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1.  Cloning, expression and immunoreactivity of recombinant Toxoplasma gondii GRA5 protein 
Iranian Journal of Microbiology  2016;8(5):331-337.
Background and Objectives:
Toxoplasma gondii is an obligatory intracellular parasite which causes severe diseases in the fetus of pregnant women and immunocopmromised patients. Serological tests based on recombinant protein are one of the main diagnosis methods for the detection of specific antibodies in serum samples. Dense granule antigenic proteins derived from T. gondii (TgGRAs) are potential antigens for the development of diagnostic tools.
Materials and Methods:
DNA was extracted from T. gondii (RH-strain) tachyzoites and PCR reaction was done using corresponding primers for GRA5 antigen. The PCR product was purified and ligated into pTG19-t vector and then subcloned into XhoI and BamHI digested pGEX6p-1 expression vector. Recombinant plasmid was transformed into E. coli (BL21 DE3) and induced by 1mM IPTG and analyzed by 15% SDS-PAGE. Expressed protein was confirmed by western blot analysis.
Results:
There was no difference among the sequences of T. gondii GRA5 gene from different isolates. The recombinant plasmid pGEX-6p-1/GRA5 induced by IPTG was expressed in E. coli. It was a GST fusion protein and could react with human positive sera analyzed by western blot.
Conclusion:
The GRA5 gene of T. gondii isolates is highly conservative. This antigen as a recombinant protein was successfully expressed in E. coli, which showed high immunoreactivity.
PMCID: PMC5277603  PMID: 28149494
Toxoplasma gondii; Dense granule antigen; GRA5; Immunoreactivity
2.  PREVALENCE, RISK FACTORS AND SYMPTOMS ASSOCIATED TO INTESTINAL PARASITE INFECTIONS AMONG PATIENTS WITH GASTROINTESTINAL DISORDERS IN NAHAVAND, WESTERN IRAN 
We studied the prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs), their risk factors and associated symptoms among patients with gastrointestinal disorders. A total of 1,301 participants aged 22 days-90 years were enrolled in this study. We used a structured questionnaire to obtain socio-demographic and stool examination to investigate intestinal parasite infections. Data analysis was performed using SPSS16. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites (IPs) was 32.2% (419/1,301). Three hundred and fifty nine cases/1,301 (27.6%) were infected with a single parasite and 60/1,301 cases (4.6%) presented polyparasitism. The most common IP was Blastocystis sp. 350/1,301 (26.9%), followed by Entamoeba coli 38/1,301 (2.92%), Giardia lamblia 30/1,301 (2.3%) and Cryptosporidium spp. 17/1,301 (1.3%). Regarding the socio-demographic variables, educational status (p = 0.001), contact with domestic animals and soil (p = 0.02), age above 15 years (p = 0.001) and seasons (p = 0.001) were significantly associated to intestinal parasitic infections. Concerning clinical characteristics, the presence of IPs was significantly associated to diarrhea (OR = 1.57; CI 95% = 1.24-1.98; p < 0.001) and dysentery (OR = 1.94; CI 95% = 1.03-3.66; p < 0.04). Our findings suggest that IPs are one of the main causal agents of gastrointestinal disorders. Improving the knowledge on local risk factors such as poverty, low level of education, poor sanitation, contact with soil and contact with domestic animal is warranted.
doi:10.1590/S1678-9946201658042
PMCID: PMC4879999  PMID: 27253744
Gastrointestinal disorders; Parasitic diseases; Intestinal parasites; Iran
3.  Potential treatment of inflammatory bowel disease: a review of helminths therapy 
An inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is most common in highly industrialized Western countries but uncommon in less developed areas of the world where helminths are frequent. The hygiene hypothesis proposes that the recent increase in allergic and autoimmune diseases is due to modern highly hygienic life styles and medical conditions. Loss of routine exposure to parasitic helminths, as a result of increasing lifestyle-associated factors, may be one factor leading to the increased disease prevalence.
In animal models and clinical trials of IBD, gastrointestinal nematodes colonization suppresses intestinal inflammation through multiple mechanisms including induction of innate and adaptive regulatory circuits. Studies using helminths like Trichuris suis or Necator americanus showed that these helminths are safe and may be effective therapeutic approaches for the control of IBD and other immune diseases. The aim of present review was to exploring the therapeutic use of helminths for the control of IBD.
PMCID: PMC4017549  PMID: 25436093
Inflammatory bowel disease; Helminthes; Therapeutic
4.  Inhibitory Effects of Iranian Thymus vulgaris Extracts on in Vitro Growth of Entamoeba histolytica 
One of the most common drugs used against a wide variety of anaerobic protozoan parasites is metronidazole. However, this drug is mutagenic for bacteria and is a potent carcinogen for rodents. Thymus vulgaris is used for cough suppression and relief of dyspepsia. Also it has antibacterial and antifungal properties. The aim of this study was to investigate antiamebic effect of Thymus vulgaris against Entamoeba histolytica in comparison with metronidazole. One hundred gram air-dried T. vulgaris plant was obtained and macerated at 25℃ for 14 days using n-hexane and a mixture of ethanol and water. For essential oil isolation T. vulgaris was subjected to hydrodistillation using a clevenger-type apparatus for 3 hr. E. histolytica, HM-1: IMSS strain was used in all experiments. It was found that the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic, hexanic extracts, and the essential oil after 24 hr was 4 mg/mL, 4 mg/mL, and 0.7 mg/mL, respectively. After 48 hr the MIC for T. vulgaris hydroalcoholic and hexanic extracts was 3 and 3 mg/mL, respectively. Therefore, it can be concluded that the Iranian T. vulgaris is effective against the trophozoites of E. histolytica.
doi:10.3347/kjp.2008.46.3.153
PMCID: PMC2553340  PMID: 18830054
Entamoeba histolytica; Thymus vulgaris; antiamebic; Iran

Results 1-4 (4)