Leea asiatica, a folk medicinal plant of India, is used in the treatment of worm infection and other oxidative stress-related disorders, traditionally. In the present study, the in vitro anthelmintic and in vitro antioxidant activity of different fractions of the methanol extract from the Leea asiatica leaves were evaluated. The fraction displayed significant anthelmintic activity against Indian adult earthworms (Pheretima posthuma). The ethyl acetate fraction showed a better paralysis activity (13.99 ± 0.59), while the methanol fraction showed a better death time (63.76 ± 0.73 minutes), when compared with other fractions, at a dose of 50 mg/ml concentration. The anthelmintic activity of methanol and the ethyl acetate fraction were almost similar and comparable to the standard drug, piperazine citrate. The petroleum ether fraction did not produce a potent anthelmintic effect compared to the standard. The in vitro antioxidant activity was evaluated by using the diphenyl-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, lipid peroxidation assay, and the ferric thiocyanate method. The ethyl acetate fraction showed better antioxidant activity in all tested methods. The IC50 value of the ethyl acetate fraction in the DPPH radical, nitric oxide radical scavenging assay, and lipid peroxidation assay were 9.5, 13.0, and 57.0 μg/ml, respectively. The fractions significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited the peroxidation of linoleic acid. The results confirmed the folk use of Leea asiatica in warm infection and the plant could be viewed as a potential source of natural anthelmintic and antioxidant compound.
Anthelmintic; antioxidant; ethyl acetate fraction; leaves; Leea asiatica
Standardization of a compound Ayurvedic formulation is a critical and essential issue to be considered in assuring the therapeutic efficacy and safety and to rationalize their use in the health care. Sitopaladi churna is a reputed polyherbal formulation of Ayurveda. It is prescribed for the treatment of pleurodynia, intercostal neuralgia, cold, cough associated with bronchitis, pneumonia, tuberculosis, viral respiratory infection, and in pharyngeal and chest congestion.
The present study aimed at physico-chemical standardization of in-house and two marketed brands of Sitopaladi churna.
Materials and Methods:
In our investigation, in-house churna and two commercial brands of Sitopaladi churna were standardized based on powder microscopy, physico-chemical evaluations, thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) finger printing as per standard procedures.
The set parameters were sufficient to evaluate the churna based on various physico-chemical parameters.
The data evolved can be adopted for laying down the standards for the manufacturing units of Sitopaladi churna.
High performance thin layer chromatography; physico-chemical; Sitopaladi churna; standardization
Hedychium spicatum (Ham-ex-Smith), known as Shati in Ayurvedic classics, is documented for the treatment of cough, hiccough, fever and asthma. The present study includes the evaluation of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the dried rhizome of H. spicatum for anti-histaminic and ulcer-protective activities in guinea pig (GP), anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities in rat and acute toxicity in mouse. The extracts were administered orally, daily as suspension, in 1% carboxymethyl cellulose either for 7 days in GP studies or 60 min before or just before experiment in rats and mice. An initial dose-dependent anti-histaminic action of both the extracts (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) was performed against histamine-induced bronchospasm in GPs. The 200 mg/ kg dose of aqueous and ethanolic extracts was selected both in GP and rat for further studies. GPs treated with aqueous and ethanolic extracts showed gastric ulcer protection against histamine-induced gastric ulcer compared with the control group. Both the extracts also showed an anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced paw edema in rats from 1 h onwards, and this was maximum at 3 h. Analgesic effect was determined by using hot plate and tail flick tests in rats, and both the extracts at 200 mg/kg showed a significant increase in the latent period from 30 min onwards till 120 min of their study period. Both the extracts did not show any toxic effect like increased motor activity, salivation, clonic convulsion, coma and death in mice even at the 2000 mg/kg dose (nearly 10 times of the optimal effective dose), indicating the safety of the extracts. The result confirms the indigenous use of this plant in respiratory disorders.
Analgesic; antihistaminic; anti-inflammatory; Hedychium spicatum; respiratory disorders; ulcer protective
Rasasindura (RS) is one of the unique mercurial preparations commonly used in Ayurveda therapeutics. The traditional procedure followed for preparing RS in the classical furnace has several drawbacks, such as difficulty in controlling temperature, consumption of large quantity of fuel, and excess human effort.
Aims & Objective:
The present study was conducted to evaluate an alternate method to prepare RS by using an electrical muffle furnace (EMF) and to standardize this method.
Materials and Methods:
RS was prepared by adapting similar temperature pattern in both the traditional and EMF methods, and observations were recorded. Obtained product was subjected to orgennoleptic and physico-chemical analysis.
No remarkable differences were seen in observations of both preparations, except the melting of Kajjali, appearance of flame, and appearance of desired characteristics of product formation, which were observed at 190, 496, and 567°C in the traditional method and at 180, 473, and 560°C in EMF, respectively. Yield of the traditional method was 53.5% whereas in EMF, it was 50.83%. Organoleptic and physicochemical analysis revealed no significant deviation in values.
The present study reveals that the traditional method of preparing RS can be effectively replaced by the EMF with some added advantages.
Electrical muffle furnace; Rasasindura; traditional furnace
Dashanga Lepa is a polyherbal preparation of Ayurveda, used to treat many skin ailments and rheumatoid arthritis. However, its toxicological property has not been reported so far. We report a rare case of cutaneous adverse reaction in the form of skin rash following the application of Dashanga Lepa. A 42-year-old female patient with a Pittakaphalaprakruthi (constitution) developed skin rashes, soon after the application of Dashanga Lepa over the applied area, which disappeared after stopping the suspected drug and starting treatment with Shatadhauta ghritha. The patient was again treated with the same formulation after a span of a month, which led to the reappearance of a similar type of rash. The temporal relationship, positive dechallenge, and rechallenge are strong associations between the event and formulation. No such reaction was noticed by any other patient with the suspected medicine.
Ayurveda; cutaneous adverse reaction; Dashanga Lepa; rheumatoid arthritis; skin rash
This study was carried out to investigate the antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity of methanolic extract of Madhuca indica bark in varios systems. DPPH radical, superoxide anion radical, nitric oxide radical, hydroxyl radical, lipid peroxidation, and total phenolic content assays were carried out to evaluate the antioxidant potential of the extract. The percentage inhibition of 40 μg/ml concentration of MMI in DPPH radical scavenging model was found as 74.1%. The scavenging of nitric oxide by the plant extract was concentration dependent and IC50 value of rutin was found to be 161.7 μg/ml. MMI elicited significant and concentration-dependent superoxide radical scavenging effect with MMI as well as standard curcumin, which exhibited IC50 values of 38.1 and 5.84 μg/ml, respectively. MMI demonstrated significant scavenging activity of OH- radical generated from Fe2+-ascorbate-EDTA-H2O2 in a concentration-dependent manner. The extract showed a significant dose-dependent free radical scavenging activity in all the models. The extract showed the presence of high phenolic content corresponding to 98.48 μg equivalent of gallic acid and the antioxidant activity could be attributed to this.
Antioxidant activity; DPPH; Madhuca indica; nitric oxide radical
The present article deals with the unknown traditional uses of 15 plant species for the treatment of hydrocele, collected from 27 tribal groups ofthe Sundargarh, Mayurbhanj, Angul, and Balangir districts of Odisha. These ethnomedicinal uses were compared and cross-checked with the data mentioned in the well-known, standard, Indian ethnomedicinal as well as medicinal literatures and it was found that these medicinal uses of the referred plants had not been reported earlier.
Angul; Balangir; hydrocele; Mayurbhanj; Odisha; Sundargarh
Academic excellence is essential to provide opportunities for students to work together to improve their understanding of concepts in their academic core. Academic excellence helps students to teach problem-solving and collaborative learning strategies.
The objective of this study was to assess Guna (personality traits) in students undergoing Yoga Instructor's Course (YIC).
Materials and Methods:
In all, 68 YIC students with a mean age of 28.03 ± 9.38 years participated in this single group pre–post study. The Personality Inventory data were collected before (pre) and after (post) the YIC.
Means, standard deviations, Kolmogorov–Smirnov test, and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used for analyzing the data with the help of SPSS 16.
The data analysis showed 11.33% decrease (P < 0.01) in Tamas Guna (dull personality trait), 0.68% decrease (P =0.819) in Rajas Guna (violent personality trait), and 10.34% increase (P <0.01) in Sattva Guna (balanced personality trait) scores.
This study suggests that YIC can result in the improvement of Sattva Guna (balance personality trait) among students, thus paving the way for their academic excellence.
Academic excellence; ancient science of yogic life; university students
The effect of Gomutra ark (GoA) on experimental alloxan-induced diabetes in rats was studied. For this purpose, Wistar albino rats of either sex weighing 200-250 g were used. The biochemical parameters like blood sugar, vitamin C, and malondialdehyde release were measured. The safety profile of GoA was evaluated using acute and chronic toxicity studies. GoA significantly lowers blood glucose in diabetic rats although the observed effect was found to be less than glibenclamide. It significantly lowers the level of malondialdehyde and vitamin C in diabetic rats. No toxicity was observed even when cow urine was given 32 times of the study dose in acute toxicity and no significant changes were seen when it was used chronically, which suggests that cow urine is having a very high therapeutic index. This study supports the traditional use of GoA in diabetes and is having a high therapeutic index and is safe for chronic use. However, further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of action of Gomutra ark.
Alloxan; antidiabetic; antioxidant; glibenclamide; Gomutra ark
Rasashastra is a branch which deals with the pharmaceutics of Rasaoushadhis. Bhasmas are one among such Rasaoushadhis which are known for their low doses and fast action. A verse from Rasaratnasamuchchaya says that the bhasma prepared by using Mercury as media is of best quality.
Materials and Methods:
Following this principle, Yashadabhasma (Zinc calx) was prepared by subjecting it to Samanya shodhana (general purification method for all metals), Vishesha shodhana (specific putification method for Zinc), Jarana (roasting) and Marana (incineration) with Parada(Mercury) as a media under Gajaputa (classical heating system with 1000 cowdung cakes).
Results and Conclusion:
Yellow colored Yashadabhasma which passed all the classical bhasmaparikshas (tests for properly prepared calx) was obtained after two putas. The bhasma did not pass Nishchandratva(free from shining particles) test after 1stputa but was passed after giving it 2ndputa.
Bhasmapariksha; Gajaputa; Marana; Yashadabhasma
Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory disorder of the airways associated with reversible airway obstruction and increased airway responsiveness to a variety of stimuli. An intuitive inference from this definition is that a causal relationship may exist between airway inflammation and airway hyperresponsiveness. It can be say that “airway inflammation equal to airway hyperresponsiveness”. Attachment of antigen antibody complex to the mast cell causes its disruption and release of inflammatory mediators such as histamine.To evaluate the efficacy of anti-asthmatic property of a drug, evaluation of anti-histaminic, mast cell stabilizing and bronchodilator property can be use as pharmacodynamic parameter. Bharangyadi is a polyherbal compound having Bharangi (Clerodendrum serratum), Sati (Hedychium spicatum) and Pushkarmoola (Inula racemosa) as ingredient herbs The present study aimed to evaluate the anti-asthmatic activity of an indigenous polyherbal compound Bharangyadi through various in-vitro & in-vivo experimental models.
The results demonstrate that drug has potent histamine antagonism property with significant mast cell stabilizing and spasmolytic activity in the experimental animals. Compound 48/80, a potent mast cell degranulator, provoked 76% degranulation of mast cells in the control group. Ethanolic extract of Bharangyadi at the doses 500 and 1000 μg/ml protected from compound 48/80-evoked degranulation (P < 0.01) in dose dependent manner.
Pre-treatment with Bharangyadi extract showed 80% & 86% protection from histamine induced bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs with 27.8% and 36.1% increase in preconvoulsion time (equal to standard drug). Screening of Histamine antagonism activity on guinea pig ileum showed that drug reduces the smooth muscle contraction in dose dependent manner. Increasing concentration of Bharangyadi extract with maximum dose of histamine (1.6μg) showed maximum inhibition at the dose of 50mg (99.78%). Inhibition of smooth muscle contraction by addition of drug in organ bath before adding histamine showed that drug has preventive type antagonism.
Anti-asthmatic; anti-histaminic; Bharangyadi polyherbal compound; bronchodilator; Compound 48/80; mast cell stabilization
Basti therapy is used widely for treatment of various diseases in the field of Ayurveda with several proven clinical applications, however; the exact mechanism through which the benefits are obtained are yet to be ascertained in the light of the contemporary developments in clinical science. It is also not clear that when administered Basti the active principles in the formulation gain entry in to the systemic circulation or not. The present study was planned to acquire some preliminary data with regards to the absorption of phytochemical constituents of the formulations when administered in the form of Basti. Gallic acid was used as marker compound and it's absorption in systemic circulation was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography. Gallic acid present in Lekhana Basti (Emaciating/ Desiccating Medicated Enema) was found to get absorbed in to systemic circulation. Maximum concentration in serum was seen in the animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya ( Catalytic Adjuvant) in comparison to animal which received Lekhana Basti without Prakshepa Dravya. Area under curve in chromatogram was also more in animal which received Lekhana Basti with Prakshepa Dravya. From primary evidence created by HPLC study it can be said that, phytochemicals of the Basti formulation do get absorbed in systemic circulation.
Lekhana Basti; Prakshepa Dravya; pharmacokinetic; Gallic acid; albino rats
The objective of the study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of Gumma (Leucas cephalotes Spreng.) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity. Hepatic damage was induced by the administration of CCl4 in wistar rats. Hydro alcoholic (1:1) extract of Gumma (583mg/kg orally) was used to screen the extent of hepatoprotection in the rats subjected to hepatotoxicity. The protective effect was compared against the plain control and negative control groups treated with distilled water (p.o.) and CCl4 in the dose of 0.7ml/kg, i.p. daily. The liver function test and histopathological examination of liver tissue was conducted to assess the hepatoprotective effect. The comparison among different treatments was carried out using one way ANOVA with post hoc Dunnett's multiple comparison test. The mean serum markers of liver function in plain control for Bilirubin, AST, ALT and ALKP were 0.69 ± 0.04, 34.85 ± 4.45, 16.84 ± 4.64 and 33.85 ± 3.20 whereas in CCl4 treated group, the values were found to be 4.42 ± 0.71, 99.33 ± 13.89, 127.83 ± 6.55 and 70.83 ± 11.26, respectively. In pre-treated group, Bilirubin, AST, ALT and ALKP were observed to be 0.67 ± 0.03, 32.97 ± 7.77, 42.57 ± 2.03 and 42.42 ± 4.41 while in post-treated 6.68 ± 0.90, 145.66 ± 33.37, 44.16 ± 5.16 and 56.83 ± 10.44, and in concurrent group 0.24 ± 0.07, 21 ± 3.66, 37.48 ± 4.38 and 40.4 ± 7.03, respectively.
Histologically, no significant pathology was observed in the liver of Plain control group, while extensive hepatocellular damage was seen in CCl4 treated group. Pre-treated group showed no significant damage, while liver of Concurrent group showed moderate hepatocellular damage, whereas Post-treated group showed moderate to severe hepatocellular damage. The extract of Gumma (Leucas cephalotes Spreng.) caused significant lowering of serum markers of liver function to near normal in chemically challenged animals (p<0.01). It also reversed the liver tissue damage caused by CCl4. Prophylactic effect has been more marked than the curative effect. Thus, the findings suggest that Gumma possesses hepatoprotective effect.
Hepatotoxicity; Carbon tetrachloride; Hydroalcoholic extract; Liver function
To study the effect of pomegranate juice on dental plaque microorganisms. A clinical trial was conducted on thirty healthy volunteers aged 25-30 years who visited Out Patient Department (OPD) of Bapuji Dental College and Hospital, Davangere during the month of October 2006. Before conducting the study, thorough oral prophylaxis was done and the subjects were asked to refrain from the oral hygiene procedures for 24 hrs. Dental plaque was collected from each subject, before and after rinsing 30ml of pomegranate juice without sugar. Plaque samples were cultured using Mitis Salivarius Agar and Rogosa SL Agar media. Wilcoxon's signed rank test was used for statistical analysis. Results showed that pomegranate rinse was effective against dental plaque microorganisms. There was a significant reduction in the number of colony forming units of streptococci (23%) and lactobacilli (46%). The ruby red seeds may be a possible alternative for the treatment of dental plaque bacteria.
Dental plaque; lactobacilli; microorganisms; pomegranate; streptococci
Ayurveda is a unique system of medicine which uses metals and minerals in the form of bhasma (fine powder obtained through calcinations). Mandura is one of such mineral having various therapeutic uses. An effort has been made in the present study to characterize raw and processed Mandura using sophisticated analytical tools as a step forward to standardization. Mandura bhasma was prepared following references of Ayurvedic classics. To assure the quality of the prepared bhasma, Rasa Shastra quality control tests like rekhapurnatvam (particles enter into furrows of human hand), varitara (floating of product particles on water), irreversible etc., were used. Bhasma fulfilling these tests was analyzed using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) analysis. This revealed that raw Mandura contained Fe2Si04, and Mandura bhasma contained Fe2O3 and SiO2. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) studies showed that the grains in Mandura bhasma were uniformly arranged in agglomerates of sizes 200-300 nm as compared to the raw Mandura, which showed a scattered arrangement of grains of sizes 10-2 microns. It may be concluded that this conversion of raw Mandura, a complex compound, into a mixture of simple compounds having nano-sized particles is due to the particular process of calcination employed.
Mandura bhasma; X-ray diffraction; Scanning electron microscopy
Agnimantha, a classical Ayurvedic drug is one among the dashamoolas, i.e., group of ten plants whose roots form the useful part. It is a main ingredient of many Ayurvedic preparations. Various source plants from the genus Clerodendrum and Premna are used in different regions of the country. In this study, two species of Premna were selected and evaluated for anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced rat hind paw edema. The selected animals were divided into four groups and test drugs were administered orally in the dose of 9ml/kg. Group I received vehicle (distilled water), Group II received leaf decoction of Premna obtusifolia Linn, Group III received leaf decoction of Premna latifolia Roxb and Group IV received indomethacin as standard anti-inflammatory drug. Test drugs and indomethacinwere administered one hour prior to the injection of 0.05 ml of 1% suspension of carrageenan into the sub plantar region of the left hind paw of rats. Study findings indicate that leaves of both the species of Premna have anti-inflammatory potential, P. latifoliabeing superior to P. obtusifolia.
Agnimantha; anti-inflammatory; carrageenan; Premna obtusifolia; Premna latifolia; Dashamoola
Preparation of bhasma (calcined powder of metal/minerals) includes various processing steps like purification (Shodhana), levigation (Bhavana),calcinations cycle(Marana), improving quality and removing blemishes (Amritikarana) etc, processing of bhasma aims at formation of herbo-mineral complex molecule which can act in minimal dosage, palatable, easy for assimilation, highly efficacious with minimal or no complication. Although the most important equipment mentioned for Marana i.e. cow dung cakes and some type of woods are not only difficult to collect but also expensive and create pollution during puta and it's difficult task to give controlled heat in traditional method. Hence, a Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra (MPBNY) was prepared for puta (equipment for calcination) procedure which is easy to handle, portable and facilitate to supply controlled heat. A comparative study was conducted on Kasisa Bhasma prepared by traditional method and by using MPBNY with special reference to physico-chemical properties. The prepared Kasisa Bhasma was subjected to modern analytical parameters such as A.A.S. (Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy), X.R.D. (X-ray Diffraction) and Ayurvedic parameters eg. Rekhapurnatva (bhasma should enters in between lines of finger), Varitaratva (bhasma should float on the surface of water), Niramlatva (bitter less), Apunarbhava (bhasma should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with jiggery, Abrus precatorius linn., honey and ghee) and Niruttha (bhasma should not regain its metallic nature after strong heating with silver). It was observed that Kasisa Bhasma of both methods possesses similar organoleptic as well as physico-chemical properties.
Modified Portable Bhasma Nirman Yantra; Traditional Puta; Kasisa Bhasma
Seeds of Kupeelu (Strychnos nux-vomica Linn.), a known poisonous drug, is used extensively in various Ayurvedic formulations with great therapeutic significance. Ayurveda recommends the administration of Kupeelu only after passing through specific purificatory procedures in different media like cow's urine (Go mutra), cow's milk (Go dugdha), cow's ghee (Go ghrita), Kanji (thin gruel) etc. Strychnos nux vomica seeds are extensively advocated for nervous debility, paralysis, and weakness of limbs, sexual weakness, dyspepsia, and dysentery and in rheumatism where it can be assumed that besides other properties, Kupeelu may have some sort of anti-inflammatory activity too. In the present study, the powder of raw and processed Kupeelu seeds (processed / purified with Kanji i.e sour gruel) as test drugs were assessed for anti-inflammatory activity by employing Carrageenan and Formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema in Wistar strain albino rats at a dose of 22.5 mg/kg body weight orally. This study reveals that both raw and purified Kupeelu showed presence of highly significant anti-inflammatory activity against formaldehyde induced hind paw oedema, but did not have similar activity against Carrageenan induced hind paw oedema.
Kupeelu; Kanji; anti-inflammatory; purification; Shodhana; purificatory procedure
Urolithiasis was induced using ethylene glycol in wistar albino rats, the formation of calcium stones in the kidney results with the damage of antioxidant system. Ethanolic extract of Cucumis trigonus Roxb fruit of family Curcurbitaceae was used to treat urolithiasis. On this course, the extract also repairs the changes that happened in the enzymatic, non enzymatic antioxidants and lipid peroxidation in liver and kidney of urolithiasis induced rats. The results obtained from the analysis were compared at 5% level of significance using one way ANOVA. The results show that the ethanolic fruit extract has repaired the levels of antioxidants and malondialdehyde to their normal levels.
Cucumis trigonus; Antioxidants; malondialdehyde; ethylene glycol
Phytochemical and pharmacognostic investigation were carried out on the stem of Naringi crenulata (Roxb.) Nicols. The pharmacognostic analysis revealed total ash of 9.65%, water soluble ash of 48.0%, alcohol soluble extractive value of 13.0% and acid insoluble ash of 48.0%. The quantitative and qualitative analysis is very essential for identifying the compounds present in the medicinal plants. The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of protein, lipid, carbohydrate, reducing sugar, phenol, tannin, flavonoid, saponin, and alkaloid, while triterpenoid, anthraquinone and quinone were absent. The present paper deals with the standardization of its aerial part of plant on the basis of various pharmacognostic parameters. The determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their pharmacological analysis of this species.
Naringi crenulata; stem; pharmacognostical; phytochemical
Balanophora fungosa Forster & Forster ssp. indica (Arn.) B. Hansen var. indica, (Balanophoraceae) syn. B. indica, is a root parasite found in hills of south India. This plant is included in the list of negative list, which are restricted and prohibited for export. Though it is not an official drug in any of the indigenous systems of medicine in India, it is used in tribal medicines in south India. However, it is found in crude drug markets as substitute/adulterant for the Ayurvedic drug Gajapippali (Scindapsus officinalis). Few phytochemical constituents were reported on this plant. However, there is no pharmacognostical report to authenticate the commercial samples of B. fungosa and to differentiate them from Scindapsus officinalis. This article describes the pharmacognostical characteristics of Balanophora fungosa and diagnostic features to differentiate it from Scindapsus officinalis.
Balanophora fungosa Forster & Forster ssp. Indica (Arn.) B. Hansen var. Indica; B. indica (Arn.) Wallich ex Griffith; Langsdorffia indica Arn.; Balanophoraceae; root parasite; pharmacognosy; ethnobotany; indigenous systems of medicine; Gajapippali; Scindapsus officinalis; adulterant; substitute; Negative list; prohibited plants