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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  A survey of the therapeutic effects of Vitamin E suppositories on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women 
Background:
Menopause is associated with various complications such as depression, sleep disorders, and genitourinary atrophy. Vaginal atrophy occurs due to the loss of steroid hormones, and its major symptoms include vaginal dryness, itching, dyspareunia, and bleeding after intercourse. According to the literature, vitamin E plays a key role in estrogen stability. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of vitamin E suppositories and conjugated estrogen vaginal cream on vaginal atrophy.
Materials and Methods:
In this clinical trial, 52 postmenopausal women, who were referred to a gynecology clinic in 2013, were recruited and randomly divided into two groups (26 cases per group). One group received 100 IU of vitamin E suppositories (n = 26), whereas the other group applied 0.5 g of conjugated estrogen cream for 12 weeks. Vaginal maturation value (VMV) was compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. VMV ≤ 55 was regarded as a cut-off point for vaginal atrophy. Treatment success was defined as a 10-unit increase in VMV, compared to the baseline value. Data were analyzed by Friedman test and Mann-Whitney test. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results:
The mean VMV in the vitamin E group before the treatment and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment was 43.78 ± 13.75, 69.07 ± 22.75, 77.86 ± 21.79, and 80.59 ± 19.23, respectively. The corresponding values in the estrogen cream group were 42.86 ± 14.40, 86.98 ± 12.58, 92.65 ± 15, and 91.57 ± 14.10, respectively. VMV significantly improved in both the treatment groups after the intervention, compared to the preintervention period (P < 0.001). Treatment success was reported in both groups, although estrogen cream (100%) appeared to be more effective after 4 weeks of treatment, compared to vitamin E suppositories (76.9%) (P = 0.01).
Conclusions:
Based on the findings, use of vitamin E suppositories could improve the laboratory criteria for vaginal atrophy and treatment success. Therefore, vitamin E suppositories are suggested for relieving the symptoms of vaginal atrophy, especially in women who are unable to use hormone therapy or cope with the associated side effects.
doi:10.4103/1735-9066.193393
PMCID: PMC5114791  PMID: 27904630
Conjugated estrogen; vitamin E; vaginal atrophy
2.  The effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises program on sexual self-efficacy in primiparous women after delivery 
Background:
Selection and acceptance of appropriate sexual behavior and sexual function are made difficult by low sexual self-efficacy in the postpartum period. The general purpose of this research is to define the effects of an 8-week pelvic floor muscle exercise program on sexual self-efficacy in primiparous women after childbirth.
Materials and Methods:
This clinical trial was performed on 79 primiparous women who referred to health care centers, Mashhad, Iran in 2013, 8 weeks after delivery, to receive health care services. They were selected by easy sampling. The samples were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. The intervention group was trained in Kegel exercises for 8 weeks. Both groups were evaluated at 4 and 8 weeks. Data collection tools included: Demographic information, sexual self-efficacy, and Brink scale. Data were analyzed using repeated measures, Friedman test, t-test, and Mann–Whitney test.
Results:
The results showed significant increase in pelvic floor muscle strength in the intervention group at 4 and 8 weeks after exercises (P < 0.0001), but no significant difference was observed in the control group (P = 0.368). There was a significant increase in sexual self-efficacy in the intervention (P < 0.0001) and control groups (P = 0.001) at 4 and 8 weeks after the start of the study. Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference in sexual self-efficacy after they performed these exercises (P = 0.001).
Conclusions:
The findings showed that 8-week pelvic muscle exercises increase the sexual self-efficacy in women after delivery.
PMCID: PMC4462060  PMID: 26120335
Exercises; Iran; pelvic floor; postpartum; self-efficacy; sexual
3.  Relationship between gender role attitude and fertility rate in women referring to health centers in Mashhad in 2013 
Background:
Fertility rate apparently is a non-interventional behavior, but in practice, it is influenced by social values and norms in which culture and traditional beliefs play a significant role. In this regard, some studies have shown that gender roles can be associated with reproductive behaviors. With regard to the importance of annual reduction of population growth rate and its outcomes, the present study was performed to determine the relationship between gender role attitude and fertility rate in women referring to Mashhad health centers in 2013.
Materials and Methods:
The present study is an analytical cross-sectional and multistage sampling study performed on 712 women. Data were collected by a questionnaire consisting of two sections: Personal information and gender role attitude questionnaire that contained two dimensions, i.e. gender stereotypes and gender egalitarianism. Its validity was determined by content validity and its reliability by internal consistency (r = 0.77). Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16.
Results:
Initial analysis of the data indicated that there was a significant relationship between acceptance of gender stereotypes (P = 0.008) and gender egalitarianism (P < 0.001), and fertility. There was also a direct association between acceptance of gender stereotypes and fertility rate (r = 0.13) and an indirect association between egalitarianism and fertility rate (r = −0.15).
Conclusions:
The results of the present study indicate that there is an association between gender role attitude and fertility. Paying attention to women's attitude is very important for successful planning in the improvement of fertility rate and population policy.
PMCID: PMC4387654  PMID: 25878707
Attitude; fertility rate; gender role; Iran

Results 1-3 (3)