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1.  Association of UCP-3-rs1626521 with Obesity and Stomach Functions in Humans 
Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.)  2015;23(4):898-906.
Objective
To examine the association of gene variants of uncoupling proteins (UCP)-2 and -3 with obesity and gastrointestinal (GI) traits.
Methods
In 255 overweight or obese adults, we studied the associations of gene variants in UCP-2 (−3474, rs659366) and UCP-3 (rs1626521, rs2075577, rs15763) with body weight (BW) and GI traits. Gene variants were genotyped by TaqMan® assay. We assessed the associations of genotypes with BW and GI traits (gastric emptying, gastric volume, satiety by buffet meal, satiation by nutrient drink test and GI hormones) using ANCOVA, corrected for false detection rate (FDR).
Results
We identified a novel UCP-3 gene variant, rs1626521; it was associated with BW (p=0.039), waist circumference (p=0.035), and with significantly higher postprandial gastric volume (p=0.003) and calories ingested at buffet meal (p=0.006, both significant with FDR). In a subgroup of 11 participants, rs1626521 was also associated with reduced mitochondrial bioenergetics efficiency in skeletal muscle (p=0.051). In an in vitro study in HEK293 cells, rs1626521 reduced UCP-3 protein expression (p=0.049). Associations detected between other genotypes and GI traits were non-significant with FDR.
Conclusions
A newly identified functional variant (rs1626521) in UCP-3 affects postprandial gastric functions and satiety and may contribute to weight gain and alter human mitochondrial function.
doi:10.1002/oby.21039
PMCID: PMC4380685  PMID: 25755013
mitochondria; gastric emptying; accommodation; volume; satiation; satiety; GLP-1; PYY
2.  Quantitative Gastrointestinal and Psychological Traits Associated with Obesity and Response to Weight-loss Therapy 
Gastroenterology  2014;148(3):537-546.e4.
Background & Aims
Weight loss following pharmacotherapy varies greatly. We aimed to examine associations of quantitative gastrointestinal and psychological traits with obesity, and to validate the ability of these traits to predict responses of obese individuals to pharmacotherapy.
Methods
In a prospective study, we measured gastric emptying (GE) of solids and liquids, fasting and postprandial gastric volume, satiation by nutrient drink test (volume to fullness and maximal tolerated volume), satiety following an ad-libitum buffet meal, gastrointestinal hormones, and psychological traits in 328 normal weight, overweight, or obese adults. We also analyzed data from 181 previously studied adults to assess associations between a subset of traits with body mass index and waist circumference. Latent dimensions associated with overweight or obesity were appraised by principal component analyses. We performed a proof-of-concept, placebo-controlled trial of extended-release phentermine and topiramate in 24 patients, to validate associations between quantitative traits and response to weight-loss therapy.
Results
In the prospective study, obesity was associated with fasting gastric volume (P=.03), accelerated GE (P<.001 for solids and P=.011 for liquids), lower postprandial levels of peptide tyrosine tyrosine (P=.003), and higher postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptide 1 (P<.001). In a combined analysis of data from all studies, obesity was associated with higher volume to fullness (n=509; P=.038) and satiety with abnormal waist circumference (n=271; P=.016). Principal component analysis identified latent dimensions that accounted for ∼81% of the variation among overweight and obese subjects, including satiety or satiation (21%), gastric motility (14%), psychological factors (13%), and gastric sensorimotor factors (11%). The combination of phentermine and topiramate caused significant weight loss, slowed GE, and decreased calorie intake; weight loss in response to phentermine and topiramate was significantly associated with calorie intake at the prior satiety test.
Conclusion
Quantitative traits are associated with high body mass index; they can distinguish obesity phenotypes and, in a proof-of-concept clinical trial, predicted response to pharmacotherapy for obesity.
doi:10.1053/j.gastro.2014.11.020
PMCID: PMC4339485  PMID: 25486131
BMI; incretin; satietyphentermine; topiramate
3.  Exenatide in obesity with accelerated gastric emptying: a randomized, pharmacodynamics study 
Physiological Reports  2015;3(11):e12610.
Obesity is associated with differences in satiety, gastric emptying (GE), gastric volume, and psychological traits. Exenatide, a short-acting glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist, is associated with variable weight loss. We compared the effects of exenatide, 5 μg, and placebo SQ, twice daily for 30 days on GE of solids and liquids (scintigraphy), satiety (ad libitum buffet meal), satiation (nutrient drink test, maximum tolerated volume [MTV]), and weight loss in 20 participants with documented accelerated GE of solids (T1/2 < 90 min). Exenatide delayed GE of solids (T1/2 [Δ] 86 min relative to placebo, P < 0.001) and reduced calorie intake at buffet meal ([Δ] 129 kcal compared to placebo). Median weight loss was −0.95 kg (IQR −0.7 to −2.1) for exenatide and −0.55 kg (0.3 to −2.1) for placebo (P = 0.23); 80% of exenatide group had documented reduction in weight. In the exenatide treatment group, there was an inverse correlation between gastric emptying T1/2 and MTV (R = −0.548, P = 0.089). The univariate association of weight change with posttreatment MTV was borderline (Rs = 0.43, P = 0.06); in the multiple regression model, posttreatment MTV was associated with weight change (P = 0.047). The effect of the short-acting GLP-1 receptor agonist, exenatide, on GE is associated with the change in food intake, and the latter impacts weight loss in response to exenatide treatment.
doi:10.14814/phy2.12610
PMCID: PMC4632965  PMID: 26542264
Glucagon-like peptide 1; pharmacogenomics; satiation
4.  Association of melanocortin 4 receptor gene variation with satiation and gastric emptying in overweight and obese adults 
Genes & Nutrition  2014;9(2):384.
Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) has a major role in energy homeostasis. The rs17782313 polymorphism, mapped 188 kb downstream from MC4R, has been associated with satiety, higher body mass index (BMI) and total calorie intake in adults. To assess the association of rs17782313 with gastric functions, satiation, or satiety, we studied 178 predominantly Caucasian overweight and obese people: 120 females, 58 males; mean BMI 33.4 ± 5.3 kg/m2 (SD); age 37.7 ± 11.2 years. Quantitative traits assessed were gastric emptying (GE) of solids and liquids; fasting and postprandial gastric volume; satiation by maximum tolerated volume and 4 symptoms by 100-mm visual analog scales (VAS); and satiety by ad libitum buffet meal. Associations of genotype and quantitative traits were assessed by analysis of covariance (using gender and BMI as covariates), based on a dominant [TC (n = 72) − CC (n = 12) vs. TT (n = 94)] genetic model. rs17782313(C) was associated with postprandial satiation symptoms (median Δ total VAS 26.5 mm, p = 0.036), reduced proportion of solid GE at 2 h (median Δ 6.7 %, p = 0.008) and 4 h (median Δ 3.2 %, p = 0.006), and longer t½ (median Δ 6 min, p = 0.034). Associations of rs17782313 with obesity may be explained by reduced satiation and GE. The role of MC4R mechanisms in satiation and gastric function deserves further study.
doi:10.1007/s12263-014-0384-8
PMCID: PMC3968288  PMID: 24458996
Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R); rs17782313; Satiation; Gastric emptying; Obesity

Results 1-4 (4)