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Results 1-9 (9)

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1.  Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) Questionnaire 
To validate the Persian version of the simple shoulder test in patients with shoulder joint problems.
Following Beaton`s guideline, translation and back translation was conducted. We reached to a consensus on the Persian version of SST. To test the face validity in a pilot study, the Persian SST was administered to 20 individuals with shoulder joint conditions. We enrolled 148 consecutive patients with shoulder problem to fill the Persian SST, shoulder specific measure including Oxford shoulder score (OSS) and two general measures including DASH and SF-36. To measure the test-retest reliability, 42 patients were randomly asked to fill the Persian-SST for the second time after one week. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to demonstrate internal consistency over the 12 items of Persian-SST.
ICC for the total questionnaire was 0.61 showing good and acceptable test-retest reliability. ICC for individual items ranged from 0.32 to 0.79. The total Cronbach’s alpha was 0.84 showing good internal consistency over the 12 items of the Persian-SST. Validity testing showed strong correlation between SST and OSS and DASH. The correlation with OSS was positive while with DASH scores was negative. The correlation was also good to strong with all physical and most mental subscales of the SF-36. Correlation coefficient was higher with DASH and OSS in compare to SF-36.
Persian version of SST found to be valid and reliable instrument for shoulder joint pain and function assessment in Iranian population.
PMCID: PMC5100458  PMID: 27847855
Persian; Reliability; Simple shoulder test; Validity
2.  Cloning, expression and immunoreactivity of recombinant Toxoplasma gondii GRA5 protein 
Iranian Journal of Microbiology  2016;8(5):331-337.
Background and Objectives:
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular parasite which causes severe diseases in the fetus of pregnant women and immunocopmromised patients. Serological tests based on recombinant protein are one of the main diagnosis methods for the detection of specific antibodies in serum samples. Dense granule antigenic proteins derived from T. gondii (TgGRAs) are potential antigens for the development of diagnostic tools.
Materials and Methods:
DNA was extracted from T. gondii (RH-strain) tachyzoites and PCR reaction was done using corresponding primers for GRA5 antigen. The PCR product was purified and ligated into pTG19-t vector and then subcloned into XhoI and BamHI digested pGEX6p-1 expression vector. Recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli (BL21 DE3) and induced by 1mM IPTG and analyzed by 15% SDS-PAGE. Expressed protein was confirmed by western blot analysis.
There was no difference among the sequences of T. gondii GRA5 gene from different isolates. The recombinant plasmid pGEX-6p-1/GRA5 induced by IPTG was expressed in E. coli. It was a GST fusion protein and could react with human positive sera analyzed by western blot.
The GRA5 gene of T. gondii isolates is highly conservative. This antigen as a recombinant protein was successfully expressed in E. coli, which showed high immunoreactivity.
PMCID: PMC5277603  PMID: 28149494
Toxoplasma gondii; Dense granule antigen; GRA5; Immunoreactivity
3.  Autophagy Gene Activity May Act As a Key Factor for Sensitivity of Tumor Cells to Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus 
Beclin1 is an important, primary molecule for autophagy.
It is suggested that the control of the autophagy path increases the sensitivity of tumor cells to VSV.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, the degree of Beclin1 gene expression in two cell lines, HeLa and A549, has been examined and the percentage of living cells subsequent infection with virus has been evaluated by MTT assay method.
The results showed that the degree of Beclin1 gene expression in HeLa cells in comparison with A549 cells has reduced, and the sensitivity of these cells to vesicular stomatits virus (VSV) oncolysis is more than A549.
It seems that by using some methods for reducing autophagy, it is possible to make tumor cells more sensitive to virotherapy and even other treatments.
PMCID: PMC4922204  PMID: 27366311
Autophagy; Vesicular Stomatitis Virus; Beclin1; Virotherapy
4.  Testing a New Anticoagulation Method for Free Flap Reconstruction of Head and Neck Cancers 
Free flaps are widely used to reconstruct head and neck defects. Despite the improvement in the surgical techniques and the surgeons’ experiences, flap failures still occur due to thrombotic occlusion after small vessels anastomosis. To reduce the possibility of flap loss as a result of thrombotic occlusion, various anticoagulants have been used. In this study we decided to evaluate a new protocol for anticoagulation therapy and its effect on flap survival and complications.
In this interventional study, 30 patients with head and neck cancer underwent surgical defects were reconstructed by microvascular free flap between 2013 and 2014. In the postoperative period patients have taken aspirin (100 mg/day) for 5 days and enoxaparin (40 mg/day subcutaneously) for 3 days. The flap survival was followed for three weeks.
Given that there was no complete necrosis or loss of flap, the free flap success rate was as much as 100%. The need for re-exploration occurred in 3 patients (10%). Only in one patient the need for re-exploration was due to problem in venous blood flow.
The aspirin-enoxaparin short-term protocol may be a good choice after free flap transfer in reconstruction of head and neck surgical defects.
PMCID: PMC5115141  PMID: 27337950
Free Tissue Flaps; Anticoagulants; Head and Neck Neoplasms
5.  Accelerated Burn Wound Closure in Mice with a New Formula Based on Traditional Medicine 
A combination of the oils of sesame, hemp, wild pistachio, and walnut has been used for treatment of skin disorders, including wound burns, in some parts of Kerman, Iran. Evaluation of this remedy in the form of a pharmaceutical formulation in animal models can pave the way for its future application in wound burn healing in humans.
This experimental study investigated the healing potential of a new formula (NF) based on folk medicine from Iran for the treatment of third degree burns in mice. The formula was a combination of the oils of four plants: sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.), hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), and walnut (Juglans regia L.)
Twenty-four mice were selected based on simple random sampling. Twenty-five percent of the total body surface area was burned by exposure to boiling water, according to the Walker-Mason method. NF and silver sulfadiazine (the positive control) were applied topically twice a day for 21 days. The burned area in the negative control group was left untreated. Epithelialization time and the percent of wound contraction were measured during the treatment period. The process of wound repairing was evaluated using histological (H and E and trichrome staining) and immunohistological (anti-pancytokeratin) methods.
When compared to the controls, NF significantly improved wound contraction after day 10. Epithelialization time in the NF group was significantly faster than in the other groups (20 vs. 25.5 days) (P < 0.001). Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the efficacy of the NF.
A new therapeutic remedy was introduced for the treatment of burn wounds. Further clinical and molecular studies are suggested to determine the exact mechanism(s) involved in the burn wound healing effect of NF.
PMCID: PMC5292211
Burn; Folk Medicine; Healing
6.  Estragole and methyl-eugenol-free extract of Artemisia dracunculus possesses immunomodulatory effects 
Some evidence suggests that chronic uptake of estragole and methyl-eugenol, found in the essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon), may be associated with an increased risk of hepato-carcinogenicity. The present study was conducted to investigate the immumodulatory and anti-inflammatory potentials of estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract of tarragon.
Materials and Methods:
Aqueous, hydroalcoholic, methanol and hexane extracts of dried and milled tarragon was prepared and analyzed by GC-MS. The estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract was characterized and used for evaluation of immunity in NMRI mice after challenging with sheep red blood cells.
It was shown that the aqueous extract of tarragon was free from potentially harmful estragole or methyl-eugenol. Moreover, the immunomodulatory effect of the aqueous extract of tarragon (100 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days) was investigated. The extract significantly increased the level of anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC (antibody and simultaneously decreased the level of cellular immunity in the treatment group. Moreover, tarragon caused a significant reduction in the production of pro-inflammatory IL-17 and IFN-γ in parallel with a reduction in the ratio of INF-γ to Il-10 or IL-17 to IL-10 in the splenocytes. In addition, the levels of the respiratory burst and nitric oxide production in peritoneal macrophages were significantly decreased. Additionally, the phagocytosis potential of macrophages was significantly increased in treated mice.
These data showed that the aqueous extract of tarragon may be used as a natural source to modulate the immune system, because it can inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines and induce anti-inflammatory macrophages.
PMCID: PMC5052415  PMID: 27761422
Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon); Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Macrophage
7.  The Role of Sexual Behaviors in the Relapse Process in Iranian Methamphetamine Users: A Qualitative Study 
Addiction & Health  2016;8(4):242-251.
The awareness of sexual experiences could be an effective factor in preventing high-risk sexual behavior pertaining to relapse during the recovery period of substances. This research explored the role of sexual behaviors among Iranian methamphetamine (MA) users in relapse process.
The study was conducted with a qualitative approach using content analysis method. 28 participants were selected through purposeful and theoretical sampling. Data were collected based on face-to-face, in-depth, semi-structured interviews based on open-ended questions. Interviews continued until the data saturation had occurred. All interviews were examined in four stages of codes, sub-categories, categories and themes according to the content analysis of explanations and descriptions of sexual behaviors.
Two main themes were emerged from the analysis of interviews, including extreme pleasure seeking (including the main categories of sexual tunnel vision and sexual totalitarianism) and comprehended threat (including the main categories of internal conflict and external disorganization) as well as 10 subcategories.
The results indicated that sexual behaviors played an important role in relapse process among Iranian MA users and needed to be considered and managed properly in the planning of prevention, treatment, and rehabilitation.
PMCID: PMC5554804
Sexual behaviors; Relapse; Methamphetamine users; Qualitative research
8.  Identifying the Prognosis Factors in Death after Liver Transplantation via Adaptive LASSO in Iran 
Despite the widespread use of liver transplantation as a routine therapy in liver diseases, the effective factors on its outcomes are still controversial. This study attempted to identify the most effective factors on death after liver transplantation. For this purpose, modified least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO), called Adaptive LASSO, was utilized. One of the best advantages of this method is considering high number of factors. Therefore, in a historical cohort study from 2008 to 2013, the clinical findings of 680 patients undergoing liver transplant surgery were considered. Ridge and Adaptive LASSO regression methods were then implemented to identify the most effective factors on death. To compare the performance of these two models, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used. According to the results, 12 factors in Ridge regression and 9 ones in Adaptive LASSO regression were significant. The area under the ROC curve (AUC) of Adaptive LASSO was equal to 89% (95% CI: 86%–91%), which was significantly greater than Ridge regression (64%, 95% CI: 61%–68%) (p < 0.001). As a conclusion, the significant factors and the performance criteria revealed the superiority of Adaptive LASSO method as a penalized model versus traditional regression model in the present study.
PMCID: PMC5014976  PMID: 27648080
9.  Assessing the Epidemiological Data and Management Methods of Body Packers Admitted to a Referral Center in Iran 
Medicine  2016;95(19):e3656.
The incidence of smuggling and transporting illegal substances by internal concealment, also known as body packing, is on the rise. The clinical approach to such patients has been changed significantly over the past 2 decades. However, despite a recorded increase in body packing in general, there are controversies in the management of these patients. We aimed to gather data regarding the demographic characteristics, treatment, and outcome of body packers, which were that referred to Loghman Hakim Hospital, Tehran, Iran.
The data of all body packers admitted to Loghman Hakim Hospital during 2010 to 2014 were evaluated retrospectively. Data regarding the demographic characteristics of the patients, findings of clinical imaging, treatment, and outcome were recorded.
In this study, 175 individuals with a mean age of 31 ± 10 years were assessed. The most common concealed substances were crack (37%), crystal (17%), opium (13%), and heroin (6%). According to the results of surgery and imaging (abdominal radiography or computed tomography), the most common place for concealment was stomach in 33.3% and 12% of cases, respectively. Imaging findings were normal in 18% of the individuals. Forty-eight (27%) patients underwent surgery. The main indications for surgery were clinical manifestations of toxicity (79%) and obstruction of the gastro-intestinal tract (17%). The most common surgical techniques were laparotomy and gastrotomy (50%). The mean duration of hospitalization was 3.8 ± 4 days. The mortality rate was 3%.
Conservative treatment of body packers seems to be the best treatment method. Careful monitoring of the patients for possible signs and symptoms of intoxication and gastro-intestinal obstruction is strongly recommended.
PMCID: PMC4902535  PMID: 27175693

Results 1-9 (9)