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author:(Liliane J dable)
1.  Regulation of α5β1 integrin conformation and function by urokinase receptor binding 
The Journal of Cell Biology  2005;168(3):501-511.
Urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptors (uPARs), up-regulated during tumor progression, associate with β1 integrins, localizing urokinase to sites of cell attachment. Binding of uPAR to the β-propeller of α3β1 empowers vitronectin adhesion by this integrin. How uPAR modifies other β1 integrins remains unknown. Using recombinant proteins, we found uPAR directly binds α5β1 and rather than blocking, renders fibronectin (Fn) binding by α5β1 Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD) resistant. This resulted from RGD-independent binding of α5β1–uPAR to Fn type III repeats 12–15 in addition to type III repeats 9–11 bound by α5β1. Suppression of endogenous uPAR by small interfering RNA in tumor cells promoted weaker, RGD-sensitive Fn adhesion and altered overall α5β1 conformation. A β1 peptide (res 224NLDSPEGGF232) that models near the known α-chain uPAR-binding region, or a β1-chain Ser227Ala point mutation, abrogated effects of uPAR on α5β1. Direct binding and regulation of α5β1 by uPAR implies a modified “bent” integrin conformation can function in an alternative activation state with this and possibly other cis-acting membrane ligands.
doi:10.1083/jcb.200404112
PMCID: PMC2171741  PMID: 15684035

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