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1.  Complexities in Ferret Influenza Virus Pathogenesis and Transmission Models 
Ferrets are widely employed to study the pathogenicity, transmissibility, and tropism of influenza viruses. However, inherent variations in inoculation methods, sampling schemes, and experimental designs are often overlooked when contextualizing or aggregating data between laboratories, leading to potential confusion or misinterpretation of results. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of parameters to consider when planning an experiment using ferrets, collecting data from the experiment, and placing results in context with previously performed studies. This review offers information that is of particular importance for researchers in the field who rely on ferret data but do not perform the experiments themselves. Furthermore, this review highlights the breadth of experimental designs and techniques currently available to study influenza viruses in this model, underscoring the wide heterogeneity of protocols currently used for ferret studies while demonstrating the wealth of information which can benefit risk assessments of emerging influenza viruses.
PMCID: PMC4981671  PMID: 27412880
2.  WSES guidelines for management of Clostridium difficile infection in surgical patients 
Sartelli, Massimo | Malangoni, Mark A. | Abu-Zidan, Fikri M. | Griffiths, Ewen A. | Di Bella, Stefano | McFarland, Lynne V. | Eltringham, Ian | Shelat, Vishal G. | Velmahos, George C. | Kelly, Ciarán P. | Khanna, Sahil | Abdelsattar, Zaid M. | Alrahmani, Layan | Ansaloni, Luca | Augustin, Goran | Bala, Miklosh | Barbut, Frédéric | Ben-Ishay, Offir | Bhangu, Aneel | Biffl, Walter L. | Brecher, Stephen M. | Camacho-Ortiz, Adrián | Caínzos, Miguel A. | Canterbury, Laura A. | Catena, Fausto | Chan, Shirley | Cherry-Bukowiec, Jill R. | Clanton, Jesse | Coccolini, Federico | Cocuz, Maria Elena | Coimbra, Raul | Cook, Charles H. | Cui, Yunfeng | Czepiel, Jacek | Das, Koray | Demetrashvili, Zaza | Di Carlo, Isidoro | Di Saverio, Salomone | Dumitru, Irina Magdalena | Eckert, Catherine | Eckmann, Christian | Eiland, Edward H. | Enani, Mushira Abdulaziz | Faro, Mario | Ferrada, Paula | Forrester, Joseph Derek | Fraga, Gustavo P. | Frossard, Jean Louis | Galeiras, Rita | Ghnnam, Wagih | Gomes, Carlos Augusto | Gorrepati, Venkata | Ahmed, Mohamed Hassan | Herzog, Torsten | Humphrey, Felicia | Kim, Jae Il | Isik, Arda | Ivatury, Rao | Lee, Yeong Yeh | Juang, Paul | Furuya-Kanamori, Luis | Karamarkovic, Aleksandar | Kim, Peter K | Kluger, Yoram | Ko, Wen Chien | LaBarbera, Francis D. | Lee, Jae Gil | Leppaniemi, Ari | Lohsiriwat, Varut | Marwah, Sanjay | Mazuski, John E. | Metan, Gokhan | Moore, Ernest E. | Moore, Frederick Alan | Nord, Carl Erik | Ordoñez, Carlos A. | Júnior, Gerson Alves Pereira | Petrosillo, Nicola | Portela, Francisco | Puri, Basant K. | Ray, Arnab | Raza, Mansoor | Rems, Miran | Sakakushev, Boris E. | Sganga, Gabriele | Spigaglia, Patrizia | Stewart, David B. | Tattevin, Pierre | Timsit, Jean Francois | To, Kathleen B. | Tranà, Cristian | Uhl, Waldemar | Urbánek, Libor | van Goor, Harry | Vassallo, Angela | Zahar, Jean Ralph | Caproli, Emanuele | Viale, Pierluigi
In the last two decades there have been dramatic changes in the epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), with increases in incidence and severity of disease in many countries worldwide. The incidence of CDI has also increased in surgical patients. Optimization of management of C difficile, has therefore become increasingly urgent. An international multidisciplinary panel of experts prepared evidenced-based World Society of Emergency Surgery (WSES) guidelines for management of CDI in surgical patients.
PMCID: PMC4545872  PMID: 26300956
3.  Maximum workplace concentration values and carcinogenicity classification for mixtures. 
Environmental Health Perspectives  1998;106(Suppl 6):1291-1293.
In Germany, the Commission for the Investigation of Health Hazards of Chemical Compounds in the Work Area (MAK Commission) generally sets maximum workplace concentration values (i.e., a proposed occupational exposure level [OEL]) for single substances, not for mixtures. For mixtures containing substances with a genotoxic and carcinogenic potential, the commission considered it scientifically inappropriate to establish a safe threshold. This approach is currently under discussion. Carcinogenic mixtures are categorized according to either the carcinogenicity of the mixture or the classification of the carcinogenic substances included. In regulating exposure to mixtures, an approach similar to that used by the American Conference of Governmental Hygienists is proposed: For components with the same target organ and mode of action or interfering metabolism, synergistic effects must be expected and the respective OELs must be lowered. However, if there is proof that the components act independently, the OELs of the individual compounds are not considered to be modified. In the view of the commission, calculating OELs for solvent mixtures according to their liquid phase composition is not justified, and the setting of scientifically based OELs for complex mixtures is not possible.
PMCID: PMC1533424  PMID: 9860883
4.  Molecular biology of keratinocyte differentiation. 
Epidermal keratinocytes (skin cells) are highly specialized epithelial cells designed to perform a very specific function, separation of the organism from its environment. To accomplish this the cells synthesize precursors and assemble them into two distinct structures, the cornified envelope and keratin intermediate filaments. The intermediate filaments are assembled from keratin monomers and the cornified envelope is assembled from a protein called involucrin and several other proteins. Expression of involucrin and the keratins genes are regulated as a function of the stage of keratinocyte differentiation and by various external agents such as calcium and vitamin A. To study the function of these structures and the regulation of precursor production we have cloned cDNA and genomic clones encoding involucrin and four of the keratin polypeptides. Retinoids profoundly alter the differentiation pattern of human epidermal keratinocytes, but the underlying biochemical basis of this change is not known. In this report we describe retinoid-promoted changes in keratin gene expression that may, in part, be responsible for the alteration in cellular phenotype in the presence of the vitamin. We also describe the novel structure of the human 40 kD keratin, a member of the keratin family that is retinoid responsive and is likely to be important during epidermal development. Finally, we describe the structure of the envelope precursor protein, involucrin, as determined from its DNA sequence and speculate on its role in cornified envelope formation.
PMCID: PMC1567608  PMID: 2466639

Results 1-4 (4)