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author:(Liliane J dable)
1.  Neuropathic pain as a process: reversal of chronification in an animal model 
Journal of Pain Research  2011;4:315-323.
Peripheral neuropathic pain arises from trauma to sensory nerves. Other types of acute neurotrauma such as stroke and spinal cord injury are treated immediately, largely to prevent secondary damage. To pursue the possibility that neuropathic pain may also be amenable to early treatment, a rat model of neuropathic pain was induced using a 2-mm polyethylene cuff implanted around one sciatic nerve. Within 24 hours, hypersensitivity to von Frey hair stimulation appeared, as indicated by decreased paw withdrawal thresholds. When the cuff was removed 24 hours after implantation, readings returned to pre-implantation levels starting as early as day 18. When the cuff was removed after 4 days, there was a period of initial hypersensitivity, and then an increase toward baseline at two time points near the end of the study; therefore, only a partial recovery toward pre-implantation values occurred. Having established that a temporal reversal can occur, the next step examined possible pharmacological reversal. The tachykinin NK1 receptor antagonist, CP-96,345, produced a minor increase in withdrawal thresholds in animals with the cuff left permanently implanted. To determine the effect of early and repeated administration of CP-96,345, it was given daily on days 1–4. The cuff was removed on day 4. Six days later, readings showed reversal of tactile hypersensitivity. We suggest that persistent neuropathic pain occurs from processes that develop over several hours and days, and that some of these processes may be prevented by early medical intervention. Thus, nerve injury in the context of chronic neuropathic pain should be treated in a similar manner to nerve injury resulting from stroke, spinal cord injury, and other types of neurotrauma. We suggest that effective medical intervention within the first few hours after nerve injury may spare a patient from a chronic debilitating pain that may be refractory to later therapies.
doi:10.2147/JPR.S17882
PMCID: PMC3191931  PMID: 22003305
neurotrauma; neuroplasticity; nerve injury; neuropathy; chronic pain; tactile hypersensitivity
2.  Progesterone prevents development of neuropathic pain in a rat model: Timing and duration of treatment are critical 
Journal of Pain Research  2011;4:91-101.
Background:
Progesterone is emerging as an important protective agent against various injuries to the nervous system. Neuroprotective and remyelinating effects have been documented for this neurosteroid, which is synthesized by, and acts on, the central and peripheral nervous systems. Neuropathic pain is a severe, persistent condition that is generally resistant to treatment, and poses major personal, social, and economic burdens. The purpose of this study was to determine if single-dose or repeated progesterone administration would alleviate tactile hypersensitivity in a rat model of neuropathic pain, and to determine if early versus late initiation of treatment has an effect on the outcome.
Methods:
Rats were unilaterally implanted with a polyethylene cuff around the sciatic nerve, and sensitivity to von Frey filament stimulation was measured over approximately 12 weeks.
Results:
Rats given progesterone starting one hour after cuff implantation, and daily until day 4, exhibited tactile hypersensitivity similar to that of vehicle-treated rats for the duration of the study. When progesterone was started one hour after cuff implantation and given daily until day 10, rats exhibited no tactile hypersensitivity in the later part of the study, after treatment had stopped. When progesterone treatment was initiated at 20 days, once the model had been fully established, and given daily for 4 or even 11 days, no differences in withdrawal thresholds were observed compared with controls. Progesterone did not have any effect on withdrawal thresholds when given as a single dose, as measured at 30, 60 and 90 minutes after administration.
Conclusion:
These results indicate that progesterone, when administered immediately after nerve injury, and for a sufficient period of time, can prevent the development of neuropathic pain, and may offer new strategies for the treatment of this highly debilitating condition.
doi:10.2147/JPR.S17009
PMCID: PMC3085268  PMID: 21559355
progesterone; neurosteroid; neuropathic pain; peripheral neuropathy; recovery; neuroprotection
3.  The selective neuronal nitric oxide synthase inhibitor 7-nitroindazole has acute analgesic but not cumulative effects in a rat model of peripheral neuropathy 
Journal of Pain Research  2011;4:85-90.
Chronic neuropathic pain that may arise from various nerve injuries or insults remains notoriously difficult to manage. The neuronal isoform of the enzyme nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) has been shown to be involved in the spinal transmission of nociception in animal models of chronic pain. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of single dose and repeated administration of a selective nNOS inhibitor. Rats were unilaterally implanted with a 2-mm polyethylene cuff around the sciatic nerve. Paw withdrawal thresholds were measured using von Frey filament stimulation. Rats were given 10, 20, or 30 mg/kg of 7-nitroindazole (7-NI), or vehicle, on days 2, 5, and 7 after model induction, respectively. Paw withdrawal thresholds were measured before and at 30 and 60 min after injection. 7-NI significantly increased paw withdrawal thresholds at 60 min at the 20 and 30 mg/kg dosages. In the second part of this study, rats were given 20 mg/kg 7-NI daily for five days starting immediately after cuff implantation (days 0 to 4), and the cuff was removed on day 4. Withdrawal thresholds were measured intermittently over a 24-day observation period. No differences in withdrawal thresholds were observed between drug and vehicle-treated rats. Therefore, early and repeated administration of 7-NI did not affect the development or progression of the model. In conclusion, inhibition of nNOS had an analgesic but not a pre-emptive effect in this model of peripheral neuropathic pain.
doi:10.2147/JPR.S17007
PMCID: PMC3085267  PMID: 21559354
neuronal nitric oxide synthase; nitric oxide; 7-nitroindazole; neuropathic pain; peripheral nerve injury; nociception

Results 1-3 (3)