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1.  Dopamine-Derived Biological Reactive Intermediates and Protein Modifications: Implications for Parkinson’s Disease 
Chemico-biological interactions  2011;192(1-2):118-121.
Dopamine (DA) undergoes monoamine oxidase catalyzed oxidative deamination to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde (DOPAL), which is metabolized primarily to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) via aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH). Previous studies demonstrated DOPAL to be neurotoxic, more so than DA and other metabolites, and implicated the aldehyde intermediate as a factor in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, the mechanism for generation of DOPAL at aberrant levels and the pathways for toxicity are not conclusively known. Various models for DA catabolism revealed the susceptibility of DOPAL biotransformation (e.g., ALDH) to products of oxidative stress, e.g., 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal, at physiologic/pathologic levels and agents that induce oxidative stress. An elevated concentration of DOPAL correlated with increased protein modification with subsequent work demonstrating significant reactivity of the DA-derived electrophile toward protein nucleophiles compared to DA and other metabolites, e.g., DOPAC. The addition of DOPAL to proteins proceeds via reaction of the aldehyde with Lys residues, yielding a Schiff base; however, post-adduction chemistry occurs for the DOPAL-modification resulting in protein cross-linking. Preliminary work indicates enzymes in DA synthesis and catabolism to be cellular targets for DOPAL. Functional consequences for elevated levels of the DA-derived aldehyde and protein modification may include adverse cellular effects. These data implicate DOPAL as a toxic and reactive intermediate potentially serving as a “chemical trigger” for some stage of PD pathogenesis.
doi:10.1016/j.cbi.2011.01.006
PMCID: PMC3109112  PMID: 21238438
dopamine; 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde; Parkinson’s disease; protein modification; biological reactive intermediate

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