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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  Erratum 
Public Health Reports  2017;133(1):NP1.
doi:10.1177/0033354917746956
PMCID: PMC5805105  PMID: 29227756
2.  Erratum 
Public Health Reports  2018;133(1):NP2.
doi:10.1177/0033354917754075
PMCID: PMC5805108  PMID: 29303690
3.  Progress on Broadband Access to the Internet and Use of Mobile Devices in the United States 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):27-31.
Healthy People 2020 (HP2020) aims to improve population health outcomes through several objectives, including health communication and health information technology. We used 7 administrations of the Health Information National Trends Survey to examine HP2020 goals toward access to the Internet through broadband and mobile devices (N = 34 080). We conducted descriptive analyses and obtained predicted marginals, also known as model-adjusted risks, to estimate the association between demographic characteristics and use of mobile devices. The HP2020 target (7.7% of the US population) for accessing the Internet through a cellular network was surpassed in 2014 (59.7%), but the HP2020 target (83.2%) for broadband access fell short (63.8%). Sex and age were associated with accessing the Internet through a cellular network throughout the years (Wald F test, P <.05). The increase in the percentage of people accessing the Internet through mobile devices presents an opportunity for technology-based health interventions that should be explored.
doi:10.1177/0033354916679365
PMCID: PMC5298494  PMID: 28005473
Healthy People 2020; health information national trends survey; health communication; health information technology
4.  Correlates of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the Targeted Testing Program of the New York City Jail System 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):41-47.
Objective:
The objective of this study was to understand predictors of hepatitis C virus (HCV) antibody positivity in a large urban jail system in New York City.
Methods:
We examined demographic characteristics, risk behaviors, and HCV antibody prevalence among 10 790 jail inmates aged 16 to 86 who were screened from June 13, 2013, to June 13, 2014, based on birth cohort or conventional high-risk criteria. We used logistic regression analysis to determine predictors of HCV antibody positivity.
Results:
Of the 10 790 inmates screened, 2221 (20.6%) were HCV antibody positive. In the multivariate analysis, HCV antibody positivity was associated most strongly with injection drug use (IDU; adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 35.0; 95% confidence interval [CI], 28.5-43.0). Women were more likely than men to be infected with HCV (aOR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.1-1.5). Compared with non-Hispanic black people, Hispanic (aOR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-2.4) and non-Hispanic white (aOR = 1.7; 95% CI, 1.5-2.1) people were more likely to be infected with HCV. Non-IDU, recidivism, HIV infection, homelessness, mental illness, and lower education level were all significantly associated with HCV infection. The prevalence rate of HCV infection among a subset of inmates born after 1965 who denied IDU and were not infected with HIV was 5.6% (198 of 3529). Predictors of HCV infection among this group included non-IDU as well as being non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, recidivist, and homeless.
Conclusion:
These data reveal differences in HCV infection by sex, race/ethnicity, and socioeconomics in a large jail population, suggesting that a focused public health intervention is required and that universal screening may be warranted. Further sensitivity and cost-benefit analyses are needed to make this determination.
doi:10.1177/0033354916679367
PMCID: PMC5298495  PMID: 28005477
HCV; jail; corrections
5.  Infectious Disease Hospitalizations Among American Indian/Alaska Native and Non–American Indian/Alaska Native Persons in Alaska, 2010-2011 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):65-75.
Objective:
Reports about infectious disease (ID) hospitalization rates among American Indian/Alaska Native (AI/AN) persons have been constrained by data limited to the tribal health care system and by comparisons with the general US population. We used a merged state database to determine ID hospitalization rates in Alaska.
Methods:
We combined 2010 and 2011 hospital discharge data from the Indian Health Service and the Alaska State Inpatient Database. We used the merged data set to calculate average annual age-adjusted and age-specific ID hospitalization rates for AI/AN and non-AI/AN persons in Alaska. We stratified the ID hospitalization rates by sex, age, and ID diagnosis.
Results:
ID diagnoses accounted for 19% (6501 of 34 160) of AI/AN hospitalizations, compared with 12% (7397 of 62 059) of non-AI/AN hospitalizations. The average annual age-adjusted hospitalization rate was >3 times higher for AI/AN persons (2697 per 100 000 population) than for non-AI/AN persons (730 per 100 000 population; rate ratio = 3.7, P < .001). Lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI), which occurred in 38% (2486 of 6501) of AI/AN persons, was the most common reason for ID hospitalization. AI/AN persons were significantly more likely than non-AI/AN persons to be hospitalized for LRTI (rate ratio = 5.2, P < .001).
Conclusions:
A substantial disparity in ID hospitalization rates exists between AI/AN and non-AI/AN persons, and the most common reason for ID hospitalization among AI/AN persons was LRTI. Public health programs and policies that address the risk factors for LRTI are likely to benefit AI/AN persons.
doi:10.1177/0033354916679807
PMCID: PMC5298496  PMID: 28005485
minority health; epidemiology; Indian Health Service; Native American
6.  NCHS Dataline 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):121-122.
doi:10.1177/0033354916679947
PMCID: PMC5298497
7.  Stepping Into Healthier Communities 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):3-5.
doi:10.1177/0033354916679982
PMCID: PMC5298498  PMID: 28005472
8.  Multi-Angle Imager for Aerosols 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):14-17.
doi:10.1177/0033354916679983
PMCID: PMC5298499  PMID: 28005476
air pollution; environmental health; remote sensing
9.  The Influence of Social Support on Dyadic Functioning and Mental Health Among Military Personnel During Postdeployment Reintegration 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):85-92.
Objectives:
Although many service members successfully cope with exposure to stress and traumatic experiences, others have symptoms of depression, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and anxiety; contextual factors may account for the variability in outcomes from these experiences. This work sought to understand mechanisms through which social support influences the mental health of service members and whether dyadic functioning mediates this relationship.
Methods:
We collected cross-sectional data as part of a larger study conducted in 2013; 321 military personnel who had at least 1 deployment were included in these analyses. Surveys were completed online; we collected data on demographic characteristics, social support, mental health measures (depression, PTSD, and anxiety), and dyadic functioning. We performed process modeling through mediation analysis.
Results:
The direct effects of social support on the mental health of military personnel were limited; however, across all types of support networks, greater social support was significantly associated with better dyadic functioning. Dyadic functioning mediated the relationships between social support and depression/PTSD only when social support came from nonmilitary friends or family; dyadic functioning mediated social support and anxiety only when support came from family. We found no indirect effects of support from military peers or military leaders.
Conclusion:
Findings here highlight the need to continue to explore ways in which social support, particularly from family and nonmilitary-connected peers, can bolster healthy intimate partner relationships and, in turn, improve the well-being of military service members who are deployed.
doi:10.1177/0033354916679984
PMCID: PMC5298500  PMID: 28005474
social support; dyadic functioning; depression; anxiety; PTSD; reintegration
10.  Exploring Costing Methods for Environmental Health Services in North Carolina 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):37-40.
All local health departments in North Carolina are mandated to provide a defined set of environmental health services, yet few have the tools to understand the costs incurred in delivering these services. The objectives of this study were to (1) derive cost estimates for 2 commonly provided environmental health services—food and lodging inspections and on-site water services—and (2) explore factors that drive variations in costs, focusing on the roles of economies of scale and scope. Using data from 15 local health departments in North Carolina, we found that costs varied substantially. A bivariate analysis found evidence of economies of scale: higher volumes of services were associated with lower costs per service. Providing a greater scope of services, however, was not consistently associated with reduced costs. In-depth cost data provide public health officials with key information when deciding how to best serve their communities.
doi:10.1177/0033354916679985
PMCID: PMC5298501  PMID: 28005479
essential public health services; cost; environmental health
11.  Promising Strategies to Remove Inexpensive Sweet Tobacco Products From Retail Stores 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):106-109.
doi:10.1177/0033354916679986
PMCID: PMC5298502  PMID: 28005478
packaging; youth cigar use; municipal regulation
12.  HIV-1 Infection and Transmission Networks of Younger People in Chicago, Illinois, 2005-2011 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):48-55.
Objective:
Analysis of HIV nucleotide sequences can be used to identify people with highly similar HIV strains and understand transmission patterns. The objective of this study was to identify groups of people highly connected by HIV transmission and the extent to which transmission occurred within and between geographic areas in Chicago, Illinois.
Methods:
We analyzed genetic sequences in the HIV-1 pol region in samples collected from people participating in the VARHS program in Chicago during 2005-2011. We determined pairwise genetic distance, inferred potential transmission events between HIV-infected people whose sequences were ≤1.5% genetically distant, and identified clusters of connected people. We used multivariable analysis to determine demographic characteristics and risk attributes associated with degree of connectivity.
Results:
Of 1154 sequences, 177 (15.3%) were tied to at least 1 other sequence. We determined that younger people, men, non-Hispanic black people, and men who have sex with men were more highly connected than other HIV-infected people. We also identified a high degree of geographic heterogeneity—48 of 67 clusters (71.6%) contained people from >1 Chicago region (north, south, or west sides).
Conclusion:
Our results indicate a need to address HIV transmission through the networks of younger non-Hispanic black men who have sex with men. The high level of geographic heterogeneity observed suggests that HIV prevention programs should be targeted toward networks of younger people rather than geographic areas of high incidence. This study could also guide prevention efforts in other diverse metropolitan regions with characteristics similar to those of Chicago.
doi:10.1177/0033354916679988
PMCID: PMC5298503  PMID: 28005480
HIV; networks; MSM
13.  Trends in Testing for Mycobacterium tuberculosis Complex From US Public Health Laboratories, 2009–2013 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):56-64.
Objective:
We investigated data from US public health laboratories funded through the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Tuberculosis Elimination and Laboratory Cooperative Agreement to document trends and challenges in meeting national objectives in tuberculosis (TB) laboratory diagnoses.
Methods:
We examined data on workload and turnaround time from public health laboratories’ progress reports during 2009-2013. We reviewed methodologies, laboratory roles, and progress toward rapid detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex through nucleic acid amplification (NAA) testing. We compared selected data with TB surveillance reports to estimate public health laboratories’ contribution to national diagnostic services.
Results:
During the study period, culture and drug susceptibility tests decreased, but NAA testing increased. Public health laboratories achieved turnaround time benchmarks for drug susceptibility tests at lower levels than for acid-fast bacilli smear and identification from culture. NAA positivity in laboratories among surveillance-reported culture-positive TB cases increased from 26.6% (2355 of 8876) in 2009 to 40.0% (2948 of 7358) in 2013. Public health laboratories provided an estimated 50.9% (4285 of 8413 in 2010) to 57.2% (4210 of 7358 in 2013) of culture testing and 88.3% (6822 of 7727 in 2011) to 94.4% (6845 of 7250 in 2012) of drug susceptibility tests for all US TB cases.
Conclusions:
Public health laboratories contribute substantially to TB diagnoses in the United States. Although testing volumes mostly decreased, the increase in NAA testing indicates continued progress in rapid M tuberculosis complex detection.
doi:10.1177/0033354916679989
PMCID: PMC5298504  PMID: 28005481
public health laboratories; Mycobacterium tuberculosis; diagnosis
14.  Parental Deployment, Adolescent Academic and Social–Behavioral Maladjustment, and Parental Psychological Well-being in Military Families 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):93-105.
Objective:
Increases in the frequency and length of military deployments have raised concerns about the well-being of military families. We examined the relationship between a military parent’s deployment and (1) adolescent academic and social–behavioral maladjustment and (2) parental psychological well-being.
Methods:
We collected data from April 2013 through January 2014 from 1021 families of enlisted US Army personnel with children aged 12 or 13 during the Military Teenagers’ Environments, Exercise, and Nutrition Study. Through online parent surveys, we collected data on deployment, adolescent academic and social–behavioral maladjustment, and parental psychological well-being. We estimated adjusted logistic and linear regression models for adolescents (all, boys, girls), military parents (all, fathers, mothers), and civilian parents.
Results:
Compared with no or short deployments, long deployments (>180 days in the past 3 years) were associated with significantly higher odds of decreases in adolescent academic performance (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.54), independence (AOR = 2.04), and being responsible (AOR = 1.95). These associations were also significant for boys but not for girls. Among parents, long deployments were associated with significantly higher odds of being depressed (AOR = 2.58), even when controlling for adolescent maladjustment (AOR = 2.54). These associations did not differ significantly between military and civilian parents and were significant for military fathers but not military mothers. Recent deployment (in the past 12 months) was not associated with either adolescent or parent outcomes.
Conclusion:
Long deployments are associated with adolescents’ academic and social–behavioral maladjustments and diminished parental well-being, especially among boys and military fathers.
doi:10.1177/0033354916679995
PMCID: PMC5298505  PMID: 28005475
deployment; adolescent behavior; parent psychological well-being
15.  Student Practicum as a Bridge to Governmental Public Health Practice 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):110-114.
doi:10.1177/0033354916680610
PMCID: PMC5298506  PMID: 28005486
graduate public health education; public health workforce; public health training
16.  Perinatal HIV Exposure Surveillance and Reporting in the United States, 2014 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):76-84.
Objective:
We sought to describe the current status of perinatal HIV exposure surveillance (PHES) activities and regulations in the United States and to make recommendations to strengthen PHES.
Methods:
In 2014, we sent an online survey to health departments in the 50 states, District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands, and 6 cities and counties (Chicago, Illinois; Houston, Texas; Los Angeles, California; New York, New York; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and San Francisco, California). We analyzed responses from 56 of the 59 (95%) jurisdictions.
Results:
Thirty-three of 56 jurisdictions (59%) reported conducting PHES and following infants to determine their infection status. Of the 33 jurisdictions performing PHES, 28 (85%) linked maternal and infant data, but only 12 (36%) determined the HIV care status of postpartum women. Themes of respondents’ recommendations for strengthening PHES centered on updating laws and regulations to support PHES, reporting all HIV test results and linking vital records with PHES data to identify and follow HIV-exposed infants, communicating with health care providers to improve reporting, training staff, and getting help from experienced jurisdictions to implement PHES.
Conclusions:
Our findings indicate that data on perinatal exposure collected through the current system are inadequate to comprehensively monitor and prevent perinatal HIV exposure and transmission. Comprehensive PHES data collection and reporting are needed to sustain the progress that has been made toward lowering perinatal HIV transmission rates. We propose that minimum standards be established for perinatal HIV exposure reporting to improve the completeness, quality, and efficiency of PHES in the United States.
doi:10.1177/0033354916681477
PMCID: PMC5298507  PMID: 28005487
HIV infections/epidemiology; perinatal surveillance; HIV surveillance
17.  Fifty Years of Global Immunization at CDC, 1966-2015 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):18-26.
doi:10.1177/0033354916681490
PMCID: PMC5298508  PMID: 28005470
immunization; polio; eradicate
18.  State Health Department Requirements for Reporting of Antibiotic-Resistant Infections by Providers, United States, 2013 and 2015 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):32-36.
Due to the high burden of antibiotic-resistant infections, several US states mandate public reporting of these infections. To examine the extent to which state departments of health require reporting of antibiotic-resistant infections, we abstracted data from lists of reportable conditions from all 50 states at 2 time points, May 2013 and May 2015. Requirements varied substantially by state. In 2015, most states (n = 44) required reporting of at least 1 antibiotic-resistant infection; vancomycin-intermediate and/or vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most frequently reportable infection (n = 40). Few states required reporting of methicillin-resistant S aureus (n = 11), multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacteria (n = 9), or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (n = 8). During the 2 years we studied, 2013 and 2015, 4 states removed and 9 added at least 1 reporting requirement. The changes in reporting requirements suggest flexibility in health departments’ response to local surveillance needs and emerging threats. Future studies should assess how data on antibiotic-resistant infections through different sources are used at the state level to drive prevention and control efforts.
doi:10.1177/0033354916681507
PMCID: PMC5298509  PMID: 28005484
antibiotic-resistant infections; notifiable conditions; public health reporting
20.  Doctor of Public Health Education and Training 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):115-120.
doi:10.1177/0033354916682204
PMCID: PMC5298511  PMID: 28005488
public health; DrPH; education; training
21.  In Memoriam 
Public Health Reports  2016;132(1):11-13.
doi:10.1177/0033354916683680
PMCID: PMC5298512  PMID: 28005471
22.  A Scan of CDC-Authored Articles on Legal Epidemiology, 2011-2015 
Public Health Reports  2016;131(6):809-815.
Objective:
The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) conducts research on legal epidemiology, the scientific study of law as a factor in the cause, distribution, and prevention of disease. This study describes a scan of articles written by CDC staff members to characterize the frequency and key features of legal epidemiology articles and their distribution across CDC departments and divisions.
Methods:
CDC librarians searched an internal repository for journal articles by CDC staff published from January 1, 2011, to May 31, 2015. Researchers reviewed and coded the abstracts to produce data on key features of the articles.
Results:
Researchers identified 158 CDC-authored legal epidemiology articles published in 83 journals, most frequently in Preventing Chronic Disease (14 publications), Journal of Public Health Management Practice (10 publications), and Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (9 publications). Most articles concerned the use and impact of law as a deliberate tool of intervention. Thirteen articles addressed the legal infrastructure of public health, and 3 assessed the incidental or unintended effects of nonhealth laws. CDC-authored articles encompassed policy making, implementation, and impact. Literature reviews and studies mapping laws across multiple jurisdictions constituted one-quarter of all publications. Studies addressed laws at the international, national, state, local, and organizational levels.
Conclusion:
Results of the scan can be used to identify opportunities for the agency to better support research, professional development, networking, publication, and tracking of publication in this emerging field.
doi:10.1177/0033354916669497
PMCID: PMC5230822  PMID: 28123227
public health law research; policy evaluation; legal epidemiology
23.  New Produce Safety Regulations 
Public Health Reports  2016;131(6):754-757.
doi:10.1177/0033354916669495
PMCID: PMC5230823  PMID: 28123220
produce; food safety; FDA
24.  All-Cause Mortality Among US Veterans of the Persian Gulf War 
Public Health Reports  2016;131(6):822-830.
Objective:
We determined cause-specific mortality prevalence and risks of Gulf War deployed and nondeployed veterans to determine if deployed veterans were at greater risk than nondeployed veterans for death overall or because of certain diseases or conditions up to 13 years after conflict subsided.
Methods:
Follow-up began when the veteran left the Gulf War theater or May 1, 1991, and ended on the date of death or December 31, 2004. We studied 621   901 veterans who served in the 1990-1991 Persian Gulf War and 746   247 veterans who served but were not deployed during the Gulf War. We used Cox proportional hazard models to calculate rate ratios adjusted for age at entry to follow-up, length of follow-up, race, sex, branch of service, and military unit. We compared the mortality of (1) Gulf War veterans with non–Gulf War veterans and (2) Gulf War army veterans potentially exposed to nerve agents at Khamisiyah in March 1991 with those not exposed. We compared standardized mortality ratios of deployed and nondeployed Gulf War veterans with the US population.
Results:
Male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of mortality than male non–Gulf War veterans (adjusted rate ratio [aRR] = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.95-0.99), and female Gulf War veterans had a higher risk of mortality than female non–Gulf War veterans (aRR = 1.15; 95% CI, 1.03-1.28). Khamisiyah-exposed Gulf War army veterans had >3 times the risk of mortality from cirrhosis of the liver than nonexposed army Gulf War veterans (aRR = 3.73; 95% CI, 1.64-8.48). Compared with the US population, female Gulf War veterans had a 60% higher risk of suicide and male Gulf War veterans had a lower risk of suicide (standardized mortality ratio = 0.84; 95% CI, 0.80-0.88).
Conclusion:
The vital status and mortality risk of Gulf War and non–Gulf War veterans should continue to be investigated.
doi:10.1177/0033354916676278
PMCID: PMC5230824  PMID: 28123229
gulf war; mortality; veterans
25.  NCHS Dataline 
Public Health Reports  2016;131(6):855-857.
doi:10.1177/0033354916668543
PMCID: PMC5230825

Results 1-25 (5565)