Specific stability indicating reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC) assay method (SIAM) was developed for the determination of cinnarizine (Cinn)/piracetam (Pira) and cinnarizine (Cinn)/heptaminol acefyllinate (Hept) in the presence of the reported degradation products of Cinn. A C18 column and gradient mobile phase was applied for good resolution of all peaks. The detection was achieved at 210 nm and 254 nm for Cinn/Pira and Cinn/Hept, respectively. The responses were linear over concentration ranges of 20–200, 20–1000 and 25–1000 μgmL−1 for Cinn, Pira, and Hept respectively. The proposed method was validated for linearity, accuracy, repeatability, intermediate precision, and robustness via statistical analysis of the data. The method was shown to be precise, accurate, reproducible, sensitive, and selective for the analysis of Cinn/Pira and Cinn/Hept in laboratory prepared mixtures and in pharmaceutical formulations.
cinnarizine; piracetam; heptaminol acefyllinate; stability indicating assay method (SIAM); reverse-phase liquid chromatography (RP-LC)
Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) have many attributes that make them attractive for field detection of environmental contaminants, industrial process control, as well as materials detection/identification in agriculture, pharmaceuticals, law enforcement/first responders, geology, and archeology. However, portable, robust, inexpensive Raman systems are required for these applications. In this communication, the performances of two commercially available, portable Raman systems are evaluated.
portable Raman systems; SERS; Raman spectroscopy
Two simple, accurate and reproducible methods were developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of paracetamol (PARA) and pamabrom (PAMB) in pure form and in tablets. The first method was based on reserved-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, on a Thermo Hypersil ODS column using methanol:0.01 M sodium hexane sulfonate:formic acid (67.5:212.5:1 v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The flow rate was 2 mL/min and the column temperature was adjusted to 35 °C. Quantification was achieved with UV detection at 277 nm over concentration range of 100–600 and 4–24 μg/mL, with mean percentage recoveries were found to be 99.90 ± 0.586 and 99.26 ± 0.901 for PARA and PAMB, respectively. The second method was based on thin-layer chromatography separation of PARA and PAMB followed by densitometric measurement of the spots at 254 nm and 277 nm for PARA and PAMB respectively. Separation was carried out on aluminum sheet of silica gel 60F254 using dichloromethane:methanol:glacial acetic acid (7.5:1:0.5 v/v/v) as the mobile phase over concentration range of 1–10 and 0.32–3.20 μg per spot, with mean percentage recovery of 100.52 ± 1.332 and 99.71 ± 1.478 for PARA and PAMB, respectively. The methods retained their accuracy in presence of up to 50% of P-aminophenol and could be successfully applied in tablets.
paracetamol; pamabrom; determination; RP-LC; TLC densitometry; P-aminophenol
The acid dissociation constant (pKa) is among the most frequently used physicochemical parameters, and its determination is of interest to a wide range of research fields. We present a brief introduction on the conceptual development of pKa as a physical parameter and its relationship to the concept of the pH of a solution. This is followed by a general summary of the historical development and current state of the techniques of pKa determination and an attempt to develop insight into future developments. Fourteen methods of determining the acid dissociation constant are placed in context and are critically evaluated to make a fair comparison and to determine their applications in modern chemistry. Additionally, we have studied these techniques in light of present trends in science and technology and attempt to determine how these trends might affect future developments in the field.
review; history; dissociation constant; pKa; pH
The biogeochemical fate of organic matter (OM) entering soils is an important issue that must be examined to better understand its roles in nitrogen cycling and as a natural modulator of soil-atmospheric carbon fluxes. Despite these critical roles, there are uncertainties in estimating the contribution of this feedback mechanism due in part to a lack of molecular-level information regarding the origin and labile and refractory inventories of OM in soils. In this study, we used a multi-analytical approach to determine molecular-level information for the occurrence and stabilization of OM in a bird guano concretion of the Late Miocene or Pliocene age in Jamaica. We determined the specific organic structures persisting in the concretion and the possible contribution of fossil organic matter to the OM pool in modern environments. Our results indicate that aliphatic species, presumably of a highly polymethylenic nature [(CH2)n], may significantly contribute to the stable soil-C pool. Although not as significant, proteins and carbohydrates were also enriched in the sample, further suggesting that fossil organic matter may contribute to carbon and nitrogen pools in present day soil organic matter.
bird guano concretion; fossil organic matter; molecular-level; organic matter; soil organic matter; stabilization
1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is an aliphatic amine with stimulant properties that are reportedly found naturally only in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants was first reported in a paper published in 1996, but some have questioned the identification of 1,3-DMAA in that study. Since then, a number of additional studies have been published, largely reporting the absence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants and commercial geranium oils. However, in two recent studies, 1,3-DMAA was detected in geranium plant tissues and a geranium oil sample using a simplified extraction approach on tissues and oil sourced from China. Whether or not 1,3-DMAA is found naturally in plants has significant implications as to how commercial products containing 1,3-DMAA are regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. In this paper, differences in source materials, extraction procedures, and analytical approaches are reviewed in an attempt to rationalize the apparently conflicting evidence for the presence of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plant materials.
DMAA; geranium; Pelargonium graveolens; natural products
This paper describes a stripping method for the determination of acyclovir at the submicromolar concentration level. This method is based on controlled adsorptive accumulation of acyclovir at thin-film mercury electrode, followed by a linear cyclic scan voltammetry measurement of the surface species. Optimal experimental conditions include a NaOH solution of 2.0 × 10−3 mol L−1 (supporting electrolyte), an accumulation potential of −0.40 V, and a scan rate of 100 mV s−1. The response of acyclovir is linear over the concentration range 0.02 to 0.12 ppm. For an accumulation time of 4 minutes, the detection limit was found to be 0.42 ppb (1.0 × 10−9 mol L−1). More convenient methods to measure the acyclovir in presence of the didanosine, efavirenz, nevirapine, nelfinavir, lamivudine, and zidovudine were also investigated. The utility of this method is demonstrated by the presence of acyclovir together with Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) or DNA.
acyclovir determination; antiretroviral drugs; DNA; thin-film mercury electrode; stripping voltammetry
A novel, selective, and sensitive reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method coupled with fluorescence detection has been developed for the determination of tobramycin (TOB) in pure form, in ophthalmic solution and in spiked human plasma. Since TOB lacks UV absorbing chromophores and native fluorescence, pre-column derivatization of TOB was carried out using fluorescamine reagent (0.01%, 1.5 mL) and borate buffer (pH 8.5, 2 mL). Experimental design was applied for optimization of the derivatization step. The resulting highly fluorescent stable derivative was chromatographed on C18 column and eluted using methanol:water (60:40, v/v) at a flow rate of 1 mL min−1. A fluorescence detector (λex 390 and λem 480 nm) was used. The method was linear over the concentration range 20–200 ng mL−1. The structure of the fluorescent product was proposed, the method was then validated and applied for the determination of TOB in human plasma. The results were statistically compared with the reference method, revealing no significant difference.
tobramycin; experimental design; HPLC; derivatization; fluorescamine; plasma
A stability-indicating reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the determination of betaxolol hydrochloride, a drug used in the treatment of hypertension and glaucoma. The desired chromatographic separation was achieved on a Nucleosil C18, 4 μm (150 × 4.6 mm) column, using isocratic elution at a 220 nm detector wavelength. The optimized mobile phase consisted of a 0.02 M potassium dihydrogen phosphate: methanol (40:60, v/v, pH 3.0 adjusted with o- phosphoric acid) as solvent. The flow rate was 1.6 mL/min and the retention time of betaxolol hydrochloride was 1.72 min. The linearity for betaxolol hydrochloride was in the range of 25 to 200 μg/mL. Recovery for betaxolol hydrochloride was calculated as 100.01%–101.35%. The stability-indicating capability was established by forced degradation experiments and the separation of unknown degradation products. The developed RP-HPLC method was validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. This validated method was applied for the estimation of betaxolol hydrochloride in commercially available tablets.
betaxolol hydrochloride; method validation; forced degradation; tablet drug product; chromatography
Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry is evaluated as an elucidation tool for structural features and molecular weights estimation of some extracted herbaceous lignins. Optimization of analysis conditions, using a typical organic matrix, namely α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid (CHCA), in combination with α-cyclodextrin, allows efficient ionization of poorly soluble lignin materials and suppression of matrix-related ions background. Analysis of low-mass fragments ions (m/z 100–600) in the positive ion mode offers a “fingerprint” of starting lignins that could be a fine strategy to qualitatively identify principal inter-unit linkages between phenylpropanoid units. The molecular weights of lignins are estimated using size exclusion chromatography and compared to MALDI-TOF-MS profiles. Miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus) and Switchgrass (Panicum Virgatum L.) lignins, recovered after a formic acid/acetic acid/water process or aqueous ammonia soaking, are selected as benchmarks for this study.
mass spectrometry; biomass; lignin
1,3-Dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) is a stimulant commercially sold in a variety of dietary supplements as a chemical species derived from geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). Whether 1,3-DMAA naturally occurs in geranium plants or other dietary ingredients, it has important regulatory and commercial ramifications. However, the analysis of 1,3-DMAA in geranium plants is not trivial due to low concentrations and a complex environmental matrix, requiring high selectivity and sensitivity. An extraction method combined with high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry is used to determine 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) concentrations in geranium plants with both external calibration and standard addition method. Samples from the Changzhou, Kunming, and Guiyang regions of China during both winter and summer were analyzed for 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The diastereomer ratios of the 1,3-DMAA stereoisomers of a racemic standard and the extracted plant were also quantified.
DMAA; geranium; natural product analysis; HPLC; mass spectrometry
A sensitive and reliable method of liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/ MS) was developed and validated for determining 1,3-dimethylamylamine (1,3-DMAA) and 1,4-dimethylamylamine (1,4-DMAA) in geranium plants (Pelargonium graveolens). The sample was extracted with 0.5 M HCl and purified by liquid-liquid partition with hexane. The parameters for reverse-phase (C18) LC and positive ESI/MS/MS were optimized. The matrix effect, specificity, linearity, precision, accuracy and reproducibility of the method were determined and evaluated. The method was linear over a range of 0.10–10.00 ng/mL examined, with R2 of 0.99 for both 1,3-DMAA and 1,4-DMAA. The recoveries from spiked concentrations between 5.00–40.00 ng/g were 85.1%–104.9% for 1,3-DMAA, with relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2.9%–11.0%, and 82.9%–101.8% for 1,4-DMAA, with RSD of 3.2%–11.7%. The instrument detection limit was 1–2 pg for both DMAAs. The quantification limit was estimated to be 1–2 ng/g for the plant sample. This method was successfully applied to the quantitative determination of 1,3- and 1,4-DMAA in both geranium plant and geranium oil.
1,3-dimethylamylamine; 1,4-dimethylamylamine; geranium (Pelargonium graveolens); liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS)
A novel, quick, reliable and simple capillary zone electrophoresis CZE method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of sitagliptin (SG) and metformin (MF) in pharmaceutical preparations. Separation was carried out in fused silica capillary (50.0 cm total length and 43.0 cm effective length, 49 μm i.d.) by applying a potential of 15 KV (positive polarity) and a running buffer containing 60 mM phosphate buffer at pH 4.0 with UV detection at 203 nm. The samples were injected hydrodynamically for 3 s at 0.5 psi and the temperature of the capillary cartridge was kept at 25 °C. Phenformin was used as internal standard (IS). The method was suitably validated with respect to specificity, linearity, limit of detection and quantitation, accuracy, precision, and robustness. The method showed good linearity in the ranges of 10–100 μg/mL and 50–500 μg/mL with limits of detection of 0.49, 2.11 μg/mL and limits of quantification of 1.48, 6.39 μg/mL for SG and MF, respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied for the analysis of the studied drugs in their synthetic mixtures and co-formulated tablets without interfering peaks due to the excipients present in the pharmaceutical tablets. The method was further extended to the in-vitro determination of the two drugs in spiked human plasma. The estimated amounts of SG/MF were almost identical with the certified values, and their percentage relative standard deviation values (% R.S.D.) were found to be ≤1.50% (n = 3). The results were compared to a reference method reported in the literature and no significant difference was found statistically.
sitagliptin; metformin; simultaneous determination; capillary zone electrophoresis; validation; pharmaceutical preparations; human plasma
Two stability indicating chromatographic methods were proposed for the determination of almotriptan, eletriptan, and rizatriptan, in presence of their acid degradation products. The first method is a quantitative densitometric thin layer chromatography. The developing systems were; acetonitrile: methanol: dichloromethane: ammonia (10:6:3:1 v/v), ethyl acetate: methanol: ammonia (15:4:1 v/v), and methanol: acetonitrile: ammonia (9:4:1 v/v) for almotriptan, eletriptan and rizatriptan respectively. The TLC plates were scanned at 235 nm. Linear relationships were obtained over concentration ranges (5–50 μg/spot) for almotriptan and rizatriptan, and (5–60 μg/spot) for eletriptan. The second method based on the separation and determination of the studied drugs, using RP-HPLC technique. The separation was achieved on C18 Hypersil column, elution was carried out using phosphate buffer pH 3: methanol: acetonitrile (2: 1:1 v/v) at flow rate 2 mL/min and UV detection at 235 nm. Linear relationships were obtained over concentration ranges (10–200 μg/mL) for almotriptan and eletriptan, and (10–180 μg/mL) for rizatriptan. The chromatographic methods were successfully applied for the determination of each of the studied drugs in pure form, tablet form, and in laboratory prepared mixtures with their acid degradation products.
chromatography; antimigraine; almotriptan; eletriptan; rizatriptan; high performance liquid chromatography; thin layer chromatography
A methodology that utilizes 1H-NMR spectroscopy has been developed to simultaneously analyze toxic terpenes (thujone and camphor), major polyphenolic compounds, the total antioxidant capacity (ORAC) and the Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) index in foods and medicines containing sage. The quantitative determination of rosmarinic acid (limit of detection (LOD) = 10 mg/L) and total thujone (LOD = 0.35 mg/L) was possible using direct integration of the signals. For other parameters (derivatives of rosmarinic acid, carnosol and flavone glycosides, ORAC and FC index), chemometric regression models obtained separately for alcohol-based tinctures (R2 = 0.94–0.98) and aqueous tea infusions (R2 = 0.79–0.99) were suitable for screening analysis. The relative standard deviations for authentic samples were below 10%. The developed methodology was applied for the analysis of a wide variety of sage products (n = 108). The total thujone content in aqueous tea infusions was found to be in the range of not detectable (nd) to 37.5 mg/L (average 9.2 mg/L), while tinctures contained higher levels (range nd—409 mg/L, average 107 mg/L). The camphor content varied from 2.1 to 43.7 mg/L in aqueous infusions and from not detectable to 748 mg/L in tinctures (averages were 14.1 and 206 mg/L, respectively). Phenolic compounds were also detected in the majority of the investigated products. 1H-NMR spectroscopy was proven to have the ability to holistically control all important adverse and beneficial compounds in sage products in a single experiment, considerably saving time, resources and costs as NMR replaces four separate methodologies that were previously needed to analyze the same parameters.
sage; Salvia officinalis L.; tea infusion; NMR spectroscopy; polyphenols
Three simple spectrophotometric and atomic absorption spectrometric methods are developed and validated for the determination of moxifloxacin HCl in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. Method (A) is a kinetic method based on the oxidation of moxifloxacin HCl by Fe3+ ion in the presence of 1,10 o-phenanthroline (o-phen). Method (B) describes spectrophotometric procedures for determination of moxifloxacin HCl based on its ability to reduce Fe (III) to Fe (II), which was rapidly converted to the corresponding stable coloured complex after reacting with 2,2′ bipyridyl (bipy). The formation of the tris-complex formed in both methods (A) and (B) were carefully studied and their absorbance were measured at 510 and 520 nm respectively. Method (C) is based on the formation of ion- pair associated between the drug and bismuth (III) tetraiodide in acidic medium to form orange—red ion-pair associates. This associate can be quantitatively determined by three different procedures. The formed precipitate is either filtered off, dissolved in acetone and quantified spectrophotometrically at 462 nm (Procedure 1), or decomposed by hydrochloric acid, and the bismuth content is determined by direct atomic absorption spectrometric (Procedure 2). Also the residual unreacted metal complex in the filtrate is determined through its metal content using indirect atomic absorption spectrometric technique (procedure 3). All the proposed methods were validated according to the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines, the three proposed methods permit the determination of moxifloxacin HCl in the range of (0.8–6, 0.8–4) for methods A and B, (16–96, 16–96 and 16–72) for procedures 1–3 in method C. The limits of detection and quantitation were calculated, the precision of the methods were satisfactory; the values of relative standard deviations did not exceed 2%. The proposed methods were successfully applied to determine the drug in its pharmaceutical formulations without interference from the common excipients. The results obtained by the proposed methods were comparable with those obtained by the reference method.
moxifloxacin HCl; o-phenanthroline; bipyridyl; Bi(III)-iodide; kinetic; ion- pair; spectrophotometric
This study describes an extremely sensitive and simple assay to measure small volumes of solutions, <1 nL. The assay takes advantage of the Sandell-Kolthoff reaction in which yellow cerium(IV) is reduced to colorless cerium(III) in the presence of arsenic(III) and catalytic quantities of iodide ion. The reaction is linear with respect to the rate of Ce(IV) reduction and the quantity of I− present. Typical assays can measure 10–100 picomoles of iodide in a sample. When I− is substituted for chloride ion in standard biological buffers, such as Tris-buffered saline, the assay can be used to determine the volume of solution printed in a microarray.
iodide assay; small volume measurement; microarrays; silicon chips
A spectrophotometric method was developed for simultaneous determination of amlodipine (Aml) and valsartan (Val) without previous separation. In this method amlodipine in methanolic solution was determined using zero order UV spectrophotometry by measuring its absorbency at 360.5 nm without any interference from valsartan.
Valsartan spectrum in zero order is totally overlapped with that of amlodipine. First, second and third derivative could not resolve the overlapped peaks.
The first derivative of the ratio spectra technique was applied for the measurement of valsartan. The ratio spectrum was obtained by dividing the absorption spectrum of the mixture by that of amlodipine, so that the concentration of valsartan could be determined from the first derivative of the ratio spectrum at 290 nm. Quantification limits of amlodipine and valsartan were 10–80 μg/ml and 20–180 μg/ml respectively. The method was successfully applied for the quantitative determination of both drugs in bulk powder and pharmaceutical formulation.
spectrophotometry; derivative ratio; amlodipine and valsartan
A conductimetric enzyme biosensor for uric acid detection has been developed. The uricase, as enzyme, is isolated from Candida utilis and immobilized on a nata de coco membrane-Pt electrode. The biosensor demonstrates a linear response to urate over the concentration range 1–6 ppm and has good selectivity properties. The response is affected by the membrane thickness and pH change in the range 7.5–9.5. The response time is three minutes in aqueous solutions and in human serum samples. Application of the biosensor to the determination of uric acid in human serum gave results that compared favourably with those obtained by medical laboratory. The operational stability of the biosensor was not less than three days and the relative error is smaller than 10%.
biosensor; conductimetry; uric acid; nata de coco membrane
A new simple and highly sensitive spectrophotometric method for determining nitrogen dioxide in air was developed. The method is based on converting atmospheric nitrogen dioxide to nitrite ions within the IVL passive samplers used for samples collection. Acidifying nitrite ions with concentrated HCl produced the peroxynitrous acid oxidizing agent which was measured using 2, 2-azino-bis(3-ethyl benzothiazoline)-6-sulfonic acid-diammonium salt (ABTS) as reducing coloring agent. A parallel series of collected samples were measured for its nitrite content using a validated ion chromatographic method.
The results obtained using both methods were compared in terms of their sensitivity and accuracy. Developed spectrophotometric method was shown to be one order of magnitude higher in sensitivity compared to the ion chromatographic method. Quantitation limits of 0.05 ppm and 0.55 μg/m3 were obtained for nitrite ion and nitrogen dioxid, respectively. Standard deviations in the ranges of 0.05–0.59 and 0.63–7.92 with averages of 0.27 and 3.11 were obtained for determining nitrite and nitrogen dioxide, respectively.
Student-t test revealed t-values less than 6.93 and 4.40 for nitrite ions and nitrogen dioxide, respectively. These values indicated insignificant difference between the averages of the newly developed method and the values obtained by ion chromatography at 95% confidence level.
Compared to continuous monitoring techniques, the newly developed method has shown simple, accurate, sensitive, inexpensive and reliable for long term monitoring of nitrogen dioxide in ambient air.
spectrophotometry; nitrogen dioxide; nitrous acid; peroxynitrous acid; atmosphere; ABTS; passive samplers; ion chromatography
The effect of varying short-chain alkyl substitution of the indole nitrogens on the spectroscopic properties of cyanine dyes was examined. Molar absorptivities and fluorescence quantum yields were determined for a set of pentamethine dyes and a set of heptamethine dyes for which the substitution of the indole nitrogen was varied. For both sets of dyes, increasing alkyl chain length resulted in no significant change in quantum yield or molar absorptivity. These results may be useful in designing new cyanine dyes for analytical applications and predicting their spectroscopic properties.
cyanine dyes; spectroscopy; quantum yield; molar absorptivity; substitution effects
Alkyl methanesulfonates have been highlighted as potential genotoxic impurities (PGIs). A sensitive LC/MS/MS method was developed and validated for the determination of Alkyl methanesulfonate impurities in Emtricitabine API (active pharmaceutical ingredient). LC/MS/MS method on Zorbax SB C18 column (150 × 4.6 mm i.d.), 3.5 μm, with electrospray ionization (ESI) in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode was used. The proposed method was specific, linear, accurate, rugged and precise. The calibration curves showed good linearity over the concentration range of 0.0025 μg/ml to 0.3 μg/ml the correlation coefficient was >0.999 in each case. Method had very low limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) as 0.3 μg/g and 0.4 μg/g respectively for both the analytes. Accuracy was observed within 80%–120% for both the analytes. This method can be further extended a good quality control tool for low level quantitation of Alkyl methanesulfonate impurities in other API.
methyl methanesulfonate; ethyl methanesulfonate; LC/MS/MS; Emtricitabine; genotoxic impurities; trace analysis
The present study describes a simple and highly selective method for separation, preconcentration and spectrophotometric determination of extremely low concentrations of lead. It is based on flotation of a complex of Pb2+ ions and Alizarin yellow between aqueous and n-hexane interface at pH = 6. The proposed procedure is also applied for determination of lead in both tap water and prepared sea water samples. Beer’s Law was obeyed over the concentration range of 3.86 × 10–8 To 8.20 × 10–7 molL−1 (8–170 ngmL−1) with an apparent molar absorptivity of 1.33 × 106 molL−1 cm−1 for a 100 mL aliquot of the water sample. The detection limit (n = 10) was 8.7 × 10–9 molL−1 (1.0 ngmL−1) and the Relative standard deviation (R.S.D), (n = 10) for 7.2 × 10–7 molL−1 (150 ngmL−1) of Pb (II) was 4.36%. A notable advantage of the method is that the determination of Pb (II) is free from the interference of almost all cations and ions found in the environment and waste water samples. The determination of Pb (II) in tap and synthetic seawater samples was also carried out by the present method. The results were satisfactorily comparable so that the applicability of the proposed method was confirmed to the real samples.
flotation–extraction; lead; alizarin yellow; spectrophotometry
This paper deals with development and validation of a high performance liquid chromatographic method for the quantitative determination of disodium EDTA (Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid) in Meropenem active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). EDTA was derivatized with Ferric chloride solution by heating at 70 °C in water bath for about 20 minutes and the chromatographic separation achieved by injecting 100 μL of the derivatized mixture into a Waters HPLC system with photodiode array detector using a Phenomenex Luna C18(2) column (250 × 4.6 mm), 5 μ. The mobile phase consisting of 5% methanol and 95% of 0.7 g/L solution of Tetra butyl ammonium bromide and 4.6 g/L solution of sodium acetate trihydrate in water (pH adjusted to 4.0 with the help of acetic acid glacial) and a flow rate of 1 milliliter/minute. EDTA eluted at approximately 6 minutes. The method was suitably validated with respect to specificity, linearity of response, precision, accuracy, ruggedness, stability in analytical solution, limit of quantitation and detection and robustness for its intended use.
EDTA; HPLC; precolumn derivatization; Meropenem; ferric chloride