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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  How Can a Radiologist Reveal More Practical Information Using Dynamic Study of Cavernosal Artery After Injection of Vasoactive Agents? 
Iranian Journal of Radiology  2015;12(1):e12556.
Erection is a dynamic multi-stage neurovascular phenomenon consisting of 4 phases. Conventional protocol of color Doppler study can easily overlook these ongoing dynamic events.
Here, we tried to designate patterns for these dynamic spectral waveform changes of cavernosal arteries in patients with erectile dysfunction and subsequently better describe the extent of their underlying problem.
Patients and Methods:
We evaluated 59 men who were referred for post-intracavernosal injection (ICI) color Doppler investigation of suspected erectile dysfunction (ED). The demographic data and medical history were recorded. Afterwards, first scan injection was done. Then scanning of cavernosal arteries was started about one minute after the injection and was continued thereafter. For better description of temporal changes in the waveform of cavernosal arteries, new patterns were defined and used. Patients were also classified based on previously known etiologic categories (i.e. arterial insufficiency, venous leak, mixed type, and normal response).
The mean age was 45.6 ± 13.1 (24 to 74 ) years. Twenty-two were normal responders [considered as non-organic causes (37.3% of all patients)], 27 were classified as venous leakage, eight had arterial insufficiency and two were mixed type. Maximum PSV occurred before the fifth minute in 47 patients (92.2%). Eight patients completed all phases of erection in the first 5 minutes. We defined 8 patterns for the temporal changes in cavernosal arterial waveform. Pattern 5 was the most common pattern of venous leak; while, patterns 3 and 4 were considered as the uncommon group. Six patients demonstrated the uncommon patterns of venous leak (22.2%). Hypertension was more prevalent in the uncommon pattern of venous leak.
We highlight the considerable role of continuous evaluation starting one minute after intra cavernosal with ICI injection of the vasoactive agent for better description of the underlying pathologies of ED especially in patients with venous leak etiology.
PMCID: PMC4347795  PMID: 25785177
Papaverine; Doppler Ultrasonography, Erectile Dysfunction

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