 8067733
8.  Dicyclic and Tricyclic Diaminopyrimidine Derivatives as Potent Inhibitors of Cryptosporidium parvum Dihydrofolate Reductase: Structure-Activity and Structure-Selectivity Correlations 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2001;45(12):3293-3303.
A structurally diverse library of 93 lipophilic di- and tricyclic diaminopyrimidine derivatives was tested for the ability to inhibit recombinant dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) cloned from human and bovine isolates of Cryptosporidium parvum (J. R. Vásquez et al., Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 79:153–165, 1996). In parallel, the library was also tested against human DHFR and, for comparison, the enzyme from Escherichia coli. Fifty percent inhibitory concentrations (IC50s) were determined by means of a standard spectrophotometric assay of DHFR activity with dihydrofolate and NADPH as the cosubstrates. Of the compounds tested, 25 had IC50s in the 1 to 10 μM range against one or both C. parvum enzymes and thus were not substantially different from trimethoprim (IC50s, ca. 4 μM). Another 25 compounds had IC50s of <1.0 μM, and 9 of these had IC50s of <0.1 μM and thus were at least 40 times more potent than trimethoprim. The remaining 42 compounds were weak inhibitors (IC50s, >10 μM) and thus were not considered to be of interest as drugs useful against this organism. A good correlation was generally obtained between the results of the spectrophotometric enzyme inhibition assays and those obtained recently in a yeast complementation assay (V. H. Brophy et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:1019–1028, 2000; H. Lau et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 45:187–195, 2001). Although many of the compounds in the library were more potent than trimethoprim, none had the degree of selectivity of trimethoprim for C. parvum versus human DHFR. Collectively, the results of these assays comprise the largest available database of lipophilic antifolates as potential anticryptosporidial agents. The compounds in the library were also tested as inhibitors of the proliferation of intracellular C. parvum oocysts in canine kidney epithelial cells cultured in folate-free medium containing thymidine (10 μM) and hypoxanthine (100 μM). After 72 h of drug exposure, the number of parasites inside the cells was quantitated by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. Sixteen compounds had IC50s of <3 μM, and five of these had IC50s of <0.3 μM and thus were comparable in potency to trimetrexate. The finding that submicromolar concentrations of several of the compounds in the library could inhibit in vitro growth of C. parvum in host cells in the presence of thymidine (dThd) and hypoxanthine (Hx) suggests that lipophilic DHFR inhibitors, in combination with leucovorin, may find use in the treatment of intractable C. parvum infections.
PMCID: PMC90829  PMID: 11709300
9.  Role of efflux pump(s) in intrinsic resistance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa: resistance to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and norfloxacin. 
Most strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa are significantly more resistant, even in the absence of R plasmids, to many antimicrobial agents, including beta-lactams, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and fluoroquinolones, than most other gram-negative rods. This broad-range resistance has so far been assumed to be mainly due to the low permeability of the P. aeruginosa outer membrane. The intrinsic-resistance phenotype becomes further enhanced in "intrinsically carbenicillin-resistant" isolates, which were often assumed to produce outer membranes of even lower permeability. It has been shown, however, that this hypothesis cannot explain the beta-lactam resistance of these isolates (D.M. Livermore and K.W.M. Davy, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:916-921, 1991). In this study, we examined the uptake of tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and norfloxacin by intact cells using strains showing widely different levels of intrinsic resistance. Their accumulation and the response to the addition of a proton conductor showed that even relatively susceptible strains of P. aeruginosa actively pump out these compounds from the cell and that the efflux activity becomes much stronger in strains showing higher levels of intrinsic resistance. We conclude that the efflux mechanism(s) are likely to contribute significantly to the intrinsic resistance of P. aeruginosa isolates to tetracycline, chloramphenicol, and fluoroquinolones, as does the low permeability of the outer membrane. This conclusion is supported by the observation that the hypersusceptibility to various agents of the mutant K799/61 (W. Zimmermann, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 18:94-100, 1980) was apparently caused by the lack of active efflux. Although the hypersusceptibility of this mutant has hitherto been assumed to be solely due to its higher outer membrane permeability, its outer membrane was shown to have a coefficient of permeability to cephaloridine that was not significantly different from that of the parent, resistant strain K799/WT. The strains with elevated intrinsic resistance overproduced two cytoplasmic membrane proteins and one outer membrane protein; at least two of these proteins appeared different from the proteins overproduced in the recently described mutant with a derepressed multidrug efflux system, MexA-MexB-OprK (K. Poole, K. Krebes, C. McNally, and S. Neshat, J. Bacteriol. 175:7363-7372, 1993).
PMCID: PMC284630  PMID: 7986003
10.  Daptomycin may attenuate experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity by electrostatic complexation to tobramycin. 
The lipopeptidic antibiotic daptomycin is reported to reduce experimental tobramycin nephrotoxicity (D. Beauchamp, M. Pellerin, P. Gourde, M. Pettigrew and M. G. Bergeron, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:139-147, 1990; C. A. Wood, H. C. Finkbeiner, S. J. Kohlhepp, P. W. Kohnen, and D. C. Gilbert, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:1280-1285, 1989). In an attempt to explain these results, the in vivo and in vitro interactions between daptomycin and tobramycin were studied. Tobramycin alone and preincubated with negatively charged phospholipid bilayers (liposomes) was dialyzed against increasing concentrations of daptomycin in buffer at pH 5.4. A significant drop in the concentration of tobramycin was observed when daptomycin was added to the opposite half cells. Furthermore, daptomycin induced a concentration-dependent release of lipid-bound tobramycin. Gold labeling experiments showed that daptomycin could be incorporated into phospholipid layers. Female Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with daptomycin alone, with tobramycin alone, or with the combination over 2 to 10 days. Levels of daptomycin and tobramycin in serum were similar in all groups. The levels of tobramycin in the renal cortex increased significantly with time and, on day 10, reached values of 654 +/- 122 and 844 +/- 298 micrograms/g of tissue (mean +/- standard deviation; not significant) in animals treated with tobramycin and the combination of daptomycin-tobramycin, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the levels of tobramycin in the kidneys between animals treated with tobramycin or the daptomycin-tobramycin combination at any time. By contrast, daptomycin levels were significantly higher in the renal cortexes of animals treated with daptomycin-tobramycin in comparison with those in the renal cortexes of animals treated with daptomycin alone on days 6,8, and 10 (P < 0.01). For immunogold labeling studies, animals were killed 4 h after a single injection of daptomycin alone or daptomycin in combination with tobramycin. Daptomycin was found throughout the matrixes of the lysosomes of proximal tubular cells of animals treated with daptomycin alone. In animals treated with the combination of daptomycin and tobramycin, daptomycin was associated with intralysosomal myeloid bodies. Our results suggest that daptomycin might attenuate experimental aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity by interacting with the aminoglycoside, perhaps electrostatically, and thereby protecting intracellular targets of toxicity.
PMCID: PMC284536  PMID: 8031040
11.  Systematic Approach to Optimizing Specifically Targeted Antimicrobial Peptides against Streptococcus mutans▿  
Previously we reported a novel strategy of “targeted killing” through the design of narrow-spectrum molecules known as specifically targeted antimicrobial peptides (STAMPs) (R. Eckert et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:3651-3657, 2006; R. Eckert et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 50:1480-1488, 2006). Construction of these molecules requires the identification and the subsequent utilization of two conjoined yet functionally independent peptide components: the targeting and killing regions. In this study, we sought to design and synthesize a large number of STAMPs targeting Streptococcus mutans, the primary etiologic agent of human dental caries, in order to identify candidate peptides with increased killing speed and selectivity compared with their unmodified precursor antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). We hypothesized that a combinatorial approach, utilizing a set number of AMP, targeting, and linker regions, would be an effective method for the identification of STAMPs with the desired level of activity. STAMPs composed of the Sm6 S. mutans binding peptide and the PL-135 AMP displayed selectivity at MICs after incubation for 18 to 24 h. A STAMP where PL-135 was replaced by the B-33 killing domain exhibited both selectivity and rapid killing within 1 min of exposure and displayed activity against multispecies biofilms grown in the presence of saliva. These results suggest that potent and selective STAMP molecules can be designed and improved via a tunable “building-block” approach.
PMCID: PMC2863653  PMID: 20211885
12.  Mechanism-Based Pharmacodynamic Models of Fluoroquinolone Resistance in Staphylococcus aureus 
Pharmacodynamic modeling from earlier experiments in which two ciprofloxacin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus strains and their corresponding resistant grlA mutants were exposed to a series of ciprofloxacin (J. J. Campion, P. J. McNamara, and M. E. Evans, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:209-219, 2005) and levofloxacin (J. J. Campion et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 49:2189-2199, 2005) pharmacokinetic profiles in an in vitro system indicated that the subpopulation-specific estimated maximal killing rate constants were similar for both agents, suggesting a common mechanism of action. We propose two novel pharmacodynamic models that assign mechanisms of action to fluoroquinolones (growth inhibition or death stimulation) and compare the abilities of these models and two other maximum effect models (net effect and MIC based) to describe and predict the changes in the population dynamics observed during our previous in vitro system experiments with ciprofloxacin. A high correlation between predicted and observed viable counts was observed for all models, but the best fits, as assessed by diagnostic tests, and the most precise parameter estimates were obtained with the growth inhibition and net effect models. All models, except the death stimulation model, correctly predicted that resistant subpopulations would not emerge when a high-density culture was exposed to a high initial concentration designed to rapidly eradicate low-level-resistant grlA mutants. Additional experiments are necessary to elucidate which of the proposed mechanistic models best characterizes the antibacterial effects of fluoroquinolone antimicrobial agents.
PMCID: PMC1563538  PMID: 16940088
13.  Cerebrospinal fluid ceftazidime kinetics in patients with external ventriculostomies. 
Ceftazidime has proven to be effective for the treatment of bacterial meningitis caused by multiresistant gram-negative bacteria. Since nosocomial central nervous system infections are often accompanied by only a minor dysfunction of the blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier, patients with noninflammatory occlusive hydrocephalus who had undergone external ventriculostomy were studied (n = 8). Serum and CSF were drawn repeatedly after the administration of the first dose of ceftazidime (3 g over 30 min intravenously), and concentrations were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography by using UV detection. The concentrations of ceftazidime in CSF were maximal at 1 to 13 h (median, 5.5 h) after the end of the infusion and ranged from 0.73 to 2.80 mg/liter (median, 1.56 mg/liter). The elimination half-lives were 3.13 to 18.1 h (median, 10.7 h) in CSF compared with 2.02 to 5.24 h (median, 3.74 h) in serum. The ratios of the areas under the concentration-time curves in CSF and serum (AUCCSF/AUCS) ranged from 0.027 to 0.123 (median, 0.054). After the administration of a single dose of 3 g, the maximum concentrations of ceftazidime in CSF were approximately four times higher than those after the administration of 2-g intravenous doses of cefotaxime (median, 0.44 mg/liter) and ceftriaxone (median, 0.43 mg/liter) (R. Nau, H. W. Prange, P. Muth, G. Mahr, S. Menck, H. Kolenda, and F. Sörgel, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:1518-1524, 1993). The median AUCCSF/AUCS ratio of ceftazidime was slightly below that of cefotaxime (0.12), but it was 1 order of magnitude above the median AUCCSF/AUCS of ceftriaxone (0.007) (Nau et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 37:1518-1524, 1993). The concentrations of ceftazidime observed in CSF were above the MICs for most Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains. However, they are probably not high enough to be rapidly bactericidal. For this reason, the daily dose should be increased to 12 g in cases of P. aeruginosa infections of the central nervous system when the blood-CSF barrier is minimally impaired.
PMCID: PMC163194  PMID: 8851607
14.  New semisynthetic pneumocandins with improved efficacies against Pneumocystis carinii in the rat. 
A new series of semisynthetic, water-soluble pneumocandin analogs has been found to be extremely potent against Pneumocystis carinii in an immunocompromised-rat model. These compounds are 5 to 10 times more potent than the parent natural product, pneumocandin B0 (L-688,786) (R. E. Schwartz et al., J. Antibiot. 45:1853-1866, 1992), and > 100 times more potent than cilofungin. One compound in particular, L-733,560, had a 90% effective dose against P. carinii cysts of 0.01 mg/kg of body weight when delivered parenterally (subcutaneously, twice daily for 4 days). This compound was also effective when given orally for the treatment and prevention of P. carinii pneumonia. For treating acute P. carinii pneumonia, oral doses of 2.2 mg/kg twice daily for 4 days were required to eliminate 90% of the cysts. A once-daily oral prophylactic dose of 2.2 mg/kg prevented cyst development, and a dose of 6.2 mg/kg prevented any development of P. carinii organisms (cysts and trophozoites), as determined through the use of a P. carinii-specific DNA probe (P. A. Liberator et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 30:2968-2974, 1992). These results demonstrate that the antipneumocystis activities of the pneumocandins can be significantly improved through synthetic modification. Several of these compounds are also extremely effective against candidiasis (K. Bartizal et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:1070-1076, 1995) and aspergillosis (G. K. Abruzzo et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:860-894, 1995) in murine models, making them attractive as broad-spectrum antifungal agents.
PMCID: PMC162734  PMID: 7574523
15.  Quinolone accumulation in Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. 
The accumulation of quinolones by Escherichia coli JF568, Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213 was measured by a modified fluorometric assay (J. S. Chapman and N. H. Georgopapadakou, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 33:27-29, 1989). The quinolones examined were fleroxacin, pefloxacin, norfloxacin, difloxacin, A56620, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and Ro 09-1168. In all three organisms, uptake was complete in less than 5 min and was proportional to extracellular quinolone concentrations between 2 and 50 micrograms/ml, which is consistent with simple diffusion. Washing cells with quinolone-free buffer decreased accumulation by up to 70% in E. coli and P. aeruginosa but not in S. aureus. Similarly, incubation with the uncouplers 2,4-dinitrophenol and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone increased accumulation up to fourfold in E. coli and P. aeruginosa, though not in S. aureus, suggesting endogenous, energy-dependent efflux. High quinolone hydrophobicity was generally associated with decreased accumulation in E. coli and P. aeruginosa (except in the case of pefloxacin) but was associated with increased accumulation in S. aureus (except in the case of difloxacin). Ciprofloxacin had the highest accumulation in E. coli and P. aeruginosa, while pefloxacin had the highest accumulation in S. aureus.
PMCID: PMC192008  PMID: 1416840
16.  Updated Functional Classification of β-Lactamases▿  
Two classification schemes for β-lactamases are currently in use. The molecular classification is based on the amino acid sequence and divides β-lactamases into class A, C, and D enzymes which utilize serine for β-lactam hydrolysis and class B metalloenzymes which require divalent zinc ions for substrate hydrolysis. The functional classification scheme updated herein is based on the 1995 proposal by Bush et al. (K. Bush, G. A. Jacoby, and A. A. Medeiros, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 39:1211-1233, 1995). It takes into account substrate and inhibitor profiles in an attempt to group the enzymes in ways that can be correlated with their phenotype in clinical isolates. Major groupings generally correlate with the more broadly based molecular classification. The updated system includes group 1 (class C) cephalosporinases; group 2 (classes A and D) broad-spectrum, inhibitor-resistant, and extended-spectrum β-lactamases and serine carbapenemases; and group 3 metallo-β-lactamases. Several new subgroups of each of the major groups are described, based on specific attributes of individual enzymes. A list of attributes is also suggested for the description of a new β-lactamase, including the requisite microbiological properties, substrate and inhibitor profiles, and molecular sequence data that provide an adequate characterization for a new β-lactam-hydrolyzing enzyme.
PMCID: PMC2825993  PMID: 19995920
17.  Intracellular Activity of Antibiotics in a Model of Human THP-1 Macrophages Infected by a Staphylococcus aureus Small-Colony Variant Strain Isolated from a Cystic Fibrosis Patient: Study of Antibiotic Combinations▿ † 
In a companion paper (H. A. Nguyen et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 53:1434-1442, 2009), we showed that vancomycin, oxacillin, fusidic acid, clindamycin, linezolid, and daptomycin are poorly active against the intracellular form of a thymidine-dependent small-colony variant (SCV) strain isolated from a cystic fibrosis patient and that the activity of quinupristin-dalfopristin, moxifloxacin, rifampin, and oritavancin remains limited (2- to 3-log CFU reduction) compared to their extracellular activity. Antibiotic combination is a well-known strategy to improve antibacterial activity, which was examined here against an intracellular SCV strain using combinations with either rifampin or oritavancin. Time-kill curve analysis using either concentrations that caused a static effect for each antibiotic individually or concentrations corresponding to the maximum concentration in human serum showed largely divergent effects that were favorable when antibiotics were combined with rifampin at low concentrations only and with oritavancin at both low and high concentrations. The nature of the interaction between rifampin, oritavancin, and moxifloxacin was further examined using the fractional maximal effect method, which allows categorization of the effects of combinations when dose-effect relationships are not linear. Rifampin and oritavancin were synergistic at all concentration ratios investigated. Oritavancin and moxifloxacin were also synergistic but at high oritavancin concentrations only. Rifampin and moxifloxacin were additive. This approach may help in better assessing and improving the activity of antibiotics against intracellular SCV strains.
PMCID: PMC2663110  PMID: 19188397
18.  Longitudinal Assessment of Antipneumococcal Susceptibility in the United States 
The prevalence of antimicrobial resistance among 4,940 U.S. pneumococcal isolates collected during 1999 was as follows: penicillin, 16.2%; amoxicillin-clavulanate, 12.2%; cefuroxime, 28.1%; ceftriaxone, 3.6%; trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 30.3%; azithromycin, 21.4%; levofloxacin, 0.6%; and moxifloxacin, 0.1%. Compared to the previous 1997-1998 study (Jones et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 44:2645-2652, 2000), increases were noted for resistance to penicillin (3.7%; P < 0.001), amoxicillin-clavulanate (3.9%; P < 0.001), cefuroxime (5.7%; P < 0.001), azithromycin (2.4%; P = 0.014), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (15.4%; P < 0.001), and levofloxacin (0.3%; P = 0.017). Resistance to ceftriaxone (0.1%; P = 0.809) and moxifloxacin (0.03%; P = 0.570) decreased. Concurrently, multidrug resistance increased (P < 0.001) from 6.3% to 11.3%.
PMCID: PMC127351  PMID: 12121949
19.  Intrapulmonary Pharmacokinetics of S-013420, a Novel Bicyclolide Antibacterial, in Healthy Japanese Subjects▿  
S-013420 (EDP-420) is a novel bicyclolide (bridged bicyclic macrolide) antibacterial currently under development for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. The objective of the present study was to determine the plasma and intrapulmonary pharmacokinetic parameters of orally administered S-013420 in healthy volunteers. Twenty-eight healthy Japanese male subjects who never smoked were randomly allocated to seven groups of four subjects each who underwent bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) at different times after dosing (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, or 24 h). Blood samples were also taken at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h after dosing. The S-013420 concentrations in plasma, epithelial lining fluid (ELF), and alveolar macrophages (AMs) were measured by using a combined high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometric technique. A pharmacokinetic analysis of the plasma, ELF, and AM S-013420 concentration profiles was performed. S-013420 was rapidly absorbed in plasma, and the mean time to the maximum concentration in plasma was 2.27 h. S-013420 was rapidly distributed to the ELF and was slowly distributed to AMs. The areas under the concentration-time curves from time zero to 24 h (AUC0-24) for S-013420 were 20.3 times higher in ELF than in plasma and 244.6 times higher in AMs than in plasma. The mean maximum concentration in plasma was higher in ELF than in plasma and was much higher in AM than in plasma. Furthermore, pharmacodynamic calculations were done by using the AUC0-24/MIC90 ratio for common pneumonia pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis). The AUC0-24 for plasma/MIC90s for these four organisms were 41.8, 83.6, 1.3, and 20.9, respectively. The AUC0-24 for ELF/MIC90s were 849.6, 1,699.2, 26.6, and 424.8, respectively. Considering the good efficacy shown in a subsequent phase 2 study (S. Kohno, K. Yamaguchi, Y. Tanigawara, A. Watanabe, A. Aoki, Y. Niki, and J. Fujita, Abstr. 47th Intersci. Conf. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother., abstr. L-485), the good distribution of S-013420 in AMs and ELF observed in the present study is predictive of the good efficacy of S-013420 against respiratory pathogens.
PMCID: PMC2812166  PMID: 19933801
20.  In vitro activities of ceftriaxone and fusidic acid against 13 isolates of Coxiella burnetii, determined using the shell vial assay. 
The susceptibilities of 13 isolates of Coxiella burnetii to fusidic acid and ceftriaxone were determined by use of the recently described shell vial assay (D. Raoult, H. Torres, and M. Drancourt, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother, 35:2070-2077, 1991). At a concentration of 4 micrograms/ml, ceftriaxone was bacteriostatic for four isolates and slowed the multiplication of the other nine. Fusidic acid at a concentration of 2 micrograms/ml was bacteriostatic for six isolates and slowed the multiplication of three others. These results show that these compounds could be effective in the phagolysosome of C. burnetii-infected cells.
PMCID: PMC187697  PMID: 8460917
21.  Inactivation of Sterol Δ5,6-Desaturase Attenuates Virulence in Candida albicans 
Two clinical Candida albicans isolates that exhibited high-level resistance to azoles and modest decreases in susceptibility to amphotericin B were cultured from unrelated patients. Both isolates harbored homozygous nonsense mutations in ERG3, which encodes an enzyme, sterol Δ5,6-desaturase, involved in ergosterol synthesis. Extraction and analysis of the sterols from both isolates confirmed the absence of sterol Δ5,6-desaturase activity. Although the loss of sterol Δ5,6-desaturase activity is known to confer resistance to azoles, this mechanism of resistance has rarely been seen in clinical isolates, suggesting that such mutants are at a competitive disadvantage. To test this hypothesis, the virulence of the erg3 mutants was assayed by using a mouse systemic infection model. The mutants were significantly less virulent than the wild-type comparator strains. However, the kidney fungal burdens in mice infected with the erg3 mutants were similar to those in mice infected with the wild-type strains. Similar results were obtained by using a laboratory-generated homozygous erg3 deletion mutant (D. Sanglard et al., Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 47:2404-2412, 2003). Reintroduction of a wild-type ERG3 allele into the homozygous deletion mutant restored virulence, ergosterol synthesis, and susceptibility to azoles, confirming that these phenotypic changes were solely due to the inactivation of Erg3p.
PMCID: PMC1195422  PMID: 16127034
22.  Efficacy of intravenous itraconazole against experimental pulmonary aspergillosis. 
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  1993;37(12):2762-2765.
The efficacy of intravenous itraconazole solubilized in hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin was assessed in a rat model of Aspergillus fumigatus pneumonia. Immunosuppressed rats were infected by intratracheal inoculation of A. fumigatus conidia. Intravenous administration of various doses of itraconazole was started immediately after infection and continued once a day for 7 days. A 10-mg dose of intravenous itraconazole per kg was as effective on survival as 1 mg of amphotericin B per kg daily (a survival rate of 100% in 28 days), while treatment with 1 mg/kg did not increase the survival rate. The 50% lethal dose of intravenous itraconazole given to immunosuppressed and uninfected rats for 7 days was 24.5 mg/kg/day. A microbiological assay to estimate accumulation in tissue after five daily intravenous administrations of itraconazole at 10 mg/kg showed that itraconazole and its active metabolites were present in the lungs for at least 6 h, reaching the MIC as previously described (B. Dupont and E. Drouchet, Rev. Infect. Dis. 9(Suppl. 1):71-76, 1987; A. Espinel-Ingroff, S. Shadomy, and R. J. Gebhart, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 26:5-9, 1984). Intravenous itraconazole was considered to be worth evaluating in clinical trials of aspergillosis.
PMCID: PMC192807  PMID: 8109952
23.  A mecA-Negative Strain of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus with High-Level β-Lactam Resistance Contains Mutations in Three Genes▿  
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy  2010;54(11):4900-4902.
We previously generated a ceftobiprole-resistant Staphylococcus aureus strain after high inoculum serial passage of a mecA-negative variant of strain COL (R. Banerjee, M. Gretes, L. Basuino, N. Strynadka, and H. F. Chambers, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 52:2089-2096, 2008). Genome resequencing of this strain, CRB, revealed that it differs from its parent by five single-nucleotide polymorphisms in three genes, specifically, those encoding PBP4, a low-molecular-weight penicillin-binding protein, GdpP, a predicted signaling protein, and AcrB, a cation multidrug efflux transporter. CRB displayed resistance to a variety of β-lactams but was hypersusceptible to cefoxitin.
PMCID: PMC2976154  PMID: 20805396
24.  Mechanisms of action of cephalosporin 3'-quinolone esters, carbamates, and tertiary amines in Escherichia coli. 
Cephalosporin 3'-quinolone esters, carbamates, and tertiary amines are potent antibiotics whose antibacterial activities reflect the action of both the beta-lactam and the quinolone components. The biological properties of representative compounds from each class were compared in Escherichia coli. All compounds bound to the essential PBP 3, inhibited DNA gyrase, and caused filamentation in growing cells. To distinguish between cephalosporin- and quinolone-induced filaments, nucleoid segregation was also examined, as quinolones disrupt nucleoid segregation while the beta-lactams do not (N. H. Georgopapadakou and A. Bertasso, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 35:2645-2648, 1991). The cephalosporin quinolone esters Ro 23-9424 and Ro 24-6392, at concentrations causing filamentation in E. coli ATCC 25922, did not affect nucleoid segregation after 1 h of incubation (cephalosporin response) but did not affect it after 2 h (quinolone response), indicating the release of free quinolone. Accordingly, only the quinolone response was produced in a strain possessing TEM-3, an expanded-spectrum beta-lactamase. The cephalosporin carbamate Ro 24-4383 and the tertiary amine Ro 24-8138 produced a quinolone response in E. coli ATCC 25922, though they produced a cephalosporin response in a quinolone-resistant strain. Carbamate and tertiary amine linkages are chemically more stable than the ester linkage, and both cephalosporin 3'-quinolone carbamates and tertiary amines are more potent inhibitors of DNA gyrase than are the corresponding esters. The results suggest that, while intact cephalosporin 3'-quinolone esters act as cephalosporins, carbamates and amines may possess both cephalosporin and quinolone activity in the intact molecule.
PMCID: PMC187707  PMID: 8384817
25.  In vitro susceptibilities of Coxiella burnetii, Rickettsia rickettsii, and Rickettsia conorii to the fluoroquinolone sparfloxacin. 
In vitro susceptibilities of Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia conorii, and Coxiella burnetii to the new fluoroquinolone sparfloxacin (AT-4140; RP 64206) were determined. Plaque and dye uptake assays were used to measure the MICs against R. rickettsii and R. conorii. The susceptibilities of C. burnetii Nine Mile and Q 212 were determined in two acute-infection models and in two chronic-infection models. The MICs were 0.125 to 0.25 microgram/ml for R. rickettsii and 0.25 to 0.5 microgram/ml for R. conorii. Sparfloxacin (1 microgram/ml) cured cells recently infected with C. burnetii Nine Mile and Q 212 within 4 to 9 days and cured multiplying, persistently infected cells within 10 days. As previously described with other fluoroquinolones (D. Raoult, M. Drancourt, and G. Vestris, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 34:1512-1514, 1990), sparfloxacin failed to cure cells persistently infected with C. burnetii and blocked from dividing with cycloheximide. As determined by the dye uptake assay, no cellular toxicity was noted with sparfloxacin at up to 128 micrograms/ml. These results are consistent with those previously obtained with fluoroquinolones (D. Raoult, M. Yeaman, and O. Baca, Rev. Infect. Dis. 11[Suppl. 5]:S986, 1989), although sparfloxacin may be slightly more active.
PMCID: PMC244946  PMID: 1901703

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