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PubMed Central Canada to be taken offline in February 2018

On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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Results 1-3 (3)
 

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1.  The MLL recombinome of acute leukemias in 2013 
Leukemia  2013;27(11):2165-2176.
Chromosomal rearrangements of the human MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) gene are associated with high-risk infant, pediatric, adult and therapy-induced acute leukemias. We used long-distance inverse-polymerase chain reaction to characterize the chromosomal rearrangement of individual acute leukemia patients. We present data of the molecular characterization of 1590 MLL-rearranged biopsy samples obtained from acute leukemia patients. The precise localization of genomic breakpoints within the MLL gene and the involved translocation partner genes (TPGs) were determined and novel TPGs identified. All patients were classified according to their gender (852 females and 745 males), age at diagnosis (558 infant, 416 pediatric and 616 adult leukemia patients) and other clinical criteria. Combined data of our study and recently published data revealed a total of 121 different MLL rearrangements, of which 79 TPGs are now characterized at the molecular level. However, only seven rearrangements seem to be predominantly associated with illegitimate recombinations of the MLL gene (∼90%): AFF1/AF4, MLLT3/AF9, MLLT1/ENL, MLLT10/AF10, ELL, partial tandem duplications (MLL PTDs) and MLLT4/AF6, respectively. The MLL breakpoint distributions for all clinical relevant subtypes (gender, disease type, age at diagnosis, reciprocal, complex and therapy-induced translocations) are presented. Finally, we present the extending network of reciprocal MLL fusions deriving from complex rearrangements.
doi:10.1038/leu.2013.135
PMCID: PMC3826032  PMID: 23628958
MLL; chromosomal translocations; translocation partner genes; acute leukemia; ALL; AML
2.  Identification of a genetically defined ultra-high-risk group in relapsed pediatric T-lymphoblastic leukemia 
Blood Cancer Journal  2017;7(2):e523-.
In the search for genes that define critical steps of relapse in pediatric T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL) and can serve as prognostic markers, we performed targeted sequencing of 313 leukemia-related genes in 214 patients: 67 samples collected at the time of relapse and 147 at initial diagnosis. As relapse-specific genetic events, we identified activating mutations in NT5C2 (P=0.0001, Fisher's exact test), inactivation of TP53 (P=0.0007, Fisher's exact test) and duplication of chr17:q11.2-24.3 (P=0.0068, Fisher's exact test) in 32/67 of T-ALL relapse samples. Alterations of TP53 were frequently homozygous events, which significantly correlated with higher rates of copy number alterations in other genes compared with wild-type TP53 (P=0.0004, Mann–Whitney's test). We subsequently focused on mutations with prognostic impact and identified genes governing DNA integrity (TP53, n=8; USP7, n=4; MSH6, n=4), having key roles in the RAS signaling pathway (KRAS, NRAS, n=8), as well as IL7R (n=4) and CNOT3 (n=4) to be exclusively mutated in fatal relapses. These markers recognize 24/49 patients with a second event. In 17 of these patients with mostly refractory relapse and dire need for efficient treatment, we identified candidate targets for personalized therapy with p53 reactivating compounds, MEK inhibitors or JAK/STAT-inhibitors that may be incorporated in future treatment strategies.
doi:10.1038/bcj.2017.3
PMCID: PMC5386337  PMID: 28157215
3.  KRAS and CREBBP mutations: a relapse-linked malicious liaison in childhood high hyperdiploid acute lymphoblastic leukemia 
Leukemia  2015;29(8):1656-1667.
High hyperdiploidy defines the largest genetic entity of childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). Despite its relatively low recurrence risk, this subgroup generates a high proportion of relapses. The cause and origin of these relapses remains obscure. We therefore explored the mutational landscape in high hyperdiploid (HD) ALL with whole-exome (n=19) and subsequent targeted deep sequencing of 60 genes in 100 relapsing and 51 non-relapsing cases. We identified multiple clones at diagnosis that were primarily defined by a variety of mutations in receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK)/Ras pathway and chromatin-modifying genes. The relapse clones consisted of reappearing as well as new mutations, and overall contained more mutations. Although RTK/Ras pathway mutations were similarly frequent between diagnosis and relapse, both intergenic and intragenic heterogeneity was essentially lost at relapse. CREBBP mutations, however, increased from initially 18–30% at relapse, then commonly co-occurred with KRAS mutations (P<0.001) and these relapses appeared primarily early (P=0.012). Our results confirm the exceptional susceptibility of HD ALL to RTK/Ras pathway and CREBBP mutations, but, more importantly, suggest that mutant KRAS and CREBBP might cooperate and equip cells with the necessary capacity to evolve into a relapse-generating clone.
doi:10.1038/leu.2015.107
PMCID: PMC4530204  PMID: 25917266

Results 1-3 (3)