PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced
Results 1-25 (527)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Journals
Year of Publication
more »
1.  Changes in Specific Substance Involvement Scores among SBIRT recipients in an HIV primary care setting 
Background
Substance use is common among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and is associated with worse outcomes along the HIV care continuum. One potentially effective clinic-based approach to addressing unhealthy substance use is screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT).
Methods
We conducted a two-arm randomized trial to examine the effects of a self-administered, computerized SBIRT intervention compared to a clinician-administered SBIRT intervention in an HIV primary clinic. Patients were surveyed before receiving the intervention and again at 1, 3, and 6 months. We administered the WHO Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test to determine Specific Substance Involvement Scores (SSIS) and to assign participants to categories of lower, moderate, or high risk to health and other problems for each substance. We collapsed moderate or severe risk responses into a single moderate–high risk category. Based on low rates of participation in the computerized arm, we conducted an “as treated” analysis to examine 6-month changes in mean SSIS among SBIRT intervention participants.
Results
For the overall sample (n = 208), baseline mean SSIS were in the moderate risk category for alcohol, tobacco, cannabis, cocaine, amphetamine, sedatives and opioids. Of those enrolled, 134 (64.4%) received the intervention, and 109 (52.4%) completed the 6-month follow up. There was a statistically significant decline in mean SSIS for all substances except tobacco and cannabis among participants who were at moderate–high risk at baseline. We also observed a statistically significant increase in mean SSIS for all substances except amphetamines and sedatives among participants who were at lower risk at baseline.
Conclusions
Substance use among patients in this urban, safety-net, HIV primary care clinic was near universal, and moderate risk substance use was common. Among participants who received the SBIRT intervention, mean SSISs decreased among those at moderate–high risk at baseline, but increased among those at lower risk at baseline over the 6-month study period. Additional research should examine the clinical significance of SSIS changes for PLHIV, which SBIRT components drive changes in substance use scores, and what other interventions might support those patients at lower risk to maintain health and engagement along the HIV care continuum.
Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov study NCT01300806
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0101-1
PMCID: PMC5725890  PMID: 29229000
SBIRT; Substance use; People living with HIV; Interventions
2.  Delivery of screening and brief intervention for unhealthy alcohol use in an urban academic Federally Qualified Health Center 
Background
Screening and brief intervention (SBI) for unhealthy drinking has not been widely implemented in primary care partly due to reliance on physicians to perform it.
Methods
We implemented a model of nursing staff-delivered SBI for unhealthy drinking for adult patients receiving primary care at an academically-affiliated Federally Qualified Health Center in the Bronx, NY. Our model consisted of nursing staff screening all patients with the alcohol use disorders identification test consumption questions (AUDIT-C) and, if screening positive, providing BI or referral to specialty services. We developed a clinical decision support tool integrated into the electronic health record to guide nursing staff and record SBI provision. To evaluate this model, we determined overall SBI delivery to patients and factors associated with receiving SBI.
Results
Between October 2013 and September 2014, 9119 unique adult patients made 24,285 visits. Patients were majority women (67.5%) and Hispanic/Latino (54.5%). Overall, 46.2% were screened, with 19.0–35.8% of eligible patients screened in each month. Increasing age (OR: 0.82 [95% CI 0.80–0.85] for a 10-year increase), female sex (OR: 0.83 [95% CI 0.77–0.91]), and chronic conditions like hypertension (OR: 0.62 [95% CI 0.56–0.70]) and diabetes (OR: 0.66 [95% CI 0.58–0.75]), among others, were associated with a lower odds of being screened. Of all patients screened, 225 (5.3%) screened positive and of those patients, 122 (54.2%) received a BI. Patients with higher AUDIT-C scores were more likely to receive a BI (OR: 1.24 [95% CI 1.04–1.47] for a 1-point increase) and non-English speaking patients were less likely to receive a BI than those who spoke English (OR: 0.42 [95% CI 0.18–0.97]).
Conclusions
Our model of SBI resulted in screening of nearly half of all eligible patients and BI provision to over half of those screening positive. Future efforts to improve SBI delivery should focus on groups such as older adults, women, and those with chronic medical conditions.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0100-2
PMCID: PMC5719726  PMID: 29212532
Alcohol use disorder; Unhealthy alcohol use; Screening and brief intervention; Primary care; Screening
3.  Patterns of HIV testing, drug use, and sexual behaviors in people who use drugs: findings from a community-based outreach program in Phnom Penh, Cambodia 
Background
People who use drugs are an important priority for HIV programs. However, data related to their utilization of HIV services are limited. This paper reports patterns of HIV testing, drug use, and risk and service perception among people who use drugs. Study participants were receiving HIV and harm reduction services from a community-based program in Phnom Penh, comprised of itinerant peer-led outreach and static drop-in centers.
Methods
This was a mixed-methods study conducted in 2014, comprising of a quantitative survey using a structured questionnaire, followed by two focus group discussions among a sub-sample of survey participants. Participants were recruited from hotspots in five HIV high-burden communes using a two-stage cluster sampling method. Quantitative descriptive analyses and qualitative thematic analyses were performed.
Results
This study included 151 people who use drugs with a mean age of 31.2 (SD = 6.5) years; 77.5% were male and 39.1% were married. The most common drugs used were methamphetamines (72.8%) and heroin (39.7%), and 38.0% injected drugs in the past 3 months. Overall, 83.3% had been tested for HIV in the past 6 months, of whom 62.5% had been tested by peers through community-based outreach. However, there were ongoing HIV risks: 37.3% were engaging in sex on drugs, only 35.6% used a condom at last sexual intercourse, and 10.8% had had a sexually transmitted infection in the last 6 months. Among people who reported injecting drugs in the past 3 months, 27.5% reported re-using needles/syringes. Almost half (46.5%) perceived themselves as being at lower risk of HIV compared to the general population. Qualitative results contextualized the findings of low perception of HIV risks and suggested that although services were often unavailable on weekends, at night, or during national holidays, peer-led community-based outreach was highly accepted.
Conclusions
A peer-led community-based approach was effective in reaching people who use drugs with HIV and harm reduction interventions. To mitigate ongoing HIV risks, expanding access to combination prevention interventions and implementing strategies to enable people who use drugs to objectively assess their HIV risks are required. Additionally, community-based programs should collect data along the care continuum, to enable decentralized tracking of progress towards 90–90–90 goals at local levels.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0094-9
PMCID: PMC5715614  PMID: 29202872
90–90–90 targets; HIV testing; HIV risk; People who use drugs; People who inject drugs; Cambodia
4.  Role of substance use in HIV care cascade outcomes among people who inject drugs in Russia 
Background
Engaging people who drink alcohol or inject drugs in HIV care can be challenging, particularly in Eastern Europe. Healthcare facilities in Russia are organized by specialty; therefore linking patients from addiction care to HIV hospitals has been difficult. The HIV care cascade outlines stages of HIV care (e.g., linkage to care, prescribed antiretroviral therapy [ART], and achieving HIV viral suppression). We hypothesized that unhealthy alcohol use, injection drug use, and opioid craving are associated with unfavorable HIV care cascade outcomes.
Methods
We analyzed data from a cohort (n = 249) of HIV-positive Russians who have been in addiction hospital treatment in the past year and had a lifetime history of injection drug use (IDU). We evaluated the association between unhealthy alcohol use (AUDIT score > 7 [both hazardous drinking and dependence]), past-month injection drug use (IDU), and opioid craving (visual analogue scale from 1 to 100) with HIV care cascade outcomes. The primary outcome was linkage to HIV care within 12 months. Other outcomes were prescription of ART (secondary) and achievement of undetectable HIV viral load (HVL < 500 copies/mL) within 12 months (exploratory); the latter was analyzed on a subset in which HVL was measured (n = 48). We assessed outcomes via medical record review (linkage, ART) and serum tests (HVL). To examine the primary outcome, we used multiple logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders.
Results
Among 249 study participants, unhealthy alcohol use (n = 148 [59%]) and past-month IDU (n = 130 [52%]) were common. The mean opioid craving score was 49 (SD: 38). We were unable to detect significant associations between the independent variables (i.e., unhealthy alcohol use, IDU and opioid craving) and any HIV care cascade outcomes in unadjusted and adjusted analyses.
Conclusion
In this cohort of HIV-positive Russians with a history of IDU, individual substance use factors were not significantly associated with achieving HIV care cascade milestones (i.e., linkage to HIV care; prescription for ART; or suppressed viral load). Given no detection of an association of cascade outcomes with recent unhealthy use of alcohol or injection drugs in this cohort, examining systemic factors to understand determinants of HIV care engagement for people with drug use would be important.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0098-5
PMCID: PMC5713116  PMID: 29198185
HIV care cascade; Russia; Injection drug use; Unhealthy alcohol use; Opioid craving; Linkage to care; ART; Suppressed viral load
5.  Screening in Trauma for Opioid Misuse Prevention (STOMP): study protocol for the development of an opioid risk screening tool for victims of injury 
Background
Opioid addiction and overdose are epidemic in the U.S. Victims of traumatic injury are at greater than average risk for opioid misuse and related complications. Potential risk screens and preventive interventions in this clinical population remain under-investigated. The current project seeks to develop and pilot the implementation of a screening tool for opioid risk at American College of Surgeons (ACS) Level I and Level II trauma centers.
Methods
The project began with an online survey, which was sent to Wisconsin trauma center medical directors and trauma coordinators for the purpose of gathering information on current substance use screening practices. Next, a focus group of trauma center staff was convened to discuss barriers and facilitators to screening, resources available and needed to support trauma patients with opioid use disorders, and measurable clinical observations that could indicate a patient’s potential risk for opioid misuse. Data from the surveys and focus group were combined to inform the data collection instruments that are currently being administered to patients recruited from the University of Wisconsin Hospital Trauma Inpatient and Orthopedic Surgery Services. Eligible and consenting patients complete standardized measures of socio-demographics, substance use history, opioid misuse risk, mental health, medical history, and injury and pain severity. Follow up visits at weeks 4, 12, and 24 after hospital discharge assess hypothesized risk factors for opioid addiction and opioid use disorder diagnosis. At the completion of patient data collection, a forward stepwise regression will identify factors of most significant risk of the development of opioid use disorder after traumatic injury. This modeling will inform the development of a novel opioid risk screening tool, which will undergo pilot implementation at 4 Wisconsin ACS Level I and Level II trauma centers, using an evidence-based implementation strategy with roots in systems engineering.
Discussion
Positive findings from the proposed work would lead to improved, standardized opioid risk screening practices among victims of traumatic injury. The ultimate goal of this and future work is to reduce the likelihood of opioid misuse, addiction, and related complications, such as overdose and death.
Trial registration Clinicaltrials.gov registration number: NCT02861976. Date of registration: Feb 9, 2016
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1186/s13722-017-0097-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0097-6
PMCID: PMC5713647  PMID: 29198186
Trauma; Injury; Opioids; Opiates; Opioid addiction; Opioid use disorder; Opioid misuse; Opioid abuse; Screening; Risk factors
6.  Testing the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based brief intervention for substance use as an adjunct to usual care in community-based AIDS service organizations: study protocol for a multisite randomized controlled trial 
Background
In 2010, the first comprehensive National HIV/AIDS Strategy for the United States was released and included three goals: (1) reducing the number of people who become infected with HIV, (2) increasing access to care and improving health outcomes for people living with HIV, and (3) reducing HIV-related health disparities and health inequities. In 2013, as part of its effort to help address the National HIV/AIDS Strategy, the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) funded a type 2 effectiveness-implementation hybrid trial titled the Substance Abuse Treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV) Project. Aim 1 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based brief intervention (MIBI) for substance use as an adjunct to usual care within AIDS Service Organizations (ASOs) as part of its MIBI Experiment. Aim 2 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF) as an adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) model for training staff in motivational interviewing as part of its ISF Experiment. The current paper describes the study protocol for the ISF Experiment.
Methods
As part of a multisite randomized controlled trial, individuals with comorbid HIV/AIDS and problematic substance use are randomized to receive either the ASOs’ usual care (control condition) or usual care plus a MIBI for substance use (experimental condition) delivered by trained ASO case-management staff. Primary outcome measures are reductions in days of primary substance use, number of substance-related problems, times engaging in risky behaviors, days of non-adherence to HIV medications, and increases in substance use treatment. As part of this paper, we describe the trial protocol in accordance with the Standard Protocol Items: Recommendations for Interventional Trials guidelines.
Discussion
If successfully able to implement MIBI as an effective adjunct to usual care, the current trial may have a significant impact on increasing the capacity of ASOs to address problematic substance use among individuals living with HIV/AIDS. Reducing the prevalence of problematic substance use among individuals living with HIV/AIDS within the United States may lead to significant improvements on key performance measures (i.e., the HIV Care Continuum and the 90-90-90 target).
Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02495402
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1186/s13722-017-0095-8) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0095-8
PMCID: PMC5693500  PMID: 29149914
Substance use; HIV; AIDS; type 2 hybrid trial
7.  Testing the implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF) strategy as an effective adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) strategy: study protocol for a cluster randomized trial 
Background
Improving the extent to which evidence-based practices (EBPs)—treatments that have been empirically shown to be efficacious or effective—are integrated within routine practice is a well-documented challenge across numerous areas of health. In 2014, the National Institute on Drug Abuse funded a type 2 effectiveness–implementation hybrid trial titled the substance abuse treatment to HIV Care (SAT2HIV) Project. Aim 1 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of a motivational interviewing-based brief intervention (MIBI) for substance use as an adjunct to usual care within AIDS service organizations (ASOs) as part of its MIBI Experiment. Aim 2 of the SAT2HIV Project tests the effectiveness of implementation and sustainment facilitation (ISF) as an adjunct to the Addiction Technology Transfer Center (ATTC) model for training staff in motivational interviewing as part of its ISF Experiment. The current paper describes the study protocol for the ISF Experiment.
Methods
Using a cluster randomized design, case management and leadership staff from 39 ASOs across the United States were randomized to receive either the ATTC strategy (control condition) or the ATTC + ISF strategy (experimental condition). The ATTC strategy is staff-focused and includes 10 discrete strategies (e.g., provide centralized technical assistance, conduct educational meetings, provide ongoing consultation). The ISF strategy is organization-focused and includes seven discrete strategies (e.g., use an implementation advisor, organize implementation team meetings, conduct cyclical small tests of change). Building upon the exploration–preparation–implementation–sustainment (EPIS) framework, the effectiveness of the ISF strategy is examined via three staff-level measures: (1) time-to-proficiency (i.e., preparation phase outcome), (2) implementation effectiveness (i.e., implementation phase outcome), and (3) level of sustainment (i.e., sustainment phase outcome).
Discussion
Although not without limitations, the ISF experiment has several strengths: a highly rigorous design (randomized, hypothesis-driven), high-need setting (ASOs), large sample size (39 ASOs), large geographic representation (23 states and the District of Columbia), and testing along multiple phases of the EPIS continuum (preparation, implementation, and sustainment). Thus, study findings will significantly improve generalizable knowledge regarding the best preparation, implementation, and sustainment strategies for advancing EBPs along the EPIS continuum. Moreover, increasing ASO’s capacity to address substance use may improve the HIV Care Continuum.
Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT03120598.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1186/s13722-017-0096-7) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0096-7
PMCID: PMC5693537  PMID: 29149909
Implementation strategies; External facilitation; Type 2 hybrid trial
9.  Factors influencing the long-term sustainment of quality improvements made in addiction treatment facilities: a qualitative study 
Background
A greater understanding of the factors that influence long-term sustainment of quality improvement (QI) initiatives is needed to promote organizational ability to sustain QI practices over time, help improve future interventions, and increase the value of QI investments.
Methods
We approached 83 of 201 executive sponsors or change leaders at addiction treatment organizations that participated in the 2007–2009 NIATx200 QI intervention. We completed semi-structured interviews with 33 individuals between November 2015 and April 2016. NIATx200 goals were to decrease wait time, increase admissions and improve retention in treatment. Interviews sought to understand factors that either facilitated or impeded long-term sustainment of organizational QI practices made during the intervention. We used thematic analysis to organize the data and group patterns of responses. We assessed available quantitative outcome data and intervention engagement data to corroborate qualitative results.
Results
We used narrative analysis to group four important themes related to long-term sustainment of QI practices: (1) finding alignment between business- and client-centered practices; (2) staff engagement early in QI process added legitimacy which facilitated sustainment; (3) commitment to integrating data into monitoring practices and the identification of a data champion; and (4) adequate organizational human resources devoted to sustainment. We found four corollary factors among agencies which did not sustain practices: (1) lack of evidence of impact on business practices led to discontinuation; (2) disengaged staff and lack of organizational capacity during implementation period led to lack of sustainment; (3) no data integration into overall business practices and no identified data champion; and (4) high staff turnover. In addition, we found that many agencies’ current use of NIATx methods and tools suggested a legacy effect that might improve quality elsewhere, even absent overall sustainment of original study outcome goals. Available quantitative data on wait-time reduction demonstrated general concordance between agency perceptions of, and evidence for, sustainment 2 years following the end of the intervention. Additional quantitative data suggested that greater engagement during the intervention period showed some association with sustainment.
Conclusions
Factors identified in QI frameworks as important for short-term sustainment—organizational capacity (e.g. staffing and leadership) and intervention characteristics (e.g. flexibility and fit)—are also important to long-term sustainment.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0093-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0093-x
PMCID: PMC5664835  PMID: 29089054
Quality improvement; Long-term sustainment; Addiction treatment; Organizational behavior; NIATx200; Qualitative methods
10.  Convenience without disclosure: a formative research study of a proposed integrated methadone and antiretroviral therapy service delivery model in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania 
Background
Though timely initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART) is a vital component of effective HIV prevention, care and treatment, people who inject drugs are less likely to receive ART than their non-drug using counterparts. In an effort to increase access to ART for people who inject drugs, we examined perceived benefits, challenges, and recommendations for implementing an integrated methadone and ART service delivery model at an opioid treatment program (OTP) clinic in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
Methods
We conducted in-depth interviews with 12 providers and 20 HIV-positive patients at the Muhimbili National Hospital OTP clinic in early 2015. We used thematic content analysis to examine patient and provider perspectives of an integrated model.
Results
Respondents perceived that offering on-site CD4 testing and HIV clinical management at the OTP clinic would improve the timeliness and efficiency of the ART eligibility process, make HIV clinical care more convenient, mitigate stigma and discrimination in HIV care and treatment settings, and improve patient monitoring and ART adherence. However, perceived challenges included overburdened OTP clinic staff and limited space at the clinic to accommodate additional services. Limited privacy at the OTP clinic and its contribution to fear among HIV-positive patients of being stigmatized by their peers at the clinic was a common theme expressed particularly by patients, and often corroborated by providers. Co-dispensing ART and methadone at the clinic’s pharmacy window was viewed as a potential deterrent for patients. Providers felt that an electronic health information system would help them better monitor patients’ progress, but that this system would need to be integrated into existing health information systems. To address these potential barriers to implementing an integrated model, respondents recommended increasing OTP provider and clinic capacity, offering flexible ART dispensing options, ensuring privacy with ART dispensing, and harmonizing any new electronic health information systems with existing systems.
Conclusions
An integrated methadone and ART service delivery model at the MNH OTP clinic could improve access to HIV care and treatment for OTP patients. However, specific implementation strategies must ensure that OTP providers are not overburdened and confidentiality of patients is maintained.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0089-6
PMCID: PMC5646174  PMID: 29041950
11.  Barriers and facilitators of the HIV care continuum in Southern New England for people with drug or alcohol use and living with HIV/AIDS: perspectives of HIV surveillance experts and service providers 
Background
Contemporary studies about HIV care continuum (HCC) outcomes within substance using populations primarily focus on individual risk factors rather than provider- or systems-level influences. Over 25% of people living with HIV (PLWH) have substance use disorders that can alter their path through the HCC. As part of a study of HCC outcomes in nine small cities in Southern New England (population 100,000–200,000 and relatively high HIV prevalence particularly among substance users), this qualitative analysis sought to understand public health staff and HIV service providers’ perspectives on how substance use may influence HCC outcomes.
Methods
Interviews with 49 participants, collected between November 2015 and June 2016, were analyzed thematically using a modified social ecological model as the conceptual framework and codes for substance use, HCC barriers and facilitators, successes and failures of initiatives targeting the HCC, and criminal justice issues.
Results
Eight themes were identified concerning the impact of substance use on HCC outcomes. At the individual level, these included coping and satisfying basic needs and could influence all HCC steps (i.e., testing, treatment linkage, adherence, and retention, and viral load suppression). The interpersonal level themes included stigma issues and providers’ cultural competence and treatment attitudes and primarily influenced treatment linkage, retention, and viral load suppression. These same HCC steps were influenced at the health care systems level by organizations’ physical environment and resources as well as intra-/inter-agency communication. Testing and retention were the most likely steps to affect at the policy/society level, and the themes included opposition within an organization or community, and activities with unintended consequences.
Conclusions
The most substantial HCC challenges for PLWH with substance use problems included linking and retaining in treatment those with multiple co-morbidities and meeting their basic living needs. Recommendations to improve HCC outcomes for PLWH with substance use problems include increasing easy access to effective drug and mental health treatment, expanding case management and peer navigation services, training staff about harm reduction, de-stigmatizing, and culturally competent approaches to interacting with patients, and increasing information-sharing and service coordination among service providers and the social service and criminal justice systems.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0088-7
PMCID: PMC5623965  PMID: 28965489
HIV/AIDS; Substance use; HIV care continuum
12.  Alcohol consumption patterns and HIV viral suppression among persons receiving HIV care in Florida: an observational study 
Background
Alcohol consumption has been associated with poor antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence but less is known about its relationship to HIV viral suppression, or whether certain drinking patterns have a stronger association than others. The objectives of this study were to determine the association of different patterns of alcohol consumption to HIV viral suppression and ART adherence, and to determine whether any associations of alcohol with HIV viral suppression were mediated by poor ART adherence.
Methods
This observational study used baseline data from 619 HIV+ participants, recruited across 8 clinical and community settings across Florida as part of the Florida Cohort from 2014 to 2016. Alcohol consumption was measured by self-report, and grouped into four categories: heavy drinking (>7/week for women or >14 drinks/week for men); binge, but not heavy drinking (≥4 or >5 drinks/occasion for women and men, respectively), low level drinking (neither heavy nor binge), and abstinence. Serum HIV RNA measurements were obtained from statewide HIV surveillance data, and durable viral suppression was defined as achieving HIV viral suppression (<200 copies/ml) at every assessment in the past 12 months.
Results
The majority of the 619 participants were male (63%) and aged 45 or greater (65%). The proportion of participants with heavy, binge, low-level drinking and abstinence was 9, 25, 37 and 30%, respectively. Optimal ART adherence (≥95%) was reported by 68%, and 60% achieved durable viral suppression. In multivariable analysis controlling for demographic factors, drug use, and homelessness, heavy drinking (compared to abstinence) was associated with increased odds of failing to achieve durable viral suppression (OR 2.16, 95% CI 1.08–4.32) whereas binge drinking alone was not significantly associated with this outcome (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.64–1.70). Both heavy drinking and binge drinking were significantly associated with suboptimal ART adherence. Mediation analyses suggested that only a small proportion of the relationship between heavy drinking and suboptimal viral suppression was due to poor ART adherence.
Conclusions
Exceeding weekly recommended levels of alcohol consumption (heavy drinking) was significantly associated with poor HIV viral suppression and ART non-adherence, while binge drinking was associated with suboptimal ART adherence in this sample. Clinicians should attempt to address heavy drinking in their patients with HIV.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0090-0
PMCID: PMC5615807  PMID: 28950912
Alcohol consumption; Binge drinking; HIV; Viral suppression; ART adherence
13.  Barriers and facilitators to implementing addiction medicine fellowships: a qualitative study with fellows, medical students, residents and preceptors 
Background
Although progress in science has driven advances in addiction medicine, this subject has not been adequately taught to medical trainees and physicians. As a result, there has been poor integration of evidence-based practices in addiction medicine into physician training which has impeded addiction treatment and care. Recently, a number of training initiatives have emerged internationally, including the addiction medicine fellowships in Vancouver, Canada. This study was undertaken to examine barriers and facilitators of implementing addiction medicine fellowships.
Methods
We interviewed trainees and faculty from clinical and research training programmes in addiction medicine at St Paul’s Hospital in Vancouver, Canada (N = 26) about barriers and facilitators to implementation of physician training in addiction medicine. We included medical students, residents, fellows and supervising physicians from a variety of specialities. We analysed interview transcripts thematically by using NVivo software.
Results
We identified six domains relating to training implementation: (1) organisational, (2) structural, (3) teacher, (4) learner, (5) patient and (6) community related variables either hindered or fostered addiction medicine education, depending on context. Human resources, variety of rotations, peer support and mentoring fostered implementation of addiction training. Money, time and space limitations hindered implementation. Participant accounts underscored how faculty and staff facilitated the implementation of both the clinical and the research training.
Conclusions
Implementation of addiction medicine fellowships appears feasible, although a number of barriers exist. Research into factors within the local/practice environment that shape delivery of education to ensure consistent and quality education scale-up is a priority.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0086-9
PMCID: PMC5606021  PMID: 28927448
Addiction; Substance-related disorders; Medical education; Qualitative research
14.  Proceedings of the 14th annual conference of INEBRIA 
Holloway, Aisha S. | Ferguson, Jennifer | Landale, Sarah | Cariola, Laura | Newbury-Birch, Dorothy | Flynn, Amy | Knight, John R. | Sherritt, Lon | Harris, Sion K. | O’Donnell, Amy J. | Kaner, Eileen | Hanratty, Barbara | Loree, Amy M. | Yonkers, Kimberly A. | Ondersma, Steven J. | Gilstead-Hayden, Kate | Martino, Steve | Adam, Angeline | Schwartz, Robert P. | Wu, Li-Tzy | Subramaniam, Geetha | Sharma, Gaurav | McNeely, Jennifer | Berman, Anne H. | Kolaas, Karoline | Petersén, Elisabeth | Bendtsen, Preben | Hedman, Erik | Linderoth, Catharina | Müssener, Ulrika | Sinadinovic, Kristina | Spak, Fredrik | Gremyr, Ida | Thurang, Anna | Mitchell, Ann M. | Finnell, Deborah | Savage, Christine L. | Mahmoud, Khadejah F. | Riordan, Benjamin C. | Conner, Tamlin S. | Flett, Jayde A. M. | Scarf, Damian | McRee, Bonnie | Vendetti, Janice | Gallucci, Karen Steinberg | Robaina, Kate | Clark, Brendan J. | Jones, Jacqueline | Reed, Kathryne D. | Hodapp, Rachel M. | Douglas, Ivor | Burnham, Ellen L. | Aagaard, Laura | Cook, Paul F. | Harris, Brett R. | Yu, Jiang | Wolff, Margaret | Rogers, Meighan | Barbosa, Carolina | Wedehase, Brendan J. | Dunlap, Laura J. | Mitchell, Shannon G. | Dusek, Kristi A. | Gryczynski, Jan | Kirk, Arethusa S. | Oros, Marla T. | Hosler, Colleen | O’Grady, Kevin E. | Brown, Barry S. | Angus, Colin | Sherborne, Sidney | Gillespie, Duncan | Meier, Petra | Brennan, Alan | de Vargas, Divane | Soares, Janaina | Castelblanco, Donna | Doran, Kelly M. | Wittman, Ian | Shelley, Donna | Rotrosen, John | Gelberg, Lillian | Edelman, E. Jennifer | Maisto, Stephen A. | Hansen, Nathan B. | Cutter, Christopher J. | Deng, Yanhong | Dziura, James | Fiellin, Lynn E. | O’Connor, Patrick G. | Bedimo, Roger | Gibert, Cynthia | Marconi, Vincent C. | Rimland, David | Rodriguez-Barradas, Maria C. | Simberkoff, Michael S. | Justice, Amy C. | Bryant, Kendall J. | Fiellin, David A. | Giles, Emma L. | Coulton, Simon | Deluca, Paolo | Drummond, Colin | Howel, Denise | McColl, Elaine | McGovern, Ruth | Scott, Stephanie | Stamp, Elaine | Sumnall, Harry | Vale, Luke | Alabani, Viviana | Atkinson, Amanda | Boniface, Sadie | Frankham, Jo | Gilvarry, Eilish | Hendrie, Nadine | Howe, Nicola | McGeechan, Grant J. | Ramsey, Amy | Stanley, Grant | Clephane, Justine | Gardiner, David | Holmes, John | Martin, Neil | Shevills, Colin | Soutar, Melanie | Chi, Felicia W. | Weisner, Constance | Ross, Thekla B. | Mertens, Jennifer | Sterling, Stacy A. | Shorter, Gillian W. | Heather, Nick | Bray, Jeremy | Cohen, Hildie A. | McPherson, Tracy L. | Adam, Cyrille | López-Pelayo, Hugo | Gual, Antoni | Segura-Garcia, Lidia | Colom, Joan | Ornelas, India J. | Doyle, Suzanne | Donovan, Dennis | Duran, Bonnie | Torres, Vanessa | Gaume, Jacques | Grazioli, Véronique | Fortini, Cristiana | Paroz, Sophie | Bertholet, Nicolas | Daeppen, Jean-Bernard | Satterfield, Jason M. | Gregorich, Steven | Alvarado, Nicholas J. | Muñoz, Ricardo | Kulieva, Gozel | Vijayaraghavan, Maya | Adam, Angéline | Cunningham, John A. | Díaz, Estela | Palacio-Vieira, Jorge | Godinho, Alexandra | Kushir, Vladyslav | O’Brien, Kimberly H. M. | Aguinaldo, Laika D. | Sellers, Christina M. | Spirito, Anthony | Chang, Grace | Blake-Lamb, Tiffany | LaFave, Lea R. Ayers | Thies, Kathleen M. | Pepin, Amy L. | Sprangers, Kara E. | Bradley, Martha | Jorgensen, Shasta | Catano, Nico A. | Murray, Adelaide R. | Schachter, Deborah | Andersen, Ronald M. | Rey, Guillermina Natera | Vahidi, Mani | Rico, Melvin W. | Baumeister, Sebastian E. | Johansson, Magnus | Sinadinovic, Christina | Hermansson, Ulric | Andreasson, Sven | O’Grady, Megan A. | Kapoor, Sandeep | Akkari, Cherine | Bernal, Camila | Pappacena, Kristen | Morley, Jeanne | Auerbach, Mark | Neighbors, Charles J. | Kwon, Nancy | Conigliaro, Joseph | Morgenstern, Jon | Magill, Molly | Apodaca, Timothy R. | Borsari, Brian | Hoadley, Ariel | Scott Tonigan, J. | Moyers, Theresa | Fitzgerald, Niamh M. | Schölin, Lisa | Barticevic, Nicolas | Zuzulich, Soledad | Poblete, Fernando | Norambuena, Pablo | Sacco, Paul | Ting, Laura | Beaulieu, Michele | Wallace, Paul George | Andrews, Matthew | Daley, Kate | Shenker, Don | Gallagher, Louise | Watson, Rod | Weaver, Tim | Bruguera, Pol | Oliveras, Clara | Gavotti, Carolina | Barrio, Pablo | Braddick, Fleur | Miquel, Laia | Suárez, Montse | Bruguera, Carla | Brown, Richard L. | Capell, Julie Whelan | Paul Moberg, D. | Maslowsky, Julie | Saunders, Laura A. | McCormack, Ryan P. | Scheidell, Joy | Gonzalez, Mirelis | Bauroth, Sabrina | Liu, Weiwei | Lindsay, Dawn L. | Lincoln, Piper | Hagle, Holly | Wallhed Finn, Sara | Hammarberg, Anders | Andréasson, Sven | King, Sarah E. | Vargo, Rachael | Kameg, Brayden N. | Acquavita, Shauna P. | Van Loon, Ruth Anne | Smith, Rachel | Brehm, Bonnie J. | Diers, Tiffiny | Kim, Karissa | Barker, Andrea | Jones, Ashley L. | Skinner, Asheley C. | Hinman, Agatha | Svikis, Dace S. | Thacker, Casey L. | Resnicow, Ken | Beatty, Jessica R. | Janisse, James | Puder, Karoline | Bakshi, Ann-Sofie | Milward, Joanna M. | Kimergard, Andreas | Garnett, Claire V. | Crane, David | Brown, Jamie | West, Robert | Michie, Susan | Rosendahl, Ingvar | Andersson, Claes | Gajecki, Mikael | Blankers, Matthijs | Donoghue, Kim | Lynch, Ellen | Maconochie, Ian | Phillips, Ceri | Pockett, Rhys | Phillips, Tom | Patton, R. | Russell, Ian | Strang, John | Stewart, Maureen T. | Quinn, Amity E. | Brolin, Mary | Evans, Brooke | Horgan, Constance M. | Liu, Junqing | McCree, Fern | Kanovsky, Doug | Oberlander, Tyler | Zhang, Huan | Hamlin, Ben | Saunders, Robert | Barton, Mary B. | Scholle, Sarah H. | Santora, Patricia | Bhatt, Chirag | Ahmed, Kazi | Hodgkin, Dominic | Gao, Wenwu | Merrick, Elizabeth L. | Drebing, Charles E. | Larson, Mary Jo | Sharma, Monica | Petry, Nancy M. | Saitz, Richard | Weisner, Constance M. | Young-Wolff, Kelly C. | Lu, Wendy Y. | Blosnich, John R. | Lehavot, Keren | Glass, Joseph E. | Williams, Emily C. | Bensley, Kara M. | Chan, Gary | Dombrowski, Julie | Fortney, John | Rubinsky, Anna D. | Lapham, Gwen T. | Forray, Ariadna | Olmstead, Todd A. | Gilstad-Hayden, Kathryn | Kershaw, Trace | Dillon, Pamela | Weaver, Michael F. | Grekin, Emily R. | Ellis, Jennifer D. | McGoron, Lucy | McGoron, Lucy
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0087-8
PMCID: PMC5606215
15.  HIV treatment cascade among female entertainment and sex workers in Cambodia: impact of amphetamine use and an HIV prevention program 
Background
HIV prevalence remains high in Cambodia among female entertainment and sex workers (FESW), and amphetamine-type stimulant (ATS) use significantly increases risk of infection. A successful continuum of care (CoC) is key to effective clinical care and prevention. This study aimed to describe the HIV CoC in HIV-positive FESW. We examined CoC outcomes among HIV-positive FESW participating in the Cambodia Integrated HIV and Drug Prevention Implementation (CIPI) study, being implemented in ten provinces. CIPI is a trial aimed at reducing ATS use concomitant with the SMARTgirl HIV prevention program.
Methods
From 2013 to 2016, 1198 FESW ≥ 18 years old who reported multiple sex partners and/or transactional sex were recruited. We identified 88 HIV-positive women at baseline. We described linkage to care as 12-month retention and viral suppression (<1000 copies/mL). Logistic regression analyses were conducted to examine correlates of retention in care at 12 months, and viral suppression.
Results
Median age of the 88 HIV-positive women was 32 years [interquartile range (IQR) 28, 35]; 50% were working in entertainment venues and 50% as freelance sex workers; 70% reported SMARTgirl membership. In the past 3 months, women reported a median of 15 sex partners, 38% reported unprotected sex, and 55% reported using ATS. Overall, 88% were receiving HIV care, 83% were on antiretroviral therapy, 39% were retained in care at 12 months, and 23% were virally suppressed. SMARTgirl membership was independently associated with fourfold greater odds of 12-month retention in care (AOR = 4.16, 95% CI 1.38, 12.56). Those at high risk for an ATS use disorder had 91% lower odds of 12-month retention in care (AOR = 0.09, 95% CI 0.01, 0.72). Viral suppression was independently associated with SMARTgirl membership, older age, reporting of STI symptoms, worse symptoms of psychological distress, and greater numbers of sex partners.
Conclusions
This is the first study to characterize the HIV CoC in Cambodian FESW. While most women were successfully linked to HIV care, retention and viral suppression were low. Tailored programs like SMARTgirl, targeting the broader population of HIV-positive FESW as well as interventions to reduce ATS use could optimize the clinical and population health benefits of HIV treatment.
Trial registration This work reports data collected as part of a trial: NCT01835574. This work does not present trial results
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0085-x
PMCID: PMC5584046  PMID: 28870232
HIV; Cambodia; Entertainment workers; Female sex workers; Amphetamines; HIV continuum of care; Treatment cascade
16.  Integrated HIV care is associated with improved engagement in treatment in an urban methadone clinic 
Background
Persons living with HIV and unhealthy substance use are often less engaged in HIV care, have higher morbidity and mortality and are at increased risk of transmitting HIV to uninfected partners. We developed a quality-improvement tracking system at an urban methadone clinic to monitor patients along the HIV care continuum and identify patients needing intervention.
Objective
To evaluate patient outcomes along the HIV Care Continuum at an urban methadone clinic and explore the relationship of HIV primary care site and patient demographic characteristics with retention in HIV treatment and viral suppression.
Methods
We reviewed electronic medical record data from 2015 for all methadone clinic patients with known HIV disease, including age, gender, race, HIV care sites, HIV care visit dates and HIV viral load. Patients received either HIV primary care at the methadone clinic, an HIV specialty clinic located in the adjacent building, or a community clinic. Retention was defined as an HIV primary care visit in both halves of the year. Viral suppression was defined as an HIV viral load <40 copies/ml at the last lab draw.
Results
The population (n = 65) was 63% male, 82% age 45 or older and 60% non-Caucasian. Of these 65 patients 77% (n = 50) were retained in care and 80% (n = 52) were virologically suppressed. Viral suppression was significantly higher for women (p = .022) and patients 45 years or older (p = .034). There was a trend towards greater retention in care and viral suppression among patients receiving HIV care at the methadone clinic (93, 93%) compared to the HIV clinic (74, 79%) or community clinics (62, 62%).
Conclusions
Retention in HIV care and viral suppression are high in an urban methadone clinic providing integrated HIV services. This quality improvement analysis supports integrating HIV primary care with methadone treatment services for this at-risk population.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0084-y
PMCID: PMC5568716  PMID: 28826401
Methadone treatment; Retention; Viral suppression; HIV; Engagement; Care continuum
17.  Screening, treatment initiation, and referral for substance use disorders 
Substance use remains a leading cause of preventable death globally. A model of intervention known as screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment (SBIRT) was developed decades ago to facilitate time- and resource-sensitive interventions in acute care and outpatient settings. SBIRT, which includes a psychosocial intervention incorporating the principles of motivational interviewing, has been shown to be effective in reducing alcohol consumption and consequences in unhealthy drinkers both in primary care and emergency department settings. Subsequently, SBIRT for unhealthy alcohol use has been endorsed by governmental agencies and professional societies in multiple countries. Although most trials support the efficacy of SBIRT for unhealthy alcohol use (McQueen et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 8, 2011; Kaner et al. in Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2, 2007; O’Donnell et al. in Alcohol Alcohol 49(1):66–78, 2014), results are heterogenous; negative studies exist. A newer approach to screening and intervention for substance use can incorporate initiation of medication management at the index visit, for individuals willing to do so, and for providers and healthcare systems that are appropriately trained and resourced. Our group has conducted two successful trials of an approach we call screening, treatment initiation, and referral (STIR). In one trial, initiation of nicotine pharmacotherapy coupled with screening and brief counseling in adult smokers resulted in sustained biochemically confirmed abstinence. In a second trial, initiation of buprenorphine for opioid dependent individuals resulted in greater engagement in treatment at 30 days and greater self-reported abstinence. STIR may offer a new, clinically effective approach to the treatment of substance use in clinical care settings.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0083-z
PMCID: PMC5545867  PMID: 28780906
Brief intervention; Substance use; Screening, brief intervention, referral to treatment; Emergency medicine
18.  Comparison of DSM-IV and DSM-5 criteria for alcohol use disorders in VA primary care patients with frequent heavy drinking enrolled in a trial 
Background
Criteria for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 5th edition (DSM-5) were intended to result in a similar prevalence of AUD as DSM-IV. We evaluated the prevalence of AUD using DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria, and compared characteristics of patients who met criteria for: neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV AUD, DSM-5 alone, DSM-IV alone, or both, among Veterans Administration (VA) outpatients in the Considering Healthier drinking Options In primary CarE (CHOICE) trial.
Methods
VA primary care patients who reported frequent heavy drinking and enrolled in the CHOICE trial were interviewed at baseline using the DSM-IV Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview for AUD, as well as questions about socio-demographics, mental health, alcohol craving, and substance use. We compared characteristics across 4 mutually exclusive groups based on DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria.
Results
Of 304 participants, 13.8% met criteria for neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV AUD; 12.8% met criteria for DSM-5 alone, and 73.0% met criteria for both DSM-IV and DSM-5. Only 1 patient (0.3%) met criteria for DSM-IV AUD alone. Patients meeting both DSM-5 and DSM-IV criteria had more negative drinking consequences, mental health symptoms and self-reported readiness to change compared with those meeting DSM-5 criteria alone or neither DSM-5 nor DSM-IV criteria.
Conclusions
In this sample of primary care patients with frequent heavy drinking, DSM-5 identified 13% more patients with AUD than DSM-IV. This group had a lower mental health symptom burden and less self-reported readiness to change compared to those meeting criteria for both DSM-IV and DSM-5 AUD.
Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01400581. 2011 February 17
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0082-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0082-0
PMCID: PMC5514480
Alcohol use disorder; Binge drinking; DSM-IV; DSM-5; Alcohol
19.  Enhancing patient navigation to improve intervention session attendance and viral load suppression of persons with HIV and substance use: a secondary post hoc analysis of the Project HOPE study 
Background
Interventions are needed to improve viral suppression rates among persons with HIV and substance use. A 3-arm randomized multi-site study (Metsch et al. in JAMA 316:156–70, 2016) was conducted to evaluate the effect on HIV outcomes of usual care referral to HIV and substance use services (N = 253) versus patient navigation delivered alone (PN: N = 266) or together with contingency management (PN + CM; N = 271) that provided financial incentives targeting potential behavioral mediators of viral load suppression.
Aims
This secondary analysis evaluates the effects of financial incentives on attendance at PN sessions and the relationship between session attendance and viral load suppression at end of the intervention.
Methods
Frequency of sessions attended was analyzed over time and by distribution of individual session attendance frequency (PN vs PN + CM). Percent virally suppressed (≤200 copies/mL) at 6 months was compared for low, medium and high rate attenders. In PN + CM a total of $220 could be earned for attendance at 11 PN sessions over the 6-month intervention with payments ranging from $10 to $30 under an escalating schedule.
Results
The majority (74%) of PN-only participants attended 6 or more sessions but only 28% attended 10 or more and 16% attended all eleven sessions. In contrast, 90% of PN + CM attended 6 or more visits, 69% attended 10 or more and 57% attended all eleven sessions (attendance distribution χ2[11] = 105.81; p < .0001). Overall (PN and PN + CM participants combined) percent with viral load suppression at 6-months was 15, 38 and 54% among those who attended 0–5, 6–9 and 10–11 visits, respectively (χ2(2) = 39.07, p < .001).
Conclusion
In this secondary post hoc analysis, contact with patient navigators was increased by attendance incentives. Higher rates of attendance at patient navigation sessions was associated with viral suppression at the 6-month follow-up assessment. Study results support use of attendance incentives to improve rates of contact between service providers and patients, particularly patients who are difficult to engage in care.
Trial Registration clinicaltrials.govIdentifier: NCT01612169.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0081-1
PMCID: PMC5485550  PMID: 28651612
HIV health care; HIV substance users; Patient navigation; Contingent incentives; Session attendance; Vial suppression
20.  Associations of criminal justice and substance use treatment involvement with HIV/HCV testing and the HIV treatment cascade among people who use drugs in Oakland, California 
Background
People who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs are at-risk for criminal justice involvement as well as HIV and HCV infection. Compared to criminal justice involvement, substance use treatment (SUT) can be cost-effective in reducing drug use and its associated health and social costs. We conducted a cross-sectional study of people who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs to examine the association between incarceration, community supervision and substance use treatment with HIV/HCV testing, components of the HIV treatment cascade, social and physical vulnerability and risk behavior.
Methods
Targeted sampling methods were used to recruit people who smoke crack cocaine and people who inject drugs (N = 2072) in Oakland, California from 2011 to 2013. Poisson regression models were used to estimate adjusted prevalence ratios between study exposures and outcomes.
Results
The overall HIV prevalence was 3.3% (95% CI 2.6–4.1). People previously experiencing incarceration were 21% (p < 0.001) and 32% (p = 0.001), respectively, more likely to report HIV and HCV testing; and were not more likely to report receiving HIV care or initiating ART. People previously experiencing community supervision were 17% (p = 0.001) and 15% (p = 0.009), respectively, more likely to report HIV and HCV testing; and were not more likely to report receiving HIV care or initiating ART. People with a history of SUT were 15% (p < 0.001) and 23% (p < 0.001), respectively, more likely to report receiving HIV and HCV testing, 67% (p = 0.016) more likely to report HIV care, and 92% (p = 0.012) more likely to report HIV treatment initiation. People previously experiencing incarceration or community supervision were also more likely to report homelessness, trouble meeting basic needs and risk behavior.
Conclusions
People with a history of substance use treatment reported higher levels of HCV and HIV testing and greater access to HIV care and treatment among HIV-positive individuals. People with a history of incarceration or community supervision reported higher levels of HCV and HIV testing, but not greater access to HIV care or treatment among HIV-positive individuals., Substance use treatment programs that are integrated with other services for HIV and HCV will be critical to simultaneously address the underlying reasons drug-involved people engage in drug-related offenses and improve access to essential medical services.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0078-9
PMCID: PMC5470222  PMID: 28610602
Criminal justice; Substance use treatment; HIV; Hepatitis C; People who use drugs; Implementation science
21.  Patient-centered primary care for adults at high risk for AUDs: the Choosing Healthier Drinking Options In primary CarE (CHOICE) trial 
Background
Most patients with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) never receive alcohol treatment, and experts have recommended management of AUDs in primary care. The Choosing Healthier Drinking Options In primary CarE (CHOICE) trial was a randomized controlled effectiveness trial of a novel intervention for primary care patients at high risk for AUDs. This report describes the conceptual and scientific foundation of the CHOICE model of care, critical elements of the CHOICE trial design consistent with the Template for Intervention Description and Replication (TIDieR), results of recruitment, and baseline characteristics of the enrolled sample.
Methods
The CHOICE intervention is a multi-contact, extended counseling intervention, based on the Chronic Care Model, shared decision-making, motivational interviewing, and evidence-based options for managing AUDs, designed to be practical in primary care. Outpatients who received care at 3 Veterans Affairs primary care sites in the Pacific Northwest and reported frequent heavy drinking (≥4 drinks/day for women; ≥5 for men) were recruited (2011–2014) into a trial in which half of the participants would be offered additional alcohol-related care from a nurse. CHOICE nurses offered 12 months of patient-centered care, including proactive outreach and engagement, repeated brief motivational interventions, monitoring with and without alcohol biomarkers, medications for AUDs, and/or specialty alcohol treatment as appropriate and per patient preference. A CHOICE nurse practitioner was available to prescribe medications for AUDs.
Results
A total of 304 patients consented to participate in the CHOICE trial. Among consenting participants, 90% were men, the mean age was 51 (range 22–75), and most met DSM-IV criteria for alcohol abuse (14%) or dependence (59%). Many participants also screened positive for tobacco use (44%), depression (45%), anxiety disorders (30-41%) and non-tobacco drug use disorders (19%). At baseline, participants had a median AUDIT score of 18 [Interquartile range (IQR) 14–24] and a median readiness to change drinking score of 5 (IQR 2.75–6.25) on a 1–10 Likert scale.
Conclusion
The CHOICE trial tested a patient-centered intervention for AUDs and recruited primary care patients at high risk for AUDs, with a spectrum of severity, co-morbidity, and readiness to change drinking.
Trial registration The trial is registered at clinicaltrial.gov (NCT01400581).
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0080-2) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0080-2
PMCID: PMC5436432  PMID: 28514963
Shared decision making; Alcohol use disorder; Care management; Brief interventions; Chronic Care Model; Patient-centered care; Medical management; Veterans; Primary care; Intervention
22.  Rethinking alcohol interventions in health care: a thematic meeting of the International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol & Other Drugs (INEBRIA) 
In 2016, the International Network on Brief Interventions for Alcohol & Other Drugs convened a meeting titled “Rethinking alcohol interventions in health care”. The aims of the meeting were to synthesize recent evidence about screening and brief intervention and to set directions for research, practice, and policy in light of this evidence. Screening and brief intervention is efficacious in reducing self-reported alcohol consumption for some with unhealthy alcohol use, but there are gaps in evidence for its effectiveness. Because screening and brief intervention is not known to be efficacious for individuals with more severe unhealthy alcohol use, recent data showing the lack of evidence for referral to treatment as part of screening and brief intervention are alarming. While screening and brief intervention was designed to be a population-based approach, its reach is limited. Implementation in real world care also remains a challenge. This report summarizes practice, research, and policy recommendations and key research developments from our meeting. In order to move the field forward, a research agenda was proposed to (1) address evidence gaps in screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment, (2) develop innovations to address severe unhealthy alcohol use within primary care, (3) describe the stigma of unhealthy alcohol use, which obstructs progress in prevention and treatment, (4) reconsider existing conceptualizations of unhealthy alcohol use that may influence health care, and (5) identify efforts needed to improve the capacity for addressing unhealthy alcohol consumption in all world regions.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0079-8
PMCID: PMC5425968  PMID: 28490342
Alcohol; Hazardous alcohol use; Harmful alcohol use; Alcohol dependence; Screening; Brief intervention; Referral to treatment; Research agenda; Health care; International
23.  Acceptability of a mobile health intervention to enhance HIV care coordination for patients with substance use disorders 
Background
Persons living with HIV and substance use disorders face barriers to sustained engagement in medical care, leading to suboptimal antiretroviral treatment outcomes. Innovative mobile technology tools such as customizable smartphone applications have the potential to enhance existing care coordination programs, but have not been rigorously studied.
Methods
We developed and implemented a two-component intervention consisting of peer health navigation supported by a smartphone application conducting ecologic momentary assessment (EMA) of barriers to care and medication adherence. Patients with a history of antiretroviral treatment failure and substance use were recruited to participate in the 9-month pilot intervention. Three peer health navigators were trained to provide social and logistical support while participants re-engaged in HIV care. We assessed the acceptability of the intervention components using qualitative analysis of in-depth interviews conducted with study participants and peer navigators.
Results
Of 19 patients enrolled in the study, 17 participated for at least 2 months and 15 completed the entire 9-month study protocol. The acceptability of the peer navigation intervention was rated favorably by all participants interviewed, who felt that peer support was instrumental in helping them re-engage in HIV care. Participants also responded favorably to the smartphone application, but described its usefulness mostly as providing reminders to take medications and attend appointments, rather than as a facilitator of patient navigation.
Conclusions
Peer health navigation and smartphone-based EMA are acceptable approaches to facilitating engagement in HIV care for drug using populations. Future studies to evaluate the efficacy of this approach for improving long-term retention in care and antiretroviral treatment outcomes are warranted.
ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01941108; registered on September 4, 2013
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0076-y
PMCID: PMC5405459  PMID: 28441962
24.  Seek, test, treat: substance-using women in the HIV treatment cascade in South Africa 
Background
Women in South Africa who use alcohol and other drugs face multiple barriers to HIV care. These barriers make it difficult for women to progress through each step in the HIV treatment cascade from diagnosis to treatment initiation and adherence. This paper examines correlates of HIV status, newly diagnosed HIV status, and use of antiretroviral therapy (ART).
Methods
Outreach workers recruited sexually active Black African women who used substances in Pretoria as part of a U.S. National Institutes of Health-funded geographically clustered randomized trial examining the effect of an intervention to reduce alcohol and drug use as well as sexual risk behaviors. To address the question of interest in the current investigation, cross-sectional baseline data were used. At study enrollment, all participants (N = 641) completed an interview, and underwent rapid HIV testing and biological drug screening. Those who tested positive for HIV and were eligible for ART were asked about their barriers to initiating or adhering to ART. Bivariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine correlates of HIV status, newly diagnosed HIV, and ART use.
Results
At enrollment, 55% of participants tested positive for HIV, and 36% of these women were newly diagnosed. In multivariable analyses of the entire sample, women who had completed 10th grade were less likely to be living with HIV (OR 0.69; CI 0.48, 0.99) and those from the inner city were more likely to be living with HIV (OR 1.83; CI 1.26, 2.67). Among HIV-positive participants, women were less likely to be newly diagnosed if they had ever been in substance abuse treatment (OR 0.15; CI 0.03, 0.69) or used a condom at last sex (OR 0.58; CI 0.34, 0.98) and more likely to be newly diagnosed if they were physically assaulted in the past year (OR 1.97; CI 1.01, 3.84). Among women eligible for ART, fewer were likely to be on treatment (by self-report) if they had a positive urine test for opiates or cocaine (OR 0.27; CI 0.09, 0.80).
Conclusions
These results, although cross-sectional, provide some guidance for provincial authorities to address barriers to HIV care for sexually active, substance-using vulnerable women in Pretoria. Targeting the inner city with prevention campaigns, expanding and improving substance abuse treatment programs, linking clients with simultaneous HIV testing and treatment, and targeting women who have experienced sexual assault and violence may help the government achieve the UNAIDS 90-90-90 treatment target.
Clinical Trials.gov NCT01497405 registered on December 1, 2011.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0077-x
PMCID: PMC5405464  PMID: 28441975
Sexually-active women; Alcohol and other drug use; Treatment cascade
25.  VA residential substance use disorder treatment program providers’ perceptions of facilitators and barriers to performance on pre-admission processes 
Background
In the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), residential treatment programs are an important part of the continuum of care for patients with a substance use disorder (SUD). However, a limited number of program-specific measures to identify quality gaps in SUD residential programs exist. This study aimed to: (1) Develop metrics for two pre-admission processes: Wait Time and Engagement While Waiting, and (2) Interview program management and staff about program structures and processes that may contribute to performance on these metrics. The first aim sought to supplement the VA’s existing facility-level performance metrics with SUD program-level metrics in order to identify high-value targets for quality improvement. The second aim recognized that not all key processes are reflected in the administrative data, and even when they are, new insight may be gained from viewing these data in the context of day-to-day clinical practice.
Methods
VA administrative data from fiscal year 2012 were used to calculate pre-admission metrics for 97 programs (63 SUD Residential Rehabilitation Treatment Programs (SUD RRTPs); 34 Mental Health Residential Rehabilitation Treatment Programs (MH RRTPs) with a SUD track). Interviews were then conducted with management and front-line staff to learn what factors may have contributed to high or low performance, relative to the national average for their program type. We hypothesized that speaking directly to residential program staff may reveal innovative practices, areas for improvement, and factors that may explain system-wide variability in performance.
Results
Average wait time for admission was 16 days (SUD RRTPs: 17 days; MH RRTPs with a SUD track: 11 days), with 60% of Veterans waiting longer than 7 days. For these Veterans, engagement while waiting occurred in an average of 54% of the waiting weeks (range 3–100% across programs). Fifty-nine interviews representing 44 programs revealed factors perceived to potentially impact performance in these domains. Efficient screening processes, effective patient flow, and available beds were perceived to facilitate shorter wait times, while lack of beds, poor staffing levels, and lengths of stay of existing patients were thought to lengthen wait times. Accessible outpatient services, strong patient outreach, and strong encouragement of pre-admission outpatient treatment emerged as facilitators of engagement while waiting; poor staffing levels, socioeconomic barriers, and low patient motivation were viewed as barriers.
Conclusions
Metrics for pre-admission processes can be helpful for monitoring residential SUD treatment programs. Interviewing program management and staff about drivers of performance metrics can play a complementary role by identifying innovative and other strong practices, as well as high-value targets for quality improvement. Key facilitators of high-performing facilities may offer programs with lower performance useful strategies to improve specific pre-admission processes.
doi:10.1186/s13722-017-0075-z
PMCID: PMC5379682  PMID: 28372579
Substance use disorders; Residential treatment; Standards of care; Quality measurement; Quality improvement

Results 1-25 (527)