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1.  Issue Information 
Food Science & Nutrition  2018;6(1):1-2.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.515
PMCID: PMC5778203
2.  Influence of processing conditions on apparent viscosity and system parameters during extrusion of distiller's dried grains‐based snacks 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):101-110.
Abstract
A combination of different levels of distillers dried grains processed for food application (FDDG), garbanzo flour and corn grits were chosen as a source of high‐protein and high‐fiber extruded snacks. A four‐factor central composite rotatable design was adopted to study the effect of FDDG level, moisture content of blends, extrusion temperature, and screw speed on the apparent viscosity, mass flow rate or MFR, torque, and specific mechanical energy or SME during the extrusion process. With increase in the extrusion temperature from 100 to 140°C, apparent viscosity, specific mechanical energy, and torque value decreased. Increase in FDDG level resulted in increase in apparent viscosity, SME and torque. FDDG had no significant effect (p > .5) on mass flow rate. SME also increased with increase in the screw speed which could be due to the higher shear rates at higher screw speeds. Screw speed and moisture content had significant negative effect (p < .05) on the torque. The apparent viscosity of dough inside the extruder and the system parameters were affected by the processing conditions. This study will be useful for control of extrusion process of blends containing these ingredients for the development of high‐protein high‐fiber extruded snacks.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.534
PMCID: PMC5778219
distiller's dried grains; extrusion; garbanzo flour; specific mechanical energy; torque; viscosity
3.  Nutritional, physicochemical, and functional properties of protein concentrate and isolate of newly‐developed Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea L.) cultivars 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):229-242.
Abstract
Bambara groundnut is an indigenous African vegetable grown mainly for human food and animal feed due to its high protein content. Different factors like varieties and origin can influence the chemical composition of Bambara groundnut cultivars. Therefore, the aims of this study are to produce defatted flour and protein concentrate from newly developed Bambara groundnut cultivars [Accessions No: TVSU 5 – Bambara Groundnut White (BGW) and TVSU 146 – Bambara Groundnut Brown (BGB)] and compare their nutritional, physicochemical, and functional properties with market sample [Bambara groundnut commercial (BGC)]. Higher protein content was observed in BGW (20.73%) and BGB (20.14%) as compared to BGC (18.50%). Also, the fat and ash contents of BGB and BGW were higher than that of BGC. Also, the new varieties were found to contain higher levels of some essential fatty acids such as linoleic and linolenic acids. The concentration of thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, pantothenic, ascorbic acids, pyrodoxine, alpha tocopherol, and vitamin K were also significantly higher in the two new varieties. The new varieties were good sources of magnesium, calcium, iron, manganese, sodium, and potassium. The oil and water absorption and swelling capacities of whole, defatted, and protein concentrate flour of the new varieties increase with increase in temperature. The defatted flour and protein concentrate of brown Bambara groundnut was found to exhibit high emulsifying activity and stability at different pH's and salt concentrations. The new varieties possess significantly higher foaming capacity and stability than the commercial variety. The results obtained from this study have shown the potential for the industrial and household use of the new Bambara groundnut cultivars into shelf stable protein products and could be a useful ingredient in food formulations.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.552
PMCID: PMC5778210
bambara groundnut cultivars; Defatted flour; Functional properties; Nutritional properties; Physicochemical properties; Protein concentrate
4.  Evaluation of the glycemic indices of three commonly eaten mixed meals in Okada, Edo State 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):220-228.
Abstract
People do not generally eat single or individual meals; rather they eat mixed meals, consisting of two or more individual meals. These mixed meals usually have glycemic indices which differ from that of the individual food type. This study was aimed at evaluating the glycemic indices of three commonly consumed mixed meals eaten in Okada; rice and beans (test food 1), rice and plantain (test food 2), beans and plantain (test food 3). Two hundred and forty healthy subjects aged between 18 and 30 participated in this study. They were randomized into three groups of eighty persons each, and fed with the standard food (50 g glucose) on day one and one of the test foods on day two, after an overnight fast. Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after the food had been eaten. The results showed that the Glycemic Index (GI) values for the test foods were high: 86.60 (test food 1), 89.74 (test food 2), 86.93(test food 3). The incremental increase in blood glucose was monitored and calculated for each food and when compared with that of the standard food (glucose), there was significant differences (p < .036) for test food 1 and (p < .068) for test food 3; both at 30 min. At 120 min, no significant differences in blood glucose levels were observed (p > .05). The results from this study indicated that the GI of the mixed meals was affected by the constituent nutrient and the response is also affected by the proportion of each nutrient. Our findings show that the selected test foods (mixed meals) consumed in Okada have high GI values.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.550
PMCID: PMC5778211
beans; glycemic index; glycemic load; mixed meal; plantain; rice
5.  In vitro digestibility of hydrothermally modified Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean L.) starch and flour 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):36-46.
Abstract
In‐vitro digestibility and functional properties of Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranean) (BG) flour, and its native and hydrothermally modified starches were investigated. The isolated native starch (BNS) was modified by annealing at 50°C for 48 hr (BAS), and heat‐moisture treated at 100°C for 16 hr at 25% moisture level (BHS). The crude protein of BG flour was 16.88%. The amylose content of the flour and native starch was 6.10% and 27.70%, respectively. Hydrothermal modification increased the gelatinization profile of the starch but reduces its pasting properties. Swelling and solubility of the flour and starches increased with increase in temperature. X‐ray diffraction revealed BNS and BAS exhibited “Type C” crystallinity pattern while BHS was “Type A.” The BNS granule was oval, its diameter between 22 and 30 μm, with no significant change in the morphology of BAS and BHS. The BG flour had 33% resistant starch and 11.63% digestible starch. Heat‐moisture treatment enhanced the resistant starch content of the native starch significantly.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.510
PMCID: PMC5778218
Annealing; bambara groundnut; digestibility; heat‐moisture treatment; resistant starch
6.  Issue Information 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;5(6):1037-1038.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.422
PMCID: PMC5694863
7.  Effects of 3 months continuous intake of supplement containing Pantoea agglomerans LPS to maintain normal bloodstream in adults: Parallel double‐blind randomized controlled study 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):197-206.
Abstract
In this study, the effects on the maintenance of normal bloodstream by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were investigated in the parallel‐group randomized double‐blind study using supplement containing Pantoea agglomerans LPS (201.5 μg/tablet as LPS). Screening was previously performed in the implementation of the study. Adult males and females with normal value to borderline (healthy subjects) in the hematologic parameters, for which reference values were given, were chosen in this study. The period of ingestion of the supplement was 3 months. As the result, a significant decrease in the rate of change (the ratio when the baseline was 1) of HbA1c, which is a glycative stress marker, was found in the group which ingested LPS supplement after 3 months. Also, a significant increase in the number of fingertip capillary vessels was found compared with the control group. From these results, the effects of the maintenance of bloodstream by ingestion of LPS were shown.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.547
PMCID: PMC5778198
arteriosclerosis; glycative stress; lipopolysaccharide; macrophage; vessel
8.  The influence of pulsed electric fields and microwave pretreatments on some selected physicochemical properties of oil extracted from black cumin seed 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):111-118.
Abstract
Application of novel technologies such as microwave and pulsed electric fields (PEF) might increase the speed and efficiency of oil extraction. In the present research, PEF (3.25 kV/cm electric field intensity and 30 pulse number) and microwave (540 W for 180 s) pretreatments were used to study the process of oil extraction from black cumin (Nigella sativa) seeds. After applying the selected pretreatments, the oil of seeds was extracted with the use of a screw press and the extraction efficiency, refractive index, oil density, color index, oxidative stability, and chemical components of oil and protein of meal were evaluated. The achieved results expressed that PEF and microwave pretreatments increased the oil extraction efficiency and its oxidative stability. Different pretreatments didn't have any significant influence on the refractive index of black cumin seed oil (p>.05). When microwave and PEF were used, the oil density showed an enhancement as the following: 1.51% and 0.96%, respectively in comparison with the samples with no pretreatments. Evaluation of the extracted oils, using GC/MS analysis indicated that thymoquinone was the dominant phenolic component in the black cumin oil. Finally, the SEM analysis revealed that microwave and PEF can be useful in the extraction of oil from black cumin seeds since these treatments damaged cell walls and facilitated the oil extraction process.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.535
PMCID: PMC5778200
Black cumin seed; efficiency; microwave; oil extraction; oxidative stability; pulsed electric fields
9.  Sensory evaluation of biscuits enriched with artichoke fiber‐rich powders (Cynara scolymus L.) 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):160-167.
Abstract
The artichoke by‐products from the canning industry are mainly used for silage, being minimally revaluated. The ways of extraction of by‐products of artichoke into fiber‐rich powders modify their industrial applications in biscuits, as the sensory evaluation may change compared with the reference fiber (Pea fiber, P) used with commercial biscuit. In this sensory study biscuits enriched with fiber‐rich powders of artichoke (W, Ca) are compared with biscuits with the same percentage of the reference fiber (P) and control biscuits without fiber (B). For most of the sensory attributes of the biscuits enriched with artichoke fiber‐rich powders were perceived similar to the biscuits with the commercial reference fiber (P). The good sensory behavior of the biscuits with artichoke fiber‐rich powders during two storage conditions applied may confirm that the artichoke by‐products would be a suitable substitute for pea fiber in oven‐baked products, like wholemeal biscuits with high‐fiber content.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.541
PMCID: PMC5778201
By‐product; functional ingredient; revaluation; trained panel
10.  Assessment of heavy metals and microbial contamination of gari from Liberia 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):62-66.
Abstract
Cassava is a staple mostly eaten in the form of gari, after rice in Liberia. The local method of gari processing often leads to product contamination, thus, a study was done to assess the heavy metals and microbial contamination of gari in eight counties of the country. A total of sixty‐one gari samples were collected and packaged in an airtight polyethylene bag for analyses, using standard methods. Results depict that the mean of the heavy metals in the gari samples is iron (Fe) 43.87 ppm, copper (Cu) 0.94 ppm, zinc (Zn) 5.49 ppm and aluminum (Al) 257.45 ppm. Yellow gari had the highest Fe (64.90 ppm), Cu (1.25 ppm) and Zn (7.85 ppm) content, but with the least Al content (87.15 ppm). The Fe content was lower in groundnut‐fortified gari (42.93 ppm), and the Cu (0.70 ppm) and Zn (3.50 ppm) content were lower in groundnut‐moringa‐fortified gari. The samples and counties have no significant statistical effect (p > .05) on the heavy metals composition of the products. No microbial growth was observed in groundnut‐fortified and groundnut‐moringa‐fortified gari but with coconut‐fortified gari having the highest total fungi count of 800 CFU/g. The major fungi identified in the gari samples are Penicillium and Aspergillus spps., but with their counts within the regulated level. Therefore, the gari consumed in Liberia are safe except for the high Fe and Al content, which needs to be addressed with the use of unpainted stainless steel materials as food contact surfaces.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.527
PMCID: PMC5778204
Cassava; contamination; gari; heavy metals; microbial; safety
11.  Anthocyanin pigment stability of Cornus mas–Macrocarpa under treatment with pH and some organic acids 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):168-173.
Abstract
The use of colors in food industry is essential for the creation of new products or their improvement. As an important pigment group, anthocyanin could be used as a natural coloring pigment in foods. This study aims at exploring strategies that result in color stability of anthocyanin in pear‐shaped variety of blueberry (Cornus mas–Macrocarpa). In this study, the effects of different pH values (1, 2, 3, 4) as well as various concentrations (0, 120, 240, 480, 960 mg/L) of five copigments, including tannic, caffeic, benzoic, and coumaric acids, on anthocyanin copigment complexes (ratio 1:1) were investigated. The studied copigments were tannic, caffeic, benzoic, and coumaric acids. Anthocyanin was influenced by the highest concentration of 960 mg/L copigment in the presence of different pHs. Five groups were considered, one of which contained anthocyanin without copigment and the rest consisted of copigments. To evaluate the response of copigmentation through spectrophotometer, absorbance from samples was measured after 30 min of adding copigment to anthocyanin in the range of 450–600 nm wavelengths. The results showed that caffeic acid possessed the greatest anthocyanin stability compared to other copigments and it was the best copigment. An increase in the concentrations of copigments led to a higher level of anthocyanin stability and changes in hyperchromic and bathochromic. Moreover, the results revealed that the strongest hyperchromic effect for all organic acids was observed in pH 2, and the strongest bathochromic changes were observed in pH 4.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.542
PMCID: PMC5778213
Anthocyanin; blueberry; color; copigment; pH
12.  Small amounts of ethanol attenuate folic acid stability in acidic beverages during storage 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):214-219.
Abstract
Folic acid (FA) is an essential compound involved in important biochemical processes and is used to fortify various food products. FA in fortified acidic beverages decomposes during storage due to H+ attack. FA stability in acidic beverages is a serious problem as food fortification should guarantee labeled FA concentrations until the expiry date. In this study, we investigated the influence of ethanol (EtOH) on FA depletion using a model acidic beverage and observed that small amounts of EtOH, derived from added flavor, promoted FA depletion. FA depletion was promoted by only small amounts of EtOH, but not by acetonitrile. This suggested that FA decomposition might be accelerated by EtOH, which surrounds FA molecules in solution due to selective solvation. In the development of FA‐fortified beverages, EtOH content should be decreased or removed altogether, to prevent accelerating FA decomposition.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.549
PMCID: PMC5778215
beverage; ethanol; folic acid; proton attack; stability
13.  Orange‐fleshed sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) composite bread as a significant source of dietary vitamin A 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):174-179.
Abstract
Refining food recipes with orange‐fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) has the potential to improve dietary intake of vitamin A. The objectives of this study were to utilize OFSP in the development of two composite bread types and to assess their contribution to dietary intake of vitamin A using the dietary reference intake of lactating mothers. Two composite OFSP–wheat flour bread recipes—vita butter bread and vita tea bread—were developed by incorporating 46% OFSP puree in existing 100% wheat flour bread recipes consumed by Ghanaians. A paired‐preference test was used to profile the appearance, aroma, sweetness, and overall degree of liking of the vita butter bread and vita tea bread and their respective 100% wheat flour bread types. Weighed bread intake by lactating mothers (n = 50) was used to estimate the contribution to dietary vitamin A based on the trans β‐carotene content. The developed vita butter bread and vita tea bread were most preferred by at least 77% (p < .05) of consumers (n = 310) for all the attributes considered. The average daily intake by the lactating mothers for vita butter bread was 247 g, and for vita tea bread was 196 g. The trans β‐carotene content of vita butter bread and vita tea bread were found to be 1.333 mg/100 g and 0.985 mg/100 g, respectively. The estimated trans‐β‐carotene intake was 3,293 μg/day (vita butter) and 1,931 μg/day (vita tea) based on the weighed bread intake, respectively, meeting 21% and 12% of the daily requirement (1,300 μg RAE/day) for lactating mothers, the life stage group with the highest vitamin A requirement. OFSP therefore could composite wheat flour to bake butter and tea bread, and will contribute to significant amount of dietary intake of vitamin A.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.543
PMCID: PMC5778217
bread; orange‐fleshed sweet potato; vitamin A; wheat flour
14.  Microwave‐assisted extraction and ultrasound‐assisted extraction for recovering carotenoids from Gac peel and their effects on antioxidant capacity of the extracts 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):189-196.
Abstract
The peel of Gac fruit (Momordica cochinchinensis Spreng.) contains high levels of bioactive compounds, especially carotenoids which possess significant antioxidant capacities. However, the peel of Gac is regarded as a waste from the production of carotenoid‐rich oil from Gac fruit. In this study, carotenoids of Gac peel were extracted by microwave‐assisted extraction (MAE) and ultrasound‐assisted extraction (UAE) using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent. The effect of extraction time and different levels of microwave and ultrasonic powers on the yield of total carotenoid and antioxidant capacity of the extracts were investigated. The results showed that an extraction at 120 W for 25 min and an extraction at 200 W for 80 min were the most effective for MAE and UAE of the Gac peel samples, respectively. The maximum carotenoid and antioxidant capacity yields of UAE were significantly higher than those of the MAE. The antioxidant capacity of extract obtained by the UAE was also significantly higher that of the conventional extraction using the same ratio of solvent to material. The results showed that both MAE and UAE could be used to reduce the extraction time significantly in comparison with conventional extraction of Gac peel while still obtained good extraction efficiencies. Thus, MAE and UAE are recommended for the improvement of carotenoid and antioxidant capacity extraction from Gac peel.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.546
PMCID: PMC5778220
antioxidant; carotenoid; Gac peel; microwave; ultrasound
15.  Consumer acceptability of gluten‐free cookies containing raw cooked and germinated pinto bean flours 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):77-84.
Abstract
Beany and grassy flavors in raw edible bean flours reduce consumer acceptability of bean‐based baked products. In order to improve consumer acceptability, beans may be further processed by cooking and germination. However, these operations drive up the cost of end‐products. Therefore, it is necessary to develop formulations, using raw edible bean flours that have acceptable sensory attributes. In this study, cooked, germinated, and germinated/steam‐blanched (GSB) pinto bean flours were used to make gluten‐free cookies, and their sensory characteristics evaluated to determine how their consumer acceptability scores compared. Taste panelists (31) graded cookies made from raw pinto beans with an overall value of 6 on a 9‐point hedonic scale (p < .05). This rating was not significantly different from cookies formulated with germinated and GSB flours. Therefore, gluten‐free cookies can be made using raw pinto bean flours at a 40% inclusion level, with similar sensory characteristics as those prepared with flours treated by cooking and germination. Instrumental measurement of cookie hardness and color showed no significant difference in hardness, but significant differences in color. The germinated bean flour produced cookies with a significantly lower L* value and significantly higher a*, b*, Chroma and hue values compared to the other treatments. There was no significant difference in the cookie spread ratio. Proximate composition, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI) and gelatinization properties of the flour treatments were characterized.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.531
PMCID: PMC5778223
cookies; germination; pinto bean; sensory evaluation
16.  Mycofloral profile and the radiation sensitivity (D10 values) of solar dried and gamma irradiated Pleurotus ostreatus (Jacq.Ex. Fr.) Kummer fruitbodies stored in two different packaging materials 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):180-188.
Abstract
The presence of fungi in our foods poses serious health risks as some genera of fungi may produce certain mycotoxins which have carcinogenic, mutagenic, teratogenic, and immunosuppressive effect on humans and animals alike. Fruitbodies of Pleurotus ostreatus were solar dried at a moisture content of 12.5 ± 0.2% and stored in polythene and polypropylene packs, gamma irradiated at doses of 0 (control), 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 kGy at a dose rate of 1.7 kGy/hr from a Cobalt 60 source (SLL, 515, Hungary) and stored at room temperature 28–30°C for a period of 12 months. Mycological analyses were done at intervals of 0, 3, 6, and 12 months. A total of eleven (11) fungi belonging to eight fungal genera were isolated on both Cooke's and DRBC media; Aspergillus (A. niger, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. tamarii), Rhizopus (R. oligosporus), Mucor (M. racemosus), Fusarium (F. oxysporum), Penicillium (Penicillium sp.), Trichoderma (T. viride), and Rhodotorula sp. were recorded. There was a significant (p < .05) reduction in initial mycofloral population by an average of 2.2 log cycles as well as in species numbers with increasing doses of radiation. Radiation sensitivity (D10 values) also ranged between 1.68–2.78 kGy. Gamma irradiation treatment is one way which can enhance food safety through the reduction in potential pathogens and has been recommended as part of a comprehensive program to enhance food safety.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.545
PMCID: PMC5778233
fruitbodies; gamma irradiation; Mycoflora; P. ostreatus; packaging materials; polypropylene; polythene
17.  Quality properties of puffed corn snacks incorporated with sesame seed powder 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):85-93.
Abstract
Puffed corn snacks are tasty and affordable cereal‐based food products which have a relatively poor nutritional quality. Sesame seed is a rich source of essential amino and fatty acids, phenolic compounds, tocopherols, and antioxidants. In this study, puffed corn snacks were produced by incorporating sesame powder at 0% (control sample), 5%, 10%, and 15% levels in its formulation and stored at room temperature (24°C) for 60 days. Fatty acid composition, tocopherol, sesamin and sesamolin, phenolic compounds, peroxide value (PV), acidity (AV), and sensory evaluation of the samples were determined. The results indicate that oleic acid content increased and palmitic acid decreased significantly (p < .05) in all the samples at 10% and 15% inclusion levels. The content of phenolic compounds, γ‐tocopherols, sesamin, and sesamolin had significant increases in all the formulated samples. PV results indicated that the formulated samples had a higher stability when the ratio of sesame powder was increased, while the AV values showed a significant increase during storage. Incorporation of 10% sesame powder in the snack formulation had a positive effect on the stability, sensory, and nutritional quality of the product. This approach can be used to modify nutritional quality of this food product and introduce to food market as a relatively healthy snack.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.532
PMCID: PMC5778234
Antioxidant; essential fatty acid; extrusion; oxidation stability; puffed corn snack; sesame powder
18.  Antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activity of Musa paradisiaca‐based diet in alloxan‐induced diabetic rats 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):137-145.
Abstract
This study was aimed at investigating the antihyperglycemic and antidyslipidemic activity of Musa paradisiaca‐based diets in alloxan‐induced diabetic mellitus rats. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan (150 mg/kg b.w) in 48 randomly selected rats. The rats were randomly grouped into four as follows: normal rats fed Dioscorea rotundata‐based diet, diabetic control rats fed D. rotundata‐based diet, diabetic rats fed D. rotundata‐based diet and administered metformin (14.2 mg/kg body weight) orally per day, and diabetic rats fed M. paradisiaca‐based diet. Body weight and fasting blood glucose level were monitored, on 28th days the rats were sacrificed, liver was excised. Thereafter, the hyperglycemic and dyslipidemic statii of the induced diabetic animals were determined. The M. paradisiaca‐based diet significantly (p < .05) reversed the levels of fasting blood glucose, with significant (p < .05) increase in insulin and glycogen concentrations. The diet also increased the activity of hexokinase with significant reduction (p < .05) in glucose‐6‐phosphatase and fructose‐1‐6‐diphosphatase activities. M. paradisiaca‐based diet demonstrated significant reduction (p < .05) in cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TG), very low‐density lipoprotein (VLDL), low‐density lipoprotein (LDL), and significant increase (p < .05) in high‐density lipoprotein (HDL) compared with those of diabetic control group. Also, M. paradisiaca‐based diet significantly (p < .05) reversed the activities of aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase when compared with diabetic control animals. The consumption of this diet may be useful in ameliorating hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia in diabetes mellitus patients.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.538
PMCID: PMC5778235
dyslipidemia; hyperglycemia; Musa paradisiaca; unripe
19.  Binding of volatile aroma compounds to can linings with different polymeric characteristics 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):54-61.
Abstract
Flavor compounds have been shown to interact with packaging materials either by scalping, the movement of flavorings from the food product to the package, or by flavor release, movement of flavorings from the package to the food. Work has elucidated the parameters important for the scalping of flavor compounds to polyolefin packaging materials, but very little work has been conducted examining the scalping of flavor compounds by can lining materials. Can linings composed of three different polymers, polyolefin, acrylic, epoxy, were studied for binding of volatile flavor compounds (octanal, nonanal, decanal, eugenol, d‐limonene) at room temperature over a 2‐week period. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used with gas chromatography mass spectrometry to identify and quantify volatile compounds. Flavor compounds were studied at concentrations around 4–1,000 ppb. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used to verify can lining polymer chemistry. Almost complete binding of all five of the volatile compounds studied was observed over 9–14 days at room temperature for each of the can lining chemistries. The number of time data points limited our ability to determine the order and rate constants of binding. This model system appears to be a valuable for investigating flavor binding of polymeric can lining materials.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.526
PMCID: PMC5778199
can lining; flavor scalping; polymers; SPME
20.  Pomegranate seed clustering by machine vision 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):18-26.
Abstract
Application of new procedures for reliable and fast recognition and classification of seeds in the agricultural industry is very important. Recent advances in computer image analysis made applicable the approach of automated quantitative analysis in order to group cultivars according to minor differences in seed traits that would be indiscernible in ocular inspection. In this work, in order to cluster 20 cultivars of pomegranate seed, nine image features and 21 physicochemical properties of them were extracted. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the information extracted from image of pomegranate seeds could be used instead of time‐consuming and partly expensive experiments of measuring their physicochemical properties. After data reduction with principal component analysis (PCA), different kinds of overlapping between these two types of data were controlled. The results showed that clustering base on all variables of image features contain more similar cultivars with clustering base on physicochemical properties (66.67% for cluster 1, 75% for cluster 2, and 50% for cluster 3). Therefore, by applying image analysis technique, the seeds almost were placed in different pomegranate clusters without spending time and additional costs.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.475
PMCID: PMC5778205
Clustering; Image analysis; PCA; Pomegranate seed
21.  Visual evaluation of sliced Italian salami by image analysis 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):153-159.
Abstract
Visual inspection is an important part of quality control not only for manufacturers but also for retailers and consumers. The object of this investigation was to determine fat content in sliced salami by means of image analysis. The image analysis procedure is applied to digital images of sliced Italian salami produced in 16 different salami factories (A–P). The image analysis method described in this work is nondestructive and the necessary equipment is cheap. It extracts directly interpretable parameters of fat particle morphology (e.g., area, roundness) and number of fat particles from 15 digital images for each sample (A–P). The correlations between the fat features extracted from the images with the chemical fat content measured on the samples were also studied. Good relationships were found between the fat particle characteristics measured by image analysis procedure and the percentage of chemically extractable fat by correlation (R 2=0.75) and principal component analysis.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.540
PMCID: PMC5778206
Fat content; image analysis; meat; pork; sliced Italian salami; structure
22.  Nutritional value of raw Canavalia ensiformis and its utilization as partial replacement for soybean meal in the diet of Clarias gariepinus (Burchell, 1822) fingerlings 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):207-213.
Abstract
The nutritional value of raw Jack bean meal (Canavalia ensiformis) as a partial substitute for soybeans meal was investigated in this study. Preliminary investigation on nutrient composition revealed that lysine, histidine, and phenylalanine were significantly higher in C. ensiformis seed meal compared to soybean meal. However, crude protein and other essential amino acids were significantly lower. Feeding trial was then conducted to investigate the effect of replacing about 40% soybeans meal (at 58.8% inclusion) with C. ensiformis in the diet of Clarias gariepinus. The result obtained after 56 days revealed that fingerlings could tolerate up to 20% replacement without significant effect on growth and nutrient utilization. Beyond this, growth was significantly reduced. Survivals of the fish also follow a similar trend as stated above. It was concluded that dietary inclusion of raw C. ensiform meal should not be beyond 11% (or 20% replacement for soybeans meal included at 58.8%) in the diet of C. gariepinus.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.548
PMCID: PMC5778207
African catfish; EAAs; jack bean; nutrient utilization; unconventional feeds
23.  Effect of isolation techniques on the characteristics of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) protein isolates 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):146-152.
Abstract
In this study, the effect of different isolation techniques on the isolated proteins from pigeon pea was investigated. Water, methanol, ammonium sulfate, and acetone were used for the precipitation of proteins from pigeon pea. Proximate composition, and antinutritional and functional properties of the pigeon pea flour and the isolated proteins were measured. Data generated were statistically analyzed. The proximate composition of the water‐extracted protein isolate was moisture 8.30%, protein 91.83%, fat 0.25%, ash 0.05%, and crude fiber 0.05%. The methanol‐extracted protein isolate composition was moisture 7.87%, protein 91.83%, fat 0.17%, and ash 0.13%, while crude fiber and carbohydrates were not detected. The composition of the ammonium sulfate‐extracted protein isolate was moisture 7.73%, protein 91.73%, fat 0.36, ash 0.13%, and crude fiber 0.67%. The acetone‐extracted protein isolate composition was moisture 8.03%, protein 91.50%, ash 0.67%, and fat 0.30%, but crude fiber and carbohydrates were not detected. The isolate precipitated with ammonium sulfate displayed the highest foaming capacity (37.63%) and foaming stability (55.75%). Isolates precipitated with methanol and acetone had the highest water absorption capacity (160%). Pigeon pea protein isolates extracted with methanol and ammonium sulfate had the highest oil absorption capacity of 145%. Protein isolates recovered through acetone and methanol had the highest emulsifying capacity of 2.23% and emulsifying stability of 91.47%, respectively. The proximate composition of the recovered protein isolates were of high purity. This shows the efficiency of the extraction techniques. The isolates had desirable solubility index. All the isolation techniques brought significant impact on the characteristics of the isolated pigeon pea protein.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.539
PMCID: PMC5778209
Functional properties; isolation techniques; pigeon pea; proximate composition, antinutritional property
24.  In situ production of active vitamin B12 in cereal matrices using Propionibacterium freudenreichii  
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):67-76.
Abstract
The in situ production of active vitamin B12 was investigated in aqueous cereal‐based matrices with three strains of food‐grade Propionibacterium freudenreichii. Matrices prepared from malted barley flour (33% w/v; BM), barley flour (6%; BF), and wheat aleurone (15%; AM) were fermented. The effect of cobalt and the lower ligand 5,6‐dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBI) or its natural precursors (riboflavin and nicotinamide) on active B12 production was evaluated. Active B12 production was confirmed by UHPLC–UV–MS analysis. A B12 content of 12–37 μg·kg−1 was produced in BM; this content increased 10‐fold with cobalt and reached 940–1,480 μg·kg−1 with both cobalt and DMBI. With riboflavin and nicotinamide, B12 production in cobalt‐supplemented BM increased to 712 μg·kg−1. Approximately, 10 μg·kg−1 was achieved in BF and AM and was increased to 80 μg·kg−1 in BF and 260 μg·kg−1 in AM with cobalt and DMBI. The UHPLC and microbiological assay (MBA) results agreed when both cobalt and DMBI or riboflavin and nicotinamide were supplemented. However, MBA gave ca. 20%–40% higher results in BM and AM supplemented with cobalt, indicating the presence of human inactive analogues, such as pseudovitamin B12. This study demonstrates that cereal products can be naturally fortified with active B12 to a nutritionally relevant level by fermenting with P. freudenreichii.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.528
PMCID: PMC5778212
barley malt and flour; fermentation; Propionibacterium freudenreichii; vitamin B12; wheat aleurone
25.  Surveillance and diagnosis of zoonotic foodborne parasites 
Food Science & Nutrition  2017;6(1):3-17.
Abstract
Foodborne parasites are a source of human parasitic infection. Zoonotic infections of humans arise from a variety of domestic and wild animals, including sheep, goats, cattle, camels, horses, pigs, boars, bears, felines, canids, amphibians, reptiles, poultry, and aquatic animals such as fishes and shrimp. Therefore, the implementation of efficient, accessible, and controllable inspection policies for livestock, fisheries, slaughterhouses, and meat processing and packaging companies is highly recommended. In addition, more attention should be paid to the education of auditors from the quality control (QC) and assurance sectors, livestock breeders, the fishery sector, and meat inspection veterinarians in developing countries with high incidence of zoonotic parasitic infections. Furthermore, both the diagnosis of zoonotic parasitic infections by inexpensive, accessible, and reliable identification methods and the organization of effective control systems with sufficient supervision of product quality are other areas to which more attention should be paid. In this review, we present some examples of successful inspection policies and recent updates on present conventional, serologic, and molecular diagnostic methods for zoonotic foodborne parasites from both human infection and animal‐derived foods.
doi:10.1002/fsn3.530
PMCID: PMC5778216
diagnosis; fish; food; PCR (polymerase chain reaction); quality control

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