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1.  Association of UCP-3-rs1626521 with Obesity and Stomach Functions in Humans 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2015;23(4):898-906.
To examine the association of gene variants of uncoupling proteins (UCP)-2 and -3 with obesity and gastrointestinal (GI) traits.
In 255 overweight or obese adults, we studied the associations of gene variants in UCP-2 (−3474, rs659366) and UCP-3 (rs1626521, rs2075577, rs15763) with body weight (BW) and GI traits. Gene variants were genotyped by TaqMan® assay. We assessed the associations of genotypes with BW and GI traits (gastric emptying, gastric volume, satiety by buffet meal, satiation by nutrient drink test and GI hormones) using ANCOVA, corrected for false detection rate (FDR).
We identified a novel UCP-3 gene variant, rs1626521; it was associated with BW (p=0.039), waist circumference (p=0.035), and with significantly higher postprandial gastric volume (p=0.003) and calories ingested at buffet meal (p=0.006, both significant with FDR). In a subgroup of 11 participants, rs1626521 was also associated with reduced mitochondrial bioenergetics efficiency in skeletal muscle (p=0.051). In an in vitro study in HEK293 cells, rs1626521 reduced UCP-3 protein expression (p=0.049). Associations detected between other genotypes and GI traits were non-significant with FDR.
A newly identified functional variant (rs1626521) in UCP-3 affects postprandial gastric functions and satiety and may contribute to weight gain and alter human mitochondrial function.
PMCID: PMC4380685  PMID: 25755013
mitochondria; gastric emptying; accommodation; volume; satiation; satiety; GLP-1; PYY
2.  Exenatide in obesity with accelerated gastric emptying: a randomized, pharmacodynamics study 
Physiological Reports  2015;3(11):e12610.
Obesity is associated with differences in satiety, gastric emptying (GE), gastric volume, and psychological traits. Exenatide, a short-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is associated with variable weight loss. We compared the effects of exenatide, 5 μg, and placebo SQ, twice daily for 30 days on GE of solids and liquids (scintigraphy), satiety (ad libitum buffet meal), satiation (nutrient drink test, maximum tolerated volume [MTV]), and weight loss in 20 participants with documented accelerated GE of solids (T1/2 < 90 min). Exenatide delayed GE of solids (T1/2 [Δ] 86 min relative to placebo, P < 0.001) and reduced calorie intake at buffet meal ([Δ] 129 kcal compared to placebo). Median weight loss was −0.95 kg (IQR −0.7 to −2.1) for exenatide and −0.55 kg (0.3 to −2.1) for placebo (P = 0.23); 80% of exenatide group had documented reduction in weight. In the exenatide treatment group, there was an inverse correlation between gastric emptying T1/2 and MTV (R = −0.548, P = 0.089). The univariate association of weight change with posttreatment MTV was borderline (Rs = 0.43, P = 0.06); in the multiple regression model, posttreatment MTV was associated with weight change (P = 0.047). The effect of the short-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, on GE is associated with the change in food intake, and the latter impacts weight loss in response to exenatide treatment.
PMCID: PMC4632965  PMID: 26542264
Glucagon-like peptide 1; pharmacogenomics; satiation
3.  A Controlled Trial of Gluten-Free Diet in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome-Diarrhea: Effects on Bowel Frequency and Intestinal Function 
Gastroenterology  2013;144(5):903-911.e3.
Background & Aims
Patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (IBS-D) could benefit from a gluten-free diet (GFD).
We performed a randomized controlled 4-week trial of a gluten-containing diet (GCD) or GFD in 45 patients with IBS-D; genotype analysis was performed for HLA-DQ2 and HLA-DQ8. Twenty-two patients were placed on the GCD (11 HLA-DQ2/8–negative and 11 HLA-DQ2/8–positive) and 23 on the GFD (12 HLA-DQ2/8−negative and 11 HLA-DQ2/8–positive. We measured bowel function daily, small bowel (SB) and colonic transit, mucosal permeability (by lactulose and mannitol excretion), and cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) following exposure to gluten and rice. We collected rectosigmoid biopsies from 28 patients, analyzed levels of mRNAs encoding tight junction proteins, and performed hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemical analyses. Analysis of covariance models was used to compare data from the GCD and GFD groups.
Subjects on the GCD had more bowel movements/day (P=.04); the GCD had a greater effect on bowel movements/day of HLA-DQ2/8–positive than −negative patients (P=.019). The GCD was associated with higher SB permeability (based on 0–2 hr levels of mannitol and lactulose:mannitol ratio); SB permeability was greater in HLA-DQ2/8–positive than −negative patients (P=.018). No significant differences in colonic permeability were observed. Patients on the GCD had a small decrease in expression of ZO-1 in SB mucosa and significant decreases in expression of ZO-1, claudin-1, and occludin in rectosigmoid mucosa; the effects of the GCD on expression were significantly greater in HLA-DQ2/8–positive patients. GCD vs GFD had no significant effects on transit or histology. PBMCs produced higher levels of interleukin-10, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, and transforming growth factor-a in response to gluten than rice (unrelated to HLA genotype).
Gluten alters bowel barrier functions in patients with IBS-D, particularly in HLA-DQ2/8–positive patients. These findings reveal a reversible mechanism for the disorder.
PMCID: PMC3633663  PMID: 23357715
permeability; transit; immunity; cytokines
4.  Association of melanocortin 4 receptor gene variation with satiation and gastric emptying in overweight and obese adults 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;9(2):384.
Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) has a major role in energy homeostasis. The rs17782313 polymorphism, mapped 188 kb downstream from MC4R, has been associated with satiety, higher body mass index (BMI) and total calorie intake in adults. To assess the association of rs17782313 with gastric functions, satiation, or satiety, we studied 178 predominantly Caucasian overweight and obese people: 120 females, 58 males; mean BMI 33.4 ± 5.3 kg/m2 (SD); age 37.7 ± 11.2 years. Quantitative traits assessed were gastric emptying (GE) of solids and liquids; fasting and postprandial gastric volume; satiation by maximum tolerated volume and 4 symptoms by 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS); and satiety by ad libitum buffet meal. Associations of genotype and quantitative traits were assessed by analysis of covariance (using gender and BMI as covariates), based on a dominant [TC (n = 72) − CC (n = 12) vs. TT (n = 94)] genetic model. rs17782313(C) was associated with postprandial satiation symptoms (median Δ total VAS 26.5 mm, p = 0.036), reduced proportion of solid GE at 2 h (median Δ 6.7 %, p = 0.008) and 4 h (median Δ 3.2 %, p = 0.006), and longer t½ (median Δ 6 min, p = 0.034). Associations of rs17782313 with obesity may be explained by reduced satiation and GE. The role of MC4R mechanisms in satiation and gastric function deserves further study.
PMCID: PMC3968288  PMID: 24458996
Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R); rs17782313; Satiation; Gastric emptying; Obesity

Results 1-4 (4)