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1.  Repeated Remote Ischemic Conditioning Effect on Ankle-brachial Index in Diabetic Patients - A Randomized Control Trial 
Background:
Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) is a phenomenon where a short period of ischemia in one organ protects against further ischemia in the other organs. We hypothesized that RIPC occurring in diabetic patients with ankle brachial index (ABI) between 0.70 and 0.90 were included with peripheral arterial disease, would make the better coronary flow resulted in the increasing ABI.
Materials and Methods:
This randomized clinical trial study was done in the Afshar Cardiovascular Hospital in Yazd between 2013 and 2014. Sixty participants were randomly divided into two groups (intervention and control groups). The intervention group was undergoing RIPC, and the control group was tested without RIPC. RIPC was stimulated by giving three cycles of 5 min of ischemia followed by 5 min of reperfusion of both upper arms using a blood pressure cuff inflated to 200 mm Hg (n = 30). This was compared with no RIPC group which consisted of placing a deflated blood pressure cuff on the upper limbs (n = 30).
Results:
The mean of ABI level before intervention in the RIPC and control group group was 0.82 ± 0.055 and 0.83 ± 0.0603 (P = 0.347) respectively, with no significant difference. It was 0.86 ± 0.066 in the RIPC group compared the control 0.83 ± 0.0603 (P = 0.046). So levels of ABI were greater after intervention in the RIPC group. The mean of ABI level increase from 0.82 ± 0.05 to 0.86 ± 0.06 in RIPC group (P = 0.008). So the intervention group showed a significant increase in ABI.
Conclusions:
RIPC through using a simple, noninvasive technique, composing three cycles of 5 min-ischemia of both upper arms, showing a significant increase in ABI level in diabetic patients.
doi:10.4103/2277-9175.201685
PMCID: PMC5360001  PMID: 28401075
Ankle brachial index; peripheral arterial disease; remote ischemic preconditioning
2.  Migraine and type 2 diabetes; is there any association? 
Background
Migraine headache prevalence and triggers in type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were investigated in previous studies but the results are contradictory. Therefore, in this study we examined the prevalence of migraine headache in diabetic patients in comparison with non-diabetic persons and its predisposing factors in 2014.
Methods
We enrolled 147 volunteer patients with T2DM and 150 healthy persons referred to the Yazd Diabetes Research Center and the Central Laboratory of Yazd, respectively, in 2014. The data collection instrument was a self-conducted checklist. The checklist contained demographic, anthropometric and clinical characteristics and migraine diagnostic questions according to International Classification of Headache Disorders Second Edition (ICHD-II) criteria. We compared prevalence of migraine between two groups, and also evaluated relationship between above characteristics and migraine prevalence in both groups.
Results
The prevalence of migraine in participants of diabetic and non-diabetic was 27.9 and 26 %, respectively (p-value = .406). The prevalence of migraine headache among in diabetic persons was significantly correlated with family history of migraine, diabetes duration and hypoglycemia attacks. Also, the migraine prevalence was significant more prevalent in T2DM patients with duration 6–10 years (p-value = 0.031). The percentage of HbA1C, type of anti-diabetic medication, BMI value and age in diabetic patients did not show any significant association with migraine.
Conclusion
Although we observed no significant differences in prevalence of migraine between patients with T2DM and non-diabetic age and sex adjusted persons But, the occurrence of hypoglycemia attacks and T2DM duration were related to migraine prevalence. Decreasing hypoglycemia among long-time T2DM patients probably can decline migraine headache in this group of patients.
doi:10.1186/s40200-016-0241-y
PMCID: PMC5016935  PMID: 27617234
Migraine; Type 2 diabetes mellitus; Prevalence
3.  Dual burden of body weight among Iranian children and adolescents in 2003 and 2010: the CASPIAN-III study 
Introduction
Our aim was to compare changes of body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) curves of Iranian children by comparing the results of two national surveys of a surveillance program, i.e. CASPIAN-I (2003–2004) and CASPIAN-III (2009–2010). The second objective was to evaluate the prevalence of obesity, overweight and underweight among 10–18-year-old Iranian children and adolescents.
Material and methods
This study was performed among students who were selected by multistage random cluster sampling from urban and rural areas of 27 provinces of Iran, as part of a national survey of school student high risk behavior entitled CASPIAN-III, conducted in 2009–2010.
Results
We evaluated 5088 school students (50.2% boys). In rural areas, underweight was more common in boys and overweight and obesity in girls. In urban areas underweight and obesity were more common in boys, whereas overweight was more common in girls. The highest prevalence of underweight (23.5%) was seen in students aged 13 years and the lowest (11.4%) in those aged 18 years. Underweight was significantly more common in rural than in urban areas (22.1% vs. 15.8%, respectively, p < 0.0001) and overweight/obesity was more common in urban than in rural areas. Compared with the findings in 2003–2004, the overall prevalence of elevated body mass index (16.6%) including obesity (9.1%) and overweight (7.5%) as well as underweight (17.5%) increased from 2003 to 2010.
Conclusions
In recent years, the double burden of nutritional disorders has increased among Iranian children and adolescents, especially in rural areas. This change may be related to epidemiologic transition, notably in terms of nutrition transition and rapid changes in lifestyle habits. This finding is an important issue for policy-makers for interventional preventive programs.
doi:10.5114/aoms.2014.40735
PMCID: PMC3953979  PMID: 24701221
obesity; underweight; waist circumference; body mass index; pediatric age
4.  Giant prolactinoma: case report and review of literature 
“Invasive giant prolactinoma” is a large prolactinoma (>4 cm in dimension) presenting with serum prolactin levels of >1000 ng/dL and mass related clinical symptoms. Here we report a patient with a giant prolactinoma presented with central hypogonadism, suppressed adrenal and thyroid function, supra sellar extension, visual field impairment and high prolactin level.
The patient was treated with cabergoline, levothyroxin and prednisolone. After 18 months, tumor size markedly reduced, associated with adrenal function and visual field improvement, but central hypogonadism and secondary hypothyroidism persisted.
Previous studies showed normalization of thyrotropin secretion after treatment but it remained low in our patient even after 18 months follow up.
doi:10.1186/2251-6581-12-3
PMCID: PMC3598222  PMID: 23497585
Giant prolactinoma; Cabergoline; Hypothyroidism

Results 1-4 (4)