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1.  Optimization of Effective Minerals on Riboflavin Production by Bacillus subtilis subsp. subtilis ATCC 6051 Using Statistical Designs 
Background:
Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is an essential component of the basic metabolism, and an important nutritional and growth factor in humans, animals, plants and micro-organisms. It has been widely used in the fields of pharmaceuticals, feed and food additives. The industrial production of riboflavin mostly relies on the microbial fermentation. Designing an appropriate fermentation medium is of crucial importance to improve the riboflavin production.
Methods:
In this study, sequential methodology combining a screening test of minerals by Plackett-Burman (PB) and an optimization test by Central Composite Design (CCD) was applied to enhance riboflavin production by Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051 in shake flasks.
Results:
Initially, one-factor-at-a-time approach was applied to evaluate the effect of different carbon sources. The results showed that fructose was significantly most effective on biomass and riboflavin production. After that, 13 minerals [CaCl2, CuCl, FeCl3, FeSO4, AlCl3, Na3MoO4, Co(NO3)2, NaCl, KH2PO4, K2HPO4, MgSO4, ZnSO4, and MnSO4] were studied with the screening test. The results revealed that concentration of MgSO4, K2HPO4, and FeSO4 had greater influence on riboflavin production (p< 0.05). A CCD with five factors (concentration of fructose, MgSO4, K2HPO4, FeSO4, and yeast extract) at five levels was then used to determine the maximum riboflavin concentration. The optimal concentrations (g/l) of these variables determined by Response Surface Methodology (RSM) were fructose, 38.10; MgSO4, 0.85; K2HPO4, 2.27; FeSO4, 0.02; and yeast extract, 4.37.
Conclusion:
Statistical experimental design offers a practicable approach to the implementation of medium optimization. From an industrial view point, our optimum medium, besides fructose and a small amount of yeast extract, is mainly composed of common and cheap inorganic salts, which are available to the industrial riboflavin production.
PMCID: PMC5742654
Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6051; Minerals; Riboflavin
2.  “A comparison between sugar consumption and ethanol production in wort by immobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Saccharomyces Ludwigii and Saccharomyces Rouxii on Brewer’S Spent Grain” 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2011;42(2):605-615.
The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 70424, Saccharomyces ludwigii DSM 3447 and Saccharomyces rouxii DSM 2531 on brewer’s spent grain and then ethanol production and sugar consumption of these immobilized yeasts were investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the abilities of these three immobilized yeasts for producing alcohol for brewing at two temperatures (7 and 12 °C) using two different sugar levels (one at original level supplied in the brewery and one with 2.5% (w/v), added glucose to the wort).
Increasing both parameters resulted in higher alcohol production by all the yeasts studied. At 7 °C and with original wort density the ethanol content at the end of fermentation was 2.7% (v/v) for S. cerevisiae, 1.7% for S. ludwigii and 2.0% for S. rouxii. After the addition of 2.5% (w/v) glucose at the same temperature (7 °C), the alcohol production was increased to 4.1, 2.8 and 4.1%, respectively. Similar improvements were observed when the fermentation was carried out at 12 °C with/without the addition of glucose to the wort. However, temperature indicated greater influence on S. ludwigii than did on S. rouxii and S. cerevisiae. The immobilization as carried out in this study impacted both S. ludwigii and S. rouxii in a way that they could consume maltose under certain conditions.
doi:10.1590/S1517-838220110002000025
PMCID: PMC3769836  PMID: 24031672
Brewer’s spent grain; Fermentation; Immobilization; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces ludwigii; Saccharomyces rouxii
3.  Antibacterial properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer savory extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2011;42(4):1453-1462.
Antibacterial properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer savory (Satureja hortensis) extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) were compared with those of the essential oils extracted using the traditional hydrodistillation (HD) method. While MAHD at 660 W required half as much time as HD needed, similar antibacterial efficacies were found from the essential oils obtained by the two extraction methods on two food pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, a gram positive bacterium, and Escherchia coli, a gram negative bacterium). Also, as it was the case with the essential oils extracted by HD, that of MAHD indicated greater influence on S. aureus than on E. coli. The compositions of the extracted essential oils were also studied using GC-MS analysis. The same components with negligible differences in their quantities were found in the extracted essential oils using the two methods outlined above. Overall, to reduce the extraction time, MAHD can be applied at higher microwave levels without any compromise in the antibacterial properties of the essential oils extracted.
doi:10.1590/S1517-838220110004000031
PMCID: PMC3768744  PMID: 24031778
Carvacrol; Flavor and fragrance; Medicinal plant/herb; Pathogens; Scanning electron microscopy (SEM); Summer savory
4.  Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Simple Shoulder Test (SST) Questionnaire 
Background:
To validate the Persian version of the simple shoulder test in patients with shoulder joint problems.
Methods:
Following Beaton`s guideline, translation and back translation was conducted. We reached to a consensus on the Persian version of SST. To test the face validity in a pilot study, the Persian SST was administered to 20 individuals with shoulder joint conditions. We enrolled 148 consecutive patients with shoulder problem to fill the Persian SST, shoulder specific measure including Oxford shoulder score (OSS) and two general measures including DASH and SF-36. To measure the test-retest reliability, 42 patients were randomly asked to fill the Persian-SST for the second time after one week. Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was used to demonstrate internal consistency over the 12 items of Persian-SST.
Results:
ICC for the total questionnaire was 0.61 showing good and acceptable test-retest reliability. ICC for individual items ranged from 0.32 to 0.79. The total Cronbach’s alpha was 0.84 showing good internal consistency over the 12 items of the Persian-SST. Validity testing showed strong correlation between SST and OSS and DASH. The correlation with OSS was positive while with DASH scores was negative. The correlation was also good to strong with all physical and most mental subscales of the SF-36. Correlation coefficient was higher with DASH and OSS in compare to SF-36.
Conclusion:
Persian version of SST found to be valid and reliable instrument for shoulder joint pain and function assessment in Iranian population.
PMCID: PMC5100458  PMID: 27847855
Persian; Reliability; Simple shoulder test; Validity
5.  Cloning, expression and immunoreactivity of recombinant Toxoplasma gondii GRA5 protein 
Iranian Journal of Microbiology  2016;8(5):331-337.
Background and Objectives:
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular parasite which causes severe diseases in the fetus of pregnant women and immunocopmromised patients. Serological tests based on recombinant protein are one of the main diagnosis methods for the detection of specific antibodies in serum samples. Dense granule antigenic proteins derived from T. gondii (TgGRAs) are potential antigens for the development of diagnostic tools.
Materials and Methods:
DNA was extracted from T. gondii (RH-strain) tachyzoites and PCR reaction was done using corresponding primers for GRA5 antigen. The PCR product was purified and ligated into pTG19-t vector and then subcloned into XhoI and BamHI digested pGEX6p-1 expression vector. Recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli (BL21 DE3) and induced by 1mM IPTG and analyzed by 15% SDS-PAGE. Expressed protein was confirmed by western blot analysis.
Results:
There was no difference among the sequences of T. gondii GRA5 gene from different isolates. The recombinant plasmid pGEX-6p-1/GRA5 induced by IPTG was expressed in E. coli. It was a GST fusion protein and could react with human positive sera analyzed by western blot.
Conclusion:
The GRA5 gene of T. gondii isolates is highly conservative. This antigen as a recombinant protein was successfully expressed in E. coli, which showed high immunoreactivity.
PMCID: PMC5277603  PMID: 28149494
Toxoplasma gondii; Dense granule antigen; GRA5; Immunoreactivity
6.  Cloning and Sequence Analysis of Recombinant Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein 1 (PvMSP-142 kDa) In pTZ57R/T Vector 
Iranian Journal of Parasitology  2015;10(2):197-205.
Background:
Carboxy-terminal 42 kDa region of Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-1 is considered as an important antigen in blood stage. Since, this region has been observed to be polymorphic among isolates of P. vivax, it is significant to survey on different regions of this antigen in various areas of the world.
Methods:
In the present study, the genetic diversity of cloned PvMSP-142 kDa gene from an Iranian patient is analyzed. Parasite DNA was extracted from a P. vivax - infected patient in Iran. The region of PvMSP-142 kDa was amplified by PCR, cloned into pTZ57R/T vector and then sequenced.
Results:
Sequencing of cloned PvMSP-142 kDa gene clearly has a high degree of homology (95%) with reference Sal-I sequence and also with the homogeneous sequences from some studied countries (97%). Thirty eight SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphism) were identified in cloned PvMSP-142 kDa gene which the mutations had localized in the 33 kDa fragment (PvMSP-133 kDa), while there was nearly no variation in the 19 kDa fragment (PvMSP-119 kDa). 2 out of 38 mutations were found as to be novel haplotypes.
Conclusion:
High similarity of cloned PvMSP-142 kDa gene in comparison to reference sequence and other sequences could be beneficial as a remarkable molecular marker for serological diagnostic kits of P. vivax in malarious neighboring countries of Iran and around the world.
PMCID: PMC4522295  PMID: 26246817
Plasmodium vivax; Recombinant MSP-1 42 kDa; Sequencing; Iran
7.  High-Level Expression of Immunogenic Recombinant Plasmodium vivax Merozoite Surface Protein (Pvmsp-142 kDa) in pGEX 6P1 Vector 
Abstract
Background
Detection of Plasmodium vivax specific antibodies with serological tests could be a valuable tool for epidemiological researches. Whereas P. vivax cannot be simply obtained in vitro, serological tests using total or semi-purified antigens are infrequently used. Given this restriction, the present study investigated whether recombinant P. vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (PvMSP-1 42 kDa) could be useful in detection of antibodies from the serums of a P. vivax infected person using serological tests.
Methods
Parasite DNA was extracted from blood sample of an Iranian P. vivax-infected patient. The region of PvMSP-142 kDa was amplified by PCR then cloned into pTZ57R/T vector and sequenced. The insert was sub cloned into pGEX 6P1 expression vector. Afterwards, it was transformed into E. coli BL21 and cultured massively. Sub cloning of gene was confirmed by PCR and enzyme digestion and sequencing finally. Production of recombinant protein was confirmed by SDS-PAGE. Western blot was performed by human sera to appraisal binding ability to the IgG antibodies of P. vivax infected patients. Recombinant protein was purified and estimated by Bradford assay.
Results:
The specialty values of the Western blot determined with 10 sera from naturally infected individuals, 10 sera from healthy individuals and 7 sera from individuals with other infectious diseases.
Conclusion
For the Iranian population, using a Western blot assay for MSP-142 recombinant protein can be used as the foundation for promotion of serological assay for the detection of P. vivax malaria such as ELISA.
PMCID: PMC4450018  PMID: 26060780
Plasmodium vivax; Recombinant PvMSP-142 kDa; Expression vector; Iran
8.  Electrocardiogram Based Identification using a New Effective Intelligent Selection of Fused Features 
Over the years, the feasibility of using Electrocardiogram (ECG) signal for human identification issue has been investigated, and some methods have been suggested. In this research, a new effective intelligent feature selection method from ECG signals has been proposed. This method is developed in such a way that it is able to select important features that are necessary for identification using analysis of the ECG signals. For this purpose, after ECG signal preprocessing, its characterizing features were extracted and then compressed using the cosine transform. The more effective features in the identification, among the characterizing features, are selected using a combination of the genetic algorithm and artificial neural networks. The proposed method was tested on three public ECG databases, namely, MIT-BIH Arrhythmias Database, MITBIH Normal Sinus Rhythm Database and The European ST-T Database, in order to evaluate the proposed subject identification method on normal ECG signals as well as ECG signals with arrhythmias. Identification rates of 99.89% and 99.84% and 99.99% are obtained for these databases respectively. The proposed algorithm exhibits remarkable identification accuracies not only with normal ECG signals, but also in the presence of various arrhythmias. Simulation results showed that the proposed method despite the low number of selected features has a high performance in identification task.
PMCID: PMC4335143  PMID: 25709939
Biometrics; identification; electrocardiogram; genetic algorithm; neural networks
9.  Numerical Simulation of the blood flow behavior in the circle of  Willis 
BioImpacts : BI  2014;4(2):89-94.
Introduction: This paper represents the numerical simulation of blood flow in the circle of Willis (CoW). Circle of Willis is responsible for the oxygenated blood distribution into the cerebral mass. To investigate the blood behavior, two Newtonian and non-Newtonian viscosity models were considered and the results were compared under steady state conditions.
Methods: Methodologically, the arterial geometry was obtained using 3D magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) data. The blood flow through the cerebral vasculature was considered to be steady and laminar, and the Galerkin’s finite element method was applied to solve the systems of non-linear Navier-Stokes equations.
Results: Flow patterns including flow rates and shear rates were obtained through the simulation. The minimal magnitude of shear rates was much greater than 100 s-1 through the larger arteries; thus, the non-Newtonian blood viscosity tended to approach the constant limit of infinite shear viscosity through the CoW. So, in larger arteries the non-Newtonian nature of blood was less dominant and it would be treated as a Newtonian fluid. The only exception was the anterior communicating artery (ACoA) in which the blood flow showed different behavior for the Newtonian and non-Newtonian cases.
Conclusion By comparing the results it was concluded that the Newtonian viscosity assumption of blood flow through the healthy, complete circle of Willis under the normal and steady conditions would be acceptably accurate.
doi:10.5681/bi.2014.008
PMCID: PMC4097977  PMID: 25035852
Circle of Willis; Newtonian fluid; non-Newtonian fluid; Navier-Stokes equations FEM
10.  Development, Validity and Reliability of Sexual Health Measures for Spinal Cord Injured Patients in Iran 
Background:
This study developed and validated a questionnaire to measure the sexual health of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI).
Materials and Methods:
This was a cross-sectional study conducted at the Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center (BASIR), Tehran, Iran. Extensive review of literature, expert opinions, and encounters with SCI patients were used to develop and validate the questionnaires. There were 40 (32 males, 8 females) patients with SCI that presented for treatment at BASIR who enrolled in the study. Participants completed the questionnaires while they were admitted for medical care and during treatment follow-up visits. Participants completed the questionnaires twice, at a 2-4 week interval. Reliability testing for each measure was performed separately. Cronbach’s alpha was used for internal consistency and test-retest was used for reliability.
Results:
An expert committee approved the face and content validities of the questionnaires, Internal consistency of our questionnaires, was acceptable according to Cronbach’s alpha that ranged from 0.73 for the sexual activity measure to 0.90 for the sexual adjustment measure. Test-retest reliability was satisfactory. Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) of measures ranged from 0.65 for sexual function to 0.84 for sexual activity.
Conclusion:
The sexual health measures has provided a valid assessment of sexualityrelated matters in this sample of patients with SCI, which suggests that evaluation of sexual well-being may be useful in clinical trials and practice settings. Overall, the sexual health measures shows good internal consistency and test-retest reliability.
PMCID: PMC3850335  PMID: 24520468
Spinal Cord Injury; Sexual Health; Validity; Reliability
11.  Comparing Efficacy of Preoperative neo-Adjuvant Chemotherapy and Surgery versus Surgery Alone in Patients with Resectable Gastroesophageal Cancer 
Background
Recent researches have led to find strategies to prevent relapse and to improve survival for gastric cancer patients, including preoperative neo-adjuvant approaches. However, the efficacy of some neo-adjuvant regimens including 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, and docetaxel have been less investigated. The present study evaluated the outcome and mid-term survival of patients with gastric cancer who undergoing this regimen.
Methods
In a randomized double-blinded controlled trial performed at the Firoozgar hospital in Tehran in 2011-12, 61 patients were randomly assigned to treatment (32 to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy with docetaxel, cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) before surgery and 27 to surgery alone). The present study tried to assess the efficacy of neoadjuvant chemotherapy regarding improvement of mid-term survival, complications, and R0 resection status.
Results
The two groups were matched in terms of gender, mean age, cancer location, and TNM staging. However, R0 resection in the former group was 85.7%; while this indicator in the isolated surgery group was significantly lower (61.5%). Regarding WHO performance, no significant difference was observed across the two groups. Patients in neo-adjuvant chemotherapy group were followed for mean follow-up time 10.32 months and those who categorized in isolated surgery group were followed for mean follow-up time 10.88 months. Mid-term mortality rate in the two groups was 14.3% and 15.4%, respectively (p = 0.866). In this regard, 3-, 6-, and 9-month survival rate in neo-adjuvant chemotherapy group was 96.4%, 89.3%, and 85.7%, respectively. These survival rates in the surgery group were 92.3%, 88.5%, and 84.6%, respectively. Multivariable logistic regression analysis showed that among all study variables, only R0 resection status could predict mid-term mortality.
Conclusion
Neo-adjuvant chemotherapy and surgery compare to surgery alone more improve R0 resection status, but mid-term survival rate is similar in the two regiments. R0 resection status can effectively predict appropriate mid-term survival in undertreated patients.
PMCID: PMC3915424  PMID: 24505539
Gastroesophageal junction; Mortality; Chemotherapy; Surgery
12.  A Comparison between Sedative Effect of Propofol-Fentanyl and Propofol-Midazolam Combinations in Microlaryngeal Surgeries 
Considering the growing trend of laryngeal surgeries and the need to protect the airway during and after surgery, among several therapeutic regimens to induce sedation, two regimens of propofol-fentanyl and propofol-midazolam were compared in microlaryngeal surgeries.
Forty ASA I-II class patients undergoing microlaryngeal surgeries and referring routinely for postoperative visits were randomly recruited into two groups. For all the patients, 0.5 mg/Kg of propofol was used as bolus and then, 50 mcg/Kg/min of the drug was infused intravenously. For one group, 0.03 mg/Kg bolus of midazolam and for the other group, 2 mcg/Kg bolus of fentanyl was administered in combination with propofol. Ramsay system was used in order to evaluate the effect of the two drugs in inducing sedation. The need for additional dose, blood pressure, heart rate, arterial blood oxygen saturation, and also recovery time and adverse effects such as nausea/vomiting and recalling intra-operative memories, were assessed.
The patients in the two groups were not statistically different regarding the number of patients, age, sex, preoperative vital signs, the need for additional doses of propofol, systolic blood pressure and mean systolic blood pressure during laryngoscopy. However, mean systolic blood pressure 1 min after removal of laryngoscope returned faster to the baseline in midazolam group (p < 0.01). Mean heart rate returned sooner to the baseline in fentanyl group following removal of stimulation. Besides, heart rate showed a more reduction following administration of fentanyl (p < 0.02). Mean arterial blood oxygen saturation during laryngoscopy significantly decreased in fentanyl group (p < 0.05) compared to the other group. The time it took to achieve a full consciousness was shorter in midazolam group (p < 0.01). Nausea/vomiting was significantly more prevalent in fentanyl group while the patients in midazolam group apparently experienced more of amnesia, comparatively (p < 0.01).
Inducing laryngeal block and local anesthesia using propofol-midazolam regimen is not only associated with a more rapid recovery and less recalling of unpleasant memories, but also better in preventing reduction of arterial oxygen saturation during laryngoscopy compared with propofol-fentanyl regimen.
PMCID: PMC3813093  PMID: 24250451
Sedation; Microlaryngeal surgery; Propofol; Midazolam; Fentanyl
13.  Station-based deconstructed training model for teaching procedural skills to medical students: a quasi-experimental study 
Background
Every procedural skill consists of some microskills. One of the effective techniques for teaching a main procedural skill is to deconstruct the skill into a series of microskills and train students on each microskill separately. When we learn microskills, we will learn the main skill also. This model can be beneficial for tuition on procedural skills.
Objective
In this study, we propose a stationed-based deconstructed training model for tuition of each microskill, and then we assessed the medical students’ self-perceived abilities.
Methods
This quasi-experimental study was conducted in 268 medical students (536 matched pre- and post-questionnaires) at the surgical clerkship stage during five consecutive years in three teaching and learning groups. In this study, we taught each skill in 10 steps (proposed model) to the students. We then evaluated the students’ self-perceived abilities using a pre- and post-self-assessment technique. SPSS v13 software with one-way analysis of variance and paired t-tests were used for data collection and analysis.
Results
Assessment of medical students’ perceived abilities before and after training showed a significant improvement (P < 0.001) in both cognitive and practical domains. There were also significant differences between the three teaching and learning groups (P < 0.001). There were no significant differences for the different years of training regarding the observed improvement.
Conclusion
This study suggests that deconstructing the practical skills into microskills and tuition of those microskills via the separated structured educational stations is effective according to the students’ self-ratings.
doi:10.2147/AMEP.S13750
PMCID: PMC3643127  PMID: 23745058
clinical skills center; microskills; perceived ability; self-assessment; self-scoring stationed training
14.  A Survey of the Complaints Entering the Medical Council Organization of Tehran in Three Time Periods: The Years Ending on 20 March 1992, 20 March 1997 and 20 March 2002 
One of the most important occupational tensions a physician encounters in his/her practice is the complaints lodged against him/her by the patients. The purpose of this study is examining the complaints against physicians and dentists entering the Medical Council Organization of Tehran in the years ending on 20 March 1992, 20 March 1997 and 20 March 2002 from the viewpoint of number, dispersion and inducing factors.
The present study was performed as a descriptive and retrospective one with the aid of a questionnaire containing concerned data. Filling in the questionnaire or studying the file was accomplished by a trustee expert of the Medical Council Organization and the data obtained were analyzed after classification.
During a 3-year period, 832 complaints were lodged against physicians and dentists. The complaints against physicians in the years ending on 20 March 1997 and 20 March 2002 were 70% more than that in the year ending on 20 March 1992. 83.1% of the physicians and dentists of Tehran that were sued had not been convicted until the date of the performance of the study, on the basis of the contents of the files, and had no malpractice from the vantage point of the Medical Council Organization. The most common causes of complaints from the viewpoint of complainers were therapeutic errors (38%), neglect (30.2%), financial affairs (25.4%) and the physicians’ lack of skill (17.7%). On the basis of this study, with the increase of the doctor’s practice track record and experience more than 15–20 years, the number of the complaints decreases and most of the complaints are against the middle-aged doctors/dentists with 10–20 years of experience.
Most physicians and dentists of Tehran having been sued have not committed any wrong from the vantage point of the Medical Council Organization experts and a large part of the complaints are a consequence of doctor-patient inconvenient interactions. A behavior based on professional commitment of the physician/dentist vis-à-vis the patient can hinder a major part of complaints.
PMCID: PMC3713705  PMID: 23908723
Medical error; Patients’ rights; Malpractice
15.  Repeated Remote Ischemic Conditioning Effect on Ankle-brachial Index in Diabetic Patients - A Randomized Control Trial 
Background:
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon where a short period of ischemia in one organ protects against further ischemia in the other organs. We hypothesized that RIPC occurring in diabetic patients with ankle brachial index (ABI) between 0.70 and 0.90 were included with peripheral arterial disease, would make the better coronary flow resulted in the increasing ABI.
Materials and Methods:
This randomized clinical trial study was done in the Afshar Cardiovascular Hospital in Yazd between 2013 and 2014. Sixty participants were randomly divided into two groups (intervention and control groups). The intervention group was undergoing RIPC, and the control group was tested without RIPC. RIPC was stimulated by giving three cycles of 5 min of ischemia followed by 5 min of reperfusion of both upper arms using a blood pressure cuff inflated to 200 mm Hg (n = 30). This was compared with no RIPC group which consisted of placing a deflated blood pressure cuff on the upper limbs (n = 30).
Results:
The mean of ABI level before intervention in the RIPC and control group group was 0.82 ± 0.055 and 0.83 ± 0.0603 (P = 0.347) respectively, with no significant difference. It was 0.86 ± 0.066 in the RIPC group compared the control 0.83 ± 0.0603 (P = 0.046). So levels of ABI were greater after intervention in the RIPC group. The mean of ABI level increase from 0.82 ± 0.05 to 0.86 ± 0.06 in RIPC group (P = 0.008). So the intervention group showed a significant increase in ABI.
Conclusions:
RIPC through using a simple, noninvasive technique, composing three cycles of 5 min-ischemia of both upper arms, showing a significant increase in ABI level in diabetic patients.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.201685
PMCID: PMC5360001  PMID: 28401075
Ankle brachial index; peripheral arterial disease; remote ischemic preconditioning
16.  Effect of Lactobacillus casei- casei and Lactobacillus reuteri on acrylamide formation in flat bread and Bread roll 
The aim of this study was the evaluation of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contains lactobacillus (L.) casei- casei and L. reuteri on acrylamide formation and physicochemical properties of the Iranian flat bread named, Sangak, and Bread roll. Sangak and Bread roll were made with whole and white wheat flour, respectively. Whole-wheat flour had upper content of protein, sugar, ash, fiber, damaged starch and the activity of amylase than the white wheat flour. After 24 h of fermentation, the pH values of the sourdoughs made from whole-wheat flour (3.00, 2.90) were lower, in compared to sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour (3.60, 3.58). In addition, in Sangak bread, glucose, and fructose were completely utilized after fermentation, but in bread roll, the reduced sugar levels increased after fermentation and baking that represent microorganisms cannot be activated and utilized sugars. Acrylamide formation was impacted by pH of sourdough and total reducing sugar (r = 0.915, r = 0.885 respectively). Bread roll and Sangak bread were fermented by L. casei- casei contained lowest acrylamide content, in two bread types (219.1, 104.3 μg/kg respectively). As an important result, the acrylamide content of Sangak bread in all cases was lower than in the Bread roll.
doi:10.1007/s13197-015-2118-3
PMCID: PMC4984696  PMID: 27570278
Fermentation; Sourdough; Fiber; Bread roll; Sangak bread
17.  Proteolytic and ACE-inhibitory activities of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria as affected by different levels of fat, inulin and starter culture 
In this study, the effects of fat (0.5 %, 3.2 % and 5.0 %), inulin (0.0 and 1.0 %) and starter culture (0.0 %, 0.5 %, 1.0 % and 1.5 %) on the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE)-inhibitory activity of probiotic yogurt containing non-viable bacteria were assessed. Proteolytic activities of bacteria were also investigated. Yogurts were prepared either using a sole yogurt commercial culture including Streptococcus thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subs. bulgaricus or bifidobacterium animalis BB-12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus La5 in addition to yogurt culture. Relative degrees of proteolysis were found to be considerably higher in yogurt samples than UHT milk as the control. Both regular and probiotic yogurts showed considerable ACE-inhibitory activities. Results showed that degree of proteolysis was not influenced by different fat contents, while was increased by high concentration of starter culture (1.5 % w/w) and reduced by inulin (1 % w/w). ACE-inhibitory activities of yogurt were also negatively affected by the presence of inulin and high levels of fat (5 % w/w). Moreover, yogurt containing probiotic bacteria showed higher inhibitory against ACE in comparison to the yogurt prepared with non-probiotic strains.
doi:10.1007/s13197-013-1202-9
PMCID: PMC4375191  PMID: 25829629
Probiotic yogurt; Fat; Inulin; Proteolysis; ACE-inhibitory activity; IC50
18.  Effects of storage time on compositional, micro-structural, rheological and sensory properties of low fat Iranian UF-Feta cheese fortified with fish oil or fish oil powder 
The fish oil (FO), and fish oil powder (FOP) at 10 % of recommended daily intake (RDI) were used to make two types of fortified feta cheeses. The physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties of ripened samples at 0, 30, and 60th days of cold store (5 °C) showed that the FO samples had a faster pH reduction, higher MSNF (milk solid non-fat) increase (p < 0.05) and more pores formation. Storage (G’) and loss (G”) moduli for both samples decreased until the 30th day of cold storage and then increased until the end of the storage time but both of them were higher for FOP samples. The index of secondary lipid oxidation or thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of FO was lower than FOP samples. Although the polyunsaturated fatty acids of both samples were much higher than common feta cheese, their degradation in FO was less than FOP samples after storage. The sensory scores of FO were significantly higher than FOP sample (P < 0.05), and it obtained up to 70 % of overall acceptability after 30 and 60 days storage for its better hardness, texture and flavor.
doi:10.1007/s13197-013-1163-z
PMCID: PMC4348299  PMID: 25745205
Fortification; Fish oil; Fish oil powder; Omega 3; Microstructure; Storage and loss moduli
19.  Autophagy Gene Activity May Act As a Key Factor for Sensitivity of Tumor Cells to Oncolytic Vesicular Stomatitis Virus 
Background:
Beclin1 is an important, primary molecule for autophagy.
Objectives:
It is suggested that the control of the autophagy path increases the sensitivity of tumor cells to VSV.
Materials and Methods:
In this study, the degree of Beclin1 gene expression in two cell lines, HeLa and A549, has been examined and the percentage of living cells subsequent infection with virus has been evaluated by MTT assay method.
Results:
The results showed that the degree of Beclin1 gene expression in HeLa cells in comparison with A549 cells has reduced, and the sensitivity of these cells to vesicular stomatits virus (VSV) oncolysis is more than A549.
Conclusions:
It seems that by using some methods for reducing autophagy, it is possible to make tumor cells more sensitive to virotherapy and even other treatments.
doi:10.17795/ijcp-3919
PMCID: PMC4922204  PMID: 27366311
Autophagy; Vesicular Stomatitis Virus; Beclin1; Virotherapy
20.  Stabilization of canthaxanthin produced by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 with spray drying microencapsulation 
The strain bacterium Dietzia natronolimnaea has propounded as a source for biological production of canthaxanthin. Because of sensitivity of this pigment, examine on its stability is important. In this study, stability of encapsulated canthaxanthin from D. natronolimnaea HS-1 using soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS), gum acacia (GA), and maltodextrin (MD) as wall materials was investigated at 4, 25, and 45 °C in light and dark conditions during 4 months of storage. It was shown that the type of walls influenced the size of emulsion droplets; spray dried particles, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), and retention of canthaxanthin in microcapsules. SSPS and MD produced the smallest and the biggest emulsion droplets and spray dried particles, respectively. Microcapsules made with SSPS resulted in better ME and higher stability for canthaxanthin. Samples were degraded in all conditions, especially in light and 45 °C. Degradation of microencapsulated canthaxanthin with SSPS and GA proceeded more slowly than did with MD. Regardless of the type of wall materials, total canthaxanthin contents of the microencapsulated products decreased by an increase in time or temperature. Also, samples exposed to light indicated less stability at 4 and 25 °C when compared to the storage at dark conditions. According to the results of this study, SSPS can be considered as potential wall material for the encapsulation of carotenoids.
doi:10.1007/s13197-012-0713-0
PMCID: PMC4152546  PMID: 25190874
Microencapsulation; Canthaxanthin; Dietzia natronolimnaea; Spray drying
21.  Canthaxanthin biosynthesis by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1: effects of inoculation and aeration rate 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2014;45(2):447-456.
The interest in production of natural colorants by microbial fermentation has been currently increased. The effects of D-glucose concentration (3.18–36.82 g/L), inoculum size (12.5 × 109–49.5 × 109 cfu cells/mL) and air-flow rate (1.95–12.05 L/L min) on the biomass, total carotenoid and canthaxanthin (CTX) accumulation of Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 in a batch bioreactor was scrutinized using a response surface methodology-central composite rotatable design (RSM-CCRD). Second-order polynomial models with high R2 values ranging from 0.978 to 0.990 were developed for the studied responses using multiple linear regression analysis. The models showed the maximum cumulative amounts of biomass (7.85 g/L), total carotenoid (5.48 mg/L) and CTX (4.99 mg/L) could be achieved at 23.38 g/L of D-glucose, 31.2 × 109 cfu cells/mL of inoculation intensity and air-flow rate of 7.85 L/L min. The predicted values for optimum conditions were in good agreement with experimental data.
PMCID: PMC4166268  PMID: 25242927
Dietzia; microbial canthaxanthin; batch bioreactor; response surface methodology; modeling
22.  Efficient Lentiviral Transduction of Adipose Tissue-Derived Mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Assessment of Their Penetration in Female Mice Cervical Tumor Model 
Background
Although the incidence of cervical cancer has reduced during last years, but it causes mortality among women. Many efforts have performed to develop new drugs and strategy for treatment of cervical cancer. Adipose Tissue-Derived mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) has many advantages which make them a suitable choice as a cell therapeutic agent in cancer treatment. In this study, we aimed to develop an improved protocol for Mouse MSCs transduction as well as assess the homing capacity and incorporation of MSCs in cervical cancer model.
Methods
MScs were isolated from the mouse adipose tissue and characterized by differentiation and flow cytometry. In our study, lentiviral vector transductions of MSCs performed. Their penetrations were detected in tissue sections after injection of transduced MSCs to female C57BL/6 mice as a cervical cancer model.
Results
Results showed that MSCs were efficiently transduced with lentiviral vector resulting in efficient tumor penetration.
Conclusion
The results provide evidence that MSCs were able to penetrate into the tumor mass of cervical tumor model and are good vehicles for gene transfer to cervical cancer.
PMCID: PMC4307105  PMID: 25628843
Lentivector; Adipose Tissue-Derived mouse Mesenchymal Stem Cells; cervical cancer; Transduction
23.  Testing a New Anticoagulation Method for Free Flap Reconstruction of Head and Neck Cancers 
Objectives
Free flaps are widely used to reconstruct head and neck defects. Despite the improvement in the surgical techniques and the surgeons’ experiences, flap failures still occur due to thrombotic occlusion after small vessels anastomosis. To reduce the possibility of flap loss as a result of thrombotic occlusion, various anticoagulants have been used. In this study we decided to evaluate a new protocol for anticoagulation therapy and its effect on flap survival and complications.
Methods
In this interventional study, 30 patients with head and neck cancer underwent surgical defects were reconstructed by microvascular free flap between 2013 and 2014. In the postoperative period patients have taken aspirin (100 mg/day) for 5 days and enoxaparin (40 mg/day subcutaneously) for 3 days. The flap survival was followed for three weeks.
Results
Given that there was no complete necrosis or loss of flap, the free flap success rate was as much as 100%. The need for re-exploration occurred in 3 patients (10%). Only in one patient the need for re-exploration was due to problem in venous blood flow.
Conclusion
The aspirin-enoxaparin short-term protocol may be a good choice after free flap transfer in reconstruction of head and neck surgical defects.
doi:10.21053/ceo.2015.01781
PMCID: PMC5115141  PMID: 27337950
Free Tissue Flaps; Anticoagulants; Head and Neck Neoplasms
24.  Accelerated Burn Wound Closure in Mice with a New Formula Based on Traditional Medicine 
Background
A combination of the oils of sesame, hemp, wild pistachio, and walnut has been used for treatment of skin disorders, including wound burns, in some parts of Kerman, Iran. Evaluation of this remedy in the form of a pharmaceutical formulation in animal models can pave the way for its future application in wound burn healing in humans.
Objectives
This experimental study investigated the healing potential of a new formula (NF) based on folk medicine from Iran for the treatment of third degree burns in mice. The formula was a combination of the oils of four plants: sesame (Sesamum indicum L.), wild pistachio (Pistacia atlantica Desf.), hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), and walnut (Juglans regia L.)
Methods
Twenty-four mice were selected based on simple random sampling. Twenty-five percent of the total body surface area was burned by exposure to boiling water, according to the Walker-Mason method. NF and silver sulfadiazine (the positive control) were applied topically twice a day for 21 days. The burned area in the negative control group was left untreated. Epithelialization time and the percent of wound contraction were measured during the treatment period. The process of wound repairing was evaluated using histological (H and E and trichrome staining) and immunohistological (anti-pancytokeratin) methods.
Results
When compared to the controls, NF significantly improved wound contraction after day 10. Epithelialization time in the NF group was significantly faster than in the other groups (20 vs. 25.5 days) (P < 0.001). Histopathological and immunohistochemical findings confirmed the efficacy of the NF.
Conclusions
A new therapeutic remedy was introduced for the treatment of burn wounds. Further clinical and molecular studies are suggested to determine the exact mechanism(s) involved in the burn wound healing effect of NF.
doi:10.5812/ircmj.26613
PMCID: PMC5292211
Burn; Folk Medicine; Healing
25.  Estragole and methyl-eugenol-free extract of Artemisia dracunculus possesses immunomodulatory effects 
Objective:
Some evidence suggests that chronic uptake of estragole and methyl-eugenol, found in the essential oil of Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon), may be associated with an increased risk of hepato-carcinogenicity. The present study was conducted to investigate the immumodulatory and anti-inflammatory potentials of estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract of tarragon.
Materials and Methods:
Aqueous, hydroalcoholic, methanol and hexane extracts of dried and milled tarragon was prepared and analyzed by GC-MS. The estragole and methyl-eugenol free extract was characterized and used for evaluation of immunity in NMRI mice after challenging with sheep red blood cells.
Results:
It was shown that the aqueous extract of tarragon was free from potentially harmful estragole or methyl-eugenol. Moreover, the immunomodulatory effect of the aqueous extract of tarragon (100 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days) was investigated. The extract significantly increased the level of anti-sheep red blood cells (SRBC (antibody and simultaneously decreased the level of cellular immunity in the treatment group. Moreover, tarragon caused a significant reduction in the production of pro-inflammatory IL-17 and IFN-γ in parallel with a reduction in the ratio of INF-γ to Il-10 or IL-17 to IL-10 in the splenocytes. In addition, the levels of the respiratory burst and nitric oxide production in peritoneal macrophages were significantly decreased. Additionally, the phagocytosis potential of macrophages was significantly increased in treated mice.
Conclusion:
These data showed that the aqueous extract of tarragon may be used as a natural source to modulate the immune system, because it can inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokines and induce anti-inflammatory macrophages.
PMCID: PMC5052415  PMID: 27761422
Artemisia dracunculus (tarragon); Humoral immunity; Cellular immunity; Macrophage

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