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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  Stabilization of canthaxanthin produced by Dietzia natronolimnaea HS-1 with spray drying microencapsulation 
The strain bacterium Dietzia natronolimnaea has propounded as a source for biological production of canthaxanthin. Because of sensitivity of this pigment, examine on its stability is important. In this study, stability of encapsulated canthaxanthin from D. natronolimnaea HS-1 using soluble soybean polysaccharide (SSPS), gum acacia (GA), and maltodextrin (MD) as wall materials was investigated at 4, 25, and 45 °C in light and dark conditions during 4 months of storage. It was shown that the type of walls influenced the size of emulsion droplets; spray dried particles, microencapsulation efficiency (ME), and retention of canthaxanthin in microcapsules. SSPS and MD produced the smallest and the biggest emulsion droplets and spray dried particles, respectively. Microcapsules made with SSPS resulted in better ME and higher stability for canthaxanthin. Samples were degraded in all conditions, especially in light and 45 °C. Degradation of microencapsulated canthaxanthin with SSPS and GA proceeded more slowly than did with MD. Regardless of the type of wall materials, total canthaxanthin contents of the microencapsulated products decreased by an increase in time or temperature. Also, samples exposed to light indicated less stability at 4 and 25 °C when compared to the storage at dark conditions. According to the results of this study, SSPS can be considered as potential wall material for the encapsulation of carotenoids.
doi:10.1007/s13197-012-0713-0
PMCID: PMC4152546  PMID: 25190874
Microencapsulation; Canthaxanthin; Dietzia natronolimnaea; Spray drying
2.  Modelling of aflatoxin G1 reduction by kefir grain using response surface methodology 
Aflatoxin G1 (AFG1) is one of the main toxic contaminants in pistachio nuts and causes potential health hazards. Hence, AFG1 reduction is one of the main concerns in food safety. Kefir-grains contain symbiotic association of microorganisms well known for their aflatoxin decontamination effects. In this study, a central composite design (CCD) using response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to develop a model in order to predict AFG1 reduction in pistachio nuts by kefir-grain (already heated at 70 and 110°C). The independent variables were: toxin concentration (X1: 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 ng/g), kefir-grain level (X2: 5, 10, 20, 10 and 25%), contact time (X3: 0, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h), and incubation temperature (X4: 20, 30, 40, 50 and 60°C). There was a significant reduction in AFG1 (p < 0.05) when pre-heat-treated kefir-grain used. The variables including X1, X3 and the interactions between X2-X4 as well as X3-X4 have significant effects on AFG1 reduction. The model provided a good prediction of AFG1 reduction under the assay conditions. Optimization was used to enhance the efficiency of kefir-grain on AFG1 reduction. The optimum conditions for the highest AFG1 reduction (96.8%) were predicted by the model as follows: toxin concentration = 20 ng/g, kefir-grain level = 10%, contact time = 6 h, and incubation temperature = 30°C which validated practically in six replications.
doi:10.1186/s40201-015-0190-2
PMCID: PMC4445940  PMID: 26019874
Aflatoxin G1; Pistachio nut; Predictive modelling; Kefir-grain; Optimization
3.  Investigation of different parameters on acrylamide production in the fried beef burger using Taguchi experimental design 
Acrylamide is a carcinogenic compound which is produced as a result of thermal processing of food materials such as French fries, cereals and meat products. In this study the effects of four different parameters on the level of produced acrylamide in two types of beef burgers during the frying was investigated. Each parameter was used in three levels (temperature at 170, 190, and 210 °C; frying time at 5, 6, and 7 min and meat level at 30, 60, and 85%, and also three types of oil, corn, canola and sunflower). Taguchi’s L9 design was applied to carry out the experiments. While temperature and meat level indicated more effect on the production of acrylamide in the studied samples, type of oil did not show any significant effects at all. Frying time (within the range studied here) showed minor contribution on the acrylamide level produced during the frying.
doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0514-x
PMCID: PMC3931869  PMID: 24587518
Acrylamide; Beef burger; Taguchi’s design; Meat level; Temperature; Frying time
4.  General Analytical Schemes for the Characterization of Pectin-Based Edible Gelled Systems 
The Scientific World Journal  2012;2012:967407.
Pectin-based gelled systems have gained increasing attention for the design of newly developed food products. For this reason, the characterization of such formulas is a necessity in order to present scientific data and to introduce an appropriate finished product to the industry. Various analytical techniques are available for the evaluation of the systems formulated on the basis of pectin and the designed gel. In this paper, general analytical approaches for the characterization of pectin-based gelled systems were categorized into several subsections including physicochemical analysis, visual observation, textural/rheological measurement, microstructural image characterization, and psychorheological evaluation. Three-dimensional trials to assess correlations among microstructure, texture, and taste were also discussed. Practical examples of advanced objective techniques including experimental setups for small and large deformation rheological measurements and microstructural image analysis were presented in more details.
doi:10.1100/2012/967407
PMCID: PMC3354751  PMID: 22645484
5.  Antibacterial properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer savory extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2011;42(4):1453-1462.
Antibacterial properties and chemical characterization of the essential oils from summer savory (Satureja hortensis) extracted by microwave-assisted hydrodistillation (MAHD) were compared with those of the essential oils extracted using the traditional hydrodistillation (HD) method. While MAHD at 660 W required half as much time as HD needed, similar antibacterial efficacies were found from the essential oils obtained by the two extraction methods on two food pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, a gram positive bacterium, and Escherchia coli, a gram negative bacterium). Also, as it was the case with the essential oils extracted by HD, that of MAHD indicated greater influence on S. aureus than on E. coli. The compositions of the extracted essential oils were also studied using GC-MS analysis. The same components with negligible differences in their quantities were found in the extracted essential oils using the two methods outlined above. Overall, to reduce the extraction time, MAHD can be applied at higher microwave levels without any compromise in the antibacterial properties of the essential oils extracted.
doi:10.1590/S1517-838220110004000031
PMCID: PMC3768744  PMID: 24031778
Carvacrol; Flavor and fragrance; Medicinal plant/herb; Pathogens; Scanning electron microscopy (SEM); Summer savory
6.  “A comparison between sugar consumption and ethanol production in wort by immobilized Saccharomyces Cerevisiae, Saccharomyces Ludwigii and Saccharomyces Rouxii on Brewer’S Spent Grain” 
Brazilian Journal of Microbiology  2011;42(2):605-615.
The immobilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DSM 70424, Saccharomyces ludwigii DSM 3447 and Saccharomyces rouxii DSM 2531 on brewer’s spent grain and then ethanol production and sugar consumption of these immobilized yeasts were investigated. The aim of this study was to investigate the abilities of these three immobilized yeasts for producing alcohol for brewing at two temperatures (7 and 12 °C) using two different sugar levels (one at original level supplied in the brewery and one with 2.5% (w/v), added glucose to the wort).
Increasing both parameters resulted in higher alcohol production by all the yeasts studied. At 7 °C and with original wort density the ethanol content at the end of fermentation was 2.7% (v/v) for S. cerevisiae, 1.7% for S. ludwigii and 2.0% for S. rouxii. After the addition of 2.5% (w/v) glucose at the same temperature (7 °C), the alcohol production was increased to 4.1, 2.8 and 4.1%, respectively. Similar improvements were observed when the fermentation was carried out at 12 °C with/without the addition of glucose to the wort. However, temperature indicated greater influence on S. ludwigii than did on S. rouxii and S. cerevisiae. The immobilization as carried out in this study impacted both S. ludwigii and S. rouxii in a way that they could consume maltose under certain conditions.
doi:10.1590/S1517-838220110002000025
PMCID: PMC3769836  PMID: 24031672
Brewer’s spent grain; Fermentation; Immobilization; Saccharomyces cerevisiae; Saccharomyces ludwigii; Saccharomyces rouxii

Results 1-6 (6)