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1.  SIRT2 deacetylates and inhibits the peroxidase activity of peroxiredoxin-1 to sensitize breast cancer cells to oxidant stress inducing agents 
Cancer research  2016;76(18):5467-5478.
SIRT2 is a protein deacetylase with tumor suppressor activity in breast and liver tumors where it is mutated, however, the critical substrates mediating its antitumor activity are not fully defined. Here we demonstrate that SIRT2 binds, deacetylates and inhibits the peroxidase activity of the anti-oxidant protein peroxiredoxin (Prdx-1) in breast cancer cells. Ectopic overexpression of SIRT2, but not its catalytically dead mutant, increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), which led to increased levels of an over-oxidized and multimeric form of Prdx-1 with activity as a molecular chaperone. Elevated levels of SIRT2 sensitized breast cancer cells to intracellular DNA damage and cell death induced by oxidative stress, as associated with increased levels of nuclear FOXO3A and the pro-apoptotic BIM protein. Additionally, elevated levels of SIRT2 sensitized breast cancer cells to arsenic trioxide, an approved therapeutic agent, along with other intracellular ROS-inducing agents. Conversely, antisense RNA-mediated attenuation of SIRT2 reversed ROS-induced toxicity as demonstrated in a zebrafish embryo model system. Collectively, our findings suggest that the tumor suppressor activity of SIRT2 requires its ability to restrict the anti-oxidant activity of Prdx-1, thereby sensitizing breast cancer cells to ROS-induced DNA damage and cell cytotoxicity.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-16-0126
PMCID: PMC5345574  PMID: 27503926
2.  Expression And Purification Of HER2 Extracellular Domain Proteins In Schneider2 Insect Cells 
Overexpression of human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2/ErbB2/Neu) results in ligand independent activation of kinase signaling and is found in about 30% of human breast cancers, and is correlated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype. The HER2 extracellular domain (ECD) consists of four domains − I, II, III and IV. Although the role of each domain in the dimerization and activation of the receptor has been extensively studied, the role of domain IV (DIV) is not clearly understood yet. In our previous studies, we reported peptidomimetic molecules inhibit HER2:HER3 heterodimerization. In order to study the binding interactions of peptidomimetics with HER2 DIV in detail, properly folded recombinant HER2 protein in pure form is important. We have expressed and purified HER2 ECD and DIV proteins in the Drosophila melanogaster Schneider2 (S2) cell line. Using the commercial Drosophila expression system (DES), we transfected S2 cells with plasmids designed to direct the expression of secreted recombinant HER2 ECD and DIV proteins. The secreted proteins were purified from the conditioned medium by filtration, ultrafiltration, dialysis and nickel affinity chromatography techniques. The purified HER2 proteins were then analyzed using western blot, mass spectrometry and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy.
doi:10.1016/j.pep.2015.09.001
PMCID: PMC4785095  PMID: 26363121
Schneider2 insect cells; HER2 protein; HER2 domain IV; secretion of protein; Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2; S2 insect cell lines; protein sequencing; mass spectrometry; protein secretion; disulfide loops
3.  Novel BET protein Proteolysis Targeting Chimera (BET-PROTAC) exerts superior lethal activity than Bromodomain Inhibitor (BETi) against post-myeloproliferative Neoplasm (MPN) Secondary (s) AML Cells 
Leukemia  2017;10.1038/leu.2016.393.
The PROTAC (proteolysis-targeting chimera) ARV-825 recruits bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) proteins to the E3 ubiquitin ligase cereblon, leading to degradation of BET proteins, including BRD4. Whereas the BET-protein inhibitor (BETi) OTX015 caused accumulation of BRD4, treatment with equimolar concentrations of ARV-825 caused sustained and profound depletion (>90%) of BRD4 and induced significantly more apoptosis in cultured and patient-derived (PD) CD34+ post-MPN sAML cells, while relatively sparing the CD34+ normal hematopoietic progenitor cells. RNA-Seq, Reversed Phase Protein Array and mass cytometry ‘CyTOF’ analyses demonstrated that ARV-825 caused greater perturbations in mRNA and protein expressions than OTX015 in sAML cells. Specifically, compared to OTX015, ARV-825 treatment caused more robust and sustained depletion of c-Myc, CDK4/6, JAK2, pSTAT3/5, PIM1 and Bcl-xL, while increasing the levels of p21 and p27. Compared to OTX015, PROTAC ARV-771 treatment caused greater reduction in leukemia burden and further improved survival of NSG mice engrafted with luciferase-expressing HEL92.1.7 cells. Co-treatment with ARV-825 and JAK inhibitor ruxolitinib was synergistically lethal against the established and PD-CD34+ sAML cells. Notably, ARV-825 induced high levels of apoptosis in the in vitro generated ruxolitinib-persister or ruxolitinib-resistant sAML cells. These findings strongly support the in vivo testing of the BRD4-PROTAC based combinations against post-MPN sAML.
doi:10.1038/leu.2016.393
PMCID: PMC5537055  PMID: 28042144
Secondary AML; BRD4; PROTAC; protein degradation
4.  Estrogen receptor-α, progesterone receptor, and c-erbB/HER-family receptor mRNA detection and phenotype analysis in spontaneous canine models of breast cancer 
Journal of Veterinary Science  2017;18(2):149-158.
Well characterized, stable, p16-defective canine mammary cancer (CMT) cell lines and normal canine mammary epithelial cells were used to investigate expression of the major breast cancer-specific hormone receptors estrogen receptor alpha (ER1) and progesterone receptor (PR) as well as luminal epithelial-specific proto-oncogenes encoding c-erbB-1 (epidermal growth factor receptor/EGFr), c-erbB-2/HER2, c-erbB-3, and c-erbB-4 receptors. The investigation developed and validated quantitative reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction assays for each transcript to provide rapid assessment of breast cancer phenotypes for canine cancers, based on ER1, PR, and c-erbB-2/HER2 expressions, similar to those in human disease. Roles for relatively underexplored c-erbB-3 and c-erbB-4 receptor expressions in each of these breast cancer phenotypes were also evaluated. Each quantitative assay was validated by assessment of amplicon size and DNA sequencing following amplification. Differential expression of ER1, PR, and c-erbB-2 in CMT cell lines clearly defined distinct human-like breast cancer phenotypes for a selection of CMT-derived cell lines. Expression profiles for EGFr family genes c-erbB-3 and c-erbB-4 in CMT models also provided an enriched classification of canine breast cancer identifying new extended phenotypes beyond the conventional luminal-basal characterization used in human breast cancer.
doi:10.4142/jvs.2017.18.2.149
PMCID: PMC5489461  PMID: 27515268
breast cancer; canine; mammary epithelial cells; estrogen/progesterone receptor; c-erbB/HER-2 receptor
5.  Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology annual scientific meeting 2016 
Alsayegh, Mohammad A. | Alshamali, Hanan | Khadada, Mousa | Ciccolini, Amanda | Ellis, Anne K. | Quint, Diana | Powley, William | Lee, Laurie | Fiteih, Yahya | Baksh, Shairaz | Vliagoftis, Harissios | Gerega, Sebastien K. | Millson, Brad | Charland, Katia | Barakat, Stephane | Sun, Xichun | Jimenez, Ricardo | Waserman, Susan | FitzGerald, Mark J. | Hébert, Jacques | Cognet-Sicé, Josiane | Renahan, Kevin E. | Huq, Saiful | Chooniedass, Rishma | Sawyer, Scott | Pasterkamp, Hans | Becker, Allan | Smith, Steven G. | Zhang, Shiyuan | Jayasundara, Kavisha | Tacon, Claire | Simidchiev, Alex | Nadeau, Gilbert | Gunsoy, Necdet | Mullerova, Hana | Albers, Frank | Kim, Young Woong | Shannon, Casey P. | Singh, Amrit | Neighbour, Helen | Larché, Mark | Tebbutt, Scott J. | Klopp, Annika | Vehling, Lorena | Becker, Allan B. | Subbarao, Padmaja | Mandhane, Piushkumar J. | Turvey, Stuart E. | Sears, Malcolm R. | Azad, Meghan B. | Loewen, Keely | Monchka, Barret | Mahmud, Salaheddin M. | Jong, Geert ‘t | Longo, Cristina | Bartlett, Gillian | Ducharme, Francine M. | Schuster, Tibor | MacGibbon, Brenda | Barnett, Tracie | North, Michelle L. | Brook, Jeff | Lee, Elizabeth | Omana, Vanessa | Thiele, Jenny | Steacy, Lisa M. | Evans, Greg | Diamond, Miriam | Sussman, Gordon L. | Amistani, Yann | Abiteboul, Kathy | Tenn, Mark W. | Yang, ChenXi | Carlsten, Christopher | Conway, Edward M. | Mack, Douglas | Othman, Yasmin | Barber, Colin M. | Kalicinsky, Chrystyna | Burke, Andrea E. | Messieh, Mary | Nair, Parameswaran | Che, Chun T. | Douglas, Lindsay | Liem, Joel | Duan, Lucy | Miller, Charlotte | Dupuis, Pascale | Connors, Lori A. | Fein, Michael N. | Shuster, Joseph | Hadi, Hani | Polk, Brooke | Raje, Nikita | Labrosse, Roxane | Bégin, Philippe | Paradis, Louis | Roches, Anne Des | Lacombe-Barrios, Jonathan | Mishra, Sanju | Lacuesta, Gina | Chiasson, Meredith | Haroon, Babar | Robertson, Kara | Issekutz, Thomas | Leddin, Desmond | Couban, Stephen | Connors, Lori | Roos, Adrienne | Kanani, Amin | Chan, Edmond S. | Schellenberg, Robert | Rosenfield, Lana | Cvetkovic, Anna | Woodward, Kevin | Quirt, Jaclyn | Watson, Wade T. A. | Castilho, Edson | Sullivan, Jennifer A. | Temple, Beverley | Martin, Donna | Cook, Victoria E. | Mills, Christopher | Portales-Casamar, Elodie | Fu, Lisa W. | Ho, Alexander | Zaltzman, Jeffrey | Chen, Lucy | Vadas, Peter | Gabrielli, Sofianne | Clarke, Ann | Eisman, Harley | Morris, Judy | Joseph, Lawrence | LaVieille, Sebastien | Ben-Shoshan, Moshe | Graham, François | Barnes, Charles | Portnoy, Jay | Stagg, Vincent | Simons, Elinor | Lefebvre, Diana | Dai, David | Mandhane, Piushkumar | Sears, Malcolm | Tam, Herman | Simons, F. Estelle R. | Alotaibi, Dhaifallah | Dawod, Bassel | Tunis, Matthew C. | Marshall, Jean | Desjardins, Marylin | Béland, Marianne | Lejtenyi, Duncan | Drolet, Jean-Phillipe | Lemire, Martine | Tsoukas, Christos | Noya, Francisco J.D. | Alizadehfar, Reza | McCusker, Christine T. | Mazer, Bruce D. | Maestre-Batlle, Danay | Gunawan, Evelyn | Rider, Christopher F. | Bølling, Anette K. | Pena, Olga M. | Suez, Daniel | Melamed, Isaac | Hussain, Iftikhar | Stein, Mark | Gupta, Sudhir | Paris, Kenneth | Fritsch, Sandor | Bourgeois, Christelle | Leibl, Heinz | McCoy, Barbara | Noel, Martin | Yel, Leman | Scott, Ori | Reid, Brenda | Atkinson, Adelle | Kim, Vy Hong-Diep | Roifman, Chaim M. | Grunebaum, Eyal | AlSelahi, Eiman | Aleman, Fernando | Oberle, Amber | Trus, Mike | Sussman, Gordon | Kanani, Amin S. | Chambenoi, Olivier | Chiva-Razavi, Sima | Grodecki, Savannah | Joshi, Nikhil | Menikefs, Peter | Holt, David | Pun, Teresa | Tworek, Damian | Hanna, Raphael | Heroux, Delia | Rosenberg, Elli | Stiemsma, Leah | Turvey, Stuart | Denburg, Judah | Mill, Christopher | Teoh, Timothy | Zimmer, Preeti | Avinashi, Vishal | Paina, Mihaela | Darwish Hassan, Ahmed A. | Oliveria, John Paul | Olesovsky, Chris | Gauvreau, Gail | Pedder, Linda | Keith, Paul K. | Plunkett, Greg | Bolner, Michelle | Pourshahnazari, Persia | Stark, Donald | Vostretsova, Kateryna | Moses, Andrew | Wakeman, Andrew | Singer, Alexander | Gerstner, Thomas | Abrams, Elissa | Johnson, Sara F. | Woodgate, Roberta L.
doi:10.1186/s13223-017-0192-y
PMCID: PMC5390240
6.  BET protein bromodomain inhibitor-based combinations are highly active against post-myeloproliferative neoplasm secondary AML cells 
Leukemia  2016;31(3):678-687.
Myeloproliferative Neoplasms with myelofibrosis (MPN-MF) demonstrate constitutive activation of JAK-STAT signaling, which responds to treatment with the JAK1 & 2 kinase inhibitor (JAKi) ruxolitinib. However, MPN-MF often progresses (~20%) to secondary AML (sAML), where standard induction chemotherapy or ruxolitinib is relatively ineffective, necessitating the development of novel therapeutic approaches. In the present studies, we demonstrate that treatment with BET (bromodomain and extra terminal) protein inhibitor (BETi), e.g., JQ1, inhibits growth and induces apoptosis of cultured and primary, patient-derived (PD), post-MPN sAML blast progenitor cells. Reverse-phase protein array, mass-cytometry and Western analyses revealed that BETi treatment attenuated the protein expressions of c-MYC, p-STAT5, Bcl-xL, CDK4/6, PIM1 and IL-7R, while concomitantly inducing the levels of HEXIM1, p21 and BIM in the sAML cells. Co-treatment with BETi and ruxolitinib synergistically induced apoptosis of cultured and PD sAML cells, as well as significantly improved survival of immune-depleted mice engrafted with human sAML cells. While BETi or heat shock protein (HSP) 90 inhibitor alone exerted lethal activity, co-treatment with BETi and HSP90i was synergistically lethal against the ruxolitinib-persister or ruxolitinib-resistant sAML cells. Collectively, these findings further support in vivo testing of BETi-based combinations with JAKi and HSP90i against post-MPN sAML cells.
doi:10.1038/leu.2016.260
PMCID: PMC5345582  PMID: 27677740
secondary AML; BRD4; bromodomain antagonist; JAK2
7.  Anaphylaxis across two Canadian pediatric centers: evaluating management disparities 
Background
There are no data on the percentage of visits due to anaphylaxis in the emergency department (ED), triggers, and management of anaphylaxis across different provinces in Canada.
Objective
To compare the percentage of anaphylaxis cases among all ED visits, as well as the triggers and management of anaphylaxis between two Canadian pediatric EDs (PEDs).
Methods
As part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry (C-CARE), children presenting to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (BCCH) and Montreal Children’s Hospital (MCH) EDs with anaphylaxis were recruited. Characteristics, triggers, and management of anaphylaxis were documented using a standardized data entry form. Differences in demographics, triggers, and management were determined by comparing the difference of proportions and 95% confidence interval.
Results
Between June 2014 and June 2016, there were 346 visits due to anaphylaxis among 93,730 PED visits at the BCCH ED and 631 anaphylaxis visits among 164,669 pediatric visits at the MCH ED. In both centers, the majority of cases were triggered by food (BCCH 91.3% [88.7, 94.0], MCH 82.4% [79.7, 85.3]), of which peanuts were the most common culprit (24.7% [20.9, 29.9] and 19.0% [15.8, 22.7], respectively). Pre-hospital administration of epinephrine (BCCH 27.7% [23.2, 32.8], MCH 33.1% [29.5, 37.0]) and antihistamines (BCCH 50.6% [45.2, 56.0], MCH 47.1% [43.1, 51.0]) was similar. In-hospital management differed in terms of increased epinephrine, antihistamine, and steroid use at the BCCH (59.2% [53.9, 64.4], 59.8% [54.4, 65.0], and 60.1% [54.7, 65.3], respectively) compared to the MCH (42.2% [38.3, 46.2], 36.2% [32.5, 40.1], and 11.9% [9.5, 14.8], respectively). Despite differences in management, percentage of cases admitted to the intensive care unit was similar between the two centers.
Conclusion
Compared to previous European and North American reports, there is a high percentage of anaphylaxis cases in two PEDs across Canada with substantial differences in hospital management practices. It is crucial to develop training programs that aim to increase epinephrine use in anaphylaxis.
doi:10.2147/JAA.S123053
PMCID: PMC5221795  PMID: 28115856
anaphylaxis; emergency department; epinephrine; triggers of anaphylaxis; management
8.  Proceedings of the Canadian society of allergy and clinical immunology annual scientific meeting 2015 
Côté, Marie-Ève | Boulay, Marie-Ève | Plante, Sophie | Chakir, Jamila | Boulet, Louis-Philippe | Ahmed, Hanan | Ospina, Maria-Beatriz | Sideri, Kyriaki | Vliagoftis, Harissios | Johnson, Sara F. | Woodgate, Roberta L. | Cros, Guilhem | Teira, Pierre | Cellot, Sonia | Bittencourt, Henrique | Decaluwe, Helene | Vachon, Marie France | Duval, Michel | Haddad, Elie | Kim, Vy H. D. | Pham-Huy, Anne | Grunebaum, Eyal | Oliveria, John-Paul | Phan, Stephanie | Tenn, Mark W. | Tworek, Damian | Smith, Steven G. | Baatjes, Adrian J. | Obminski, Caitlin D. | Munoz, Caroline E. | Scime, Tara X. | Sehmi, Roma | Gauvreau, Gail M. | Salter, Brittany M. | Smith, Steven G. | Obminski, Caitlin D. | Munoz, Caroline E. | Schlatman, Abbey | Scime, Tara X. | Watson, Rick | Sherkat, Roya | Khoshnevisan, Razieh | Sheikhbahaei, Saba | Betschel, Stephen | Warrington, Richard | Schellenberg, Robert | Fein, Michael N. | Pelletier, Jean-Philippe | Kan, Manstein | Labrosse, Roxane | Mak, Raymond | Loh, James | Kanani, Amin | Nowak, Dominik A. | Keith, Paul K. | Pannozzo, Daniel | Lima, Hermenio C. | Pham, Diana | Pham, Hoang | Alvarez, Gonzalo G. | Bencze, Istvan T. | Sharma, Krishna B. | Smith, Mark | Aaron, Shawn | Block, Jennifer | Keays, Tara | Leech, Judith | Schneidermen, David | Cameron, Jodi | Forgie, Jennifer | Ring, Alicia | O’Quinn, John W. | Santucci, Stephanie | Yang, William H. | Gaudet, Ena | Aaron, Shawn | Voisin, Mathew R. | Borici-Mazi, Rozita | Vostretsova, Kateryna | Stark, Donald F. | Yeboah, Elizabeth | Martin-Rhee, Michelle | Gula, Cheryl | Cheng, Clare | Paltser, Geoff | Dery, Alizée | Clarke, Ann | Nadeau, Kari | Harada, Laurie | Weatherall, Kimberley | Greenwood, Celia | Daley, Denise | Asai, Yuka | Ben-Shoshan, Moshe | Ling, Ling | Ospina, Maria B. | Protudjer, Jennifer L. P. | Vetander, Mirja | van Hage, Marianne | Olén, Ola | Wickman, Magnus | Bergström, Anna | Teoh, Timothy | Mill, Christopher | Wong, Tiffany | Baerg, Ingrid | Alexander, Angela | Hildebrand, Kyla J. | Dean, John | Kuzeljevic, Boris | Chan, Edmond S. | Argeny, Jonathan | Gona-Hoepler, Mia | Fucik, Petra | Nachbaur, Edith | Gruber, Saskia | Crameri, Reto | Glaser, Andreas | Szépfalusi, Zsolt | Rhyner, Claudio | Eiwegger, Thomas | Plunkett, Greg | Mire, Brad | Yazicioglu, Mehtap | Can, Ceren | Ciplak, Gokce | Cook, Victoria E. | Portales-Casamar, Elodie | Nashi, Emil P. | Gabrielli, Sofianne | Primeau, Marie-Noel | Lejtenyi, Christine | Netchiporouk, Elena | Dery, Alizee | Shand, Greg | Hoe, Erica | Liem, Joel | Ko, Jason K. | Huang, David J. T. | Mazza, Jorge A. | McHenry, Mary | Otley, Anthony | Watson, Wade | Kraft, John N. | Paina, Mihaela | Darwish Hassan, Ahmed A. | Heroux, Delia | Crawford, Lynn | Gauvreau, Gail | Denburg, Judah | Pedder, Linda | Chad, Zave | Sussman, Gordon | Hébert, Jacques | Frankish, Charles | Olynych, Timothy | Cheema, Amarjit | Del Carpio, Jaime | Harrison, Rachel | Torabi, Bahar | Medoff, Elaine | Mill, Jennifer | Quirt, Jaclyn A. | Wen, Xia | Kim, Jonathan | Herrero, Angel Jimenez | Kim, Harold L. | Grzyb, Magdalena J. | Primeau, Marie-Noël | Azad, Meghan B. | Lu, Zihang | Becker, Allan B. | Subbarao, Padmaja | Mandhane, Piushkumar J. | Turvey, Stuart E. | Sears, Malcolm R. | Boucher-Lafleur, Anne-Marie | Gagné-Ouellet, Valérie | Jacques, Éric | Laprise, Catherine | Chen, Michael | McGovern, Toby | Adner, Mikael | Martin, James G. | Cosic, Nela | Ntanda, Henry | Giesbrecht, Gerald | Kozyrskyj, Anita | Letourneau, Nicole | Dawod, Bassel | Marshall, Jean | De Schryver, Sarah | Halbrich, Michelle | La Vieille, Sebastian | Eisman, Harley | Alizadehfar, Reza | Joseph, Lawrence | Morris, Judy | Feldman, Laura Y. | Thacher, Jesse D. | Kull, Inger | Melén, Erik | Pershagen, Göran | Protudjer, Jennifer L. P. | Hosseini, Ali | Hackett, Tillie L. | Hirota, Jeremy | McNagny, Kelly | Wilson, Susan | Carlsten, Chris | Huq, Saiful | Chooniedass, Rishma | Gerwing, Brenda | Huang, Henry | Lefebvre, Diana | Becker, Allan | Khamis, Mona M. | Awad, Hanan | Allen, Kevin | Adamko, Darryl J. | El-Aneed, Anas | Kim, Young Woong | Gliddon, Daniel R. | Shannon, Casey P. | Singh, Amrit | Hickey, Pascal L. C. | Ellis, Anne K. | Neighbour, Helen | Larche, Mark | Tebbutt, Scott J. | Ladouceur, Erika | Stewart, Miriam | Evans, Josh | Masuda, Jeff | To, Teresa | King, Malcolm | Larouche, Miriam | Liang, Liming | Legere, Stephanie A. | Haidl, Ian D. | Legaré, Jean-Francois | Marshall, Jean S. | Sears, Malcolm | Moraes, Theo J. | Ratjen, Felix | Gustafsson, Per | Lou, Wendy | North, Michelle L. | Lee, Elizabeth | Omana, Vanessa | Thiele, Jenny | Brook, Jeff | Rahman, Tanvir | Lejtenyi, Duncan | Fiter, Ryan | Piccirillo, Ciriaco | Mazer, Bruce | Simons, Elinor | Hildebrand, Kyla | Turvey, Stuart | DeMarco, Mari | Le Cao, Kim-Anh | Gauvreau, Gail M. | Mark FitzGerald, J. | O’Byrne, Paul M. | Stiemsma, Leah T. | Arrieta, Marie-Claire | Cheng, Jasmine | Dimitriu, Pedro A. | Thorson, Lisa | Yurist, Sophie | Lefebvre, Diana L. | Mandhane, Piush | McNagny, Kelly M. | Kollmann, Tobias | Mohn, William W. | Brett Finlay, B. | Tran, Maxwell M. | Lefebvre, Diana L. | Ramasundarahettige, Chinthanie F. | Dai, Wei Hao | Mandhane, Piush J. | Tworek, Damian | O’Byrne, Seamus N. | O’Byrne, Paul M. | Denburg, Judah A. | Walsh, Laura | Soliman, Mena | Steacy, Lisa M. | Adams, Daniel E. | Warner, Linda | Mauro, Mary Ann | Mamonluk, Robby | Yang, ChenXi | Conway, Ed M.
Table of contents
A1 Role of fibrocytes in allergic rhinitis
Marie-Ève Côté, Marie-Ève Boulay, Sophie Plante, Jamila Chakir, Louis-Philippe Boulet
A2 Patterns of aeroallergens sensitization in Northern Alberta
Hanan Ahmed, Maria-Beatriz Ospina, Kyriaki Sideri, Harissios Vliagoftis
A3 Addressing acceptable risk for adolescents with Food-Induced Anaphylaxis (FIA)
Sara F. Johnson, Roberta L. Woodgate
A4 Outcomes of matched related and unrelated bone marrow transplantation after reduced-toxicity conditioning for children suffering from Chronic Granulomatous Disease
Guilhem Cros, Pierre Teira, Sonia Cellot, Henrique Bittencourt, Helene Decaluwe, Marie France Vachon, Michel Duval, Elie Haddad
A5 Outcomes of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) prior to and after initiation of newborn screening for SCID in Ontario
Vy H.D. Kim, Anne Pham-Huy, Eyal Grunebaum
A6 Detection of regulatory B cells in the airways of subjects with asthma
John-Paul Oliveria, Stephanie Phan, Mark W. Tenn, Damian Tworek, Steven G. Smith, Adrian J. Baatjes, Caitlin D. Obminski, Caroline E. Munoz, Tara X. Scime, Roma Sehmi, Gail M Gauvreau
A7 Characterization of IgE-expressing B cells in the airways and peripheral blood of allergic asthmatic subjects
John-Paul Oliveria, Stephanie Phan, Mark W. Tenn, Brittany M Salter, Steven G Smith, Caitlin D Obminski, Caroline E Munoz, Abbey Schlatman, Tara X Scime, Rick Watson, Roma Sehmi, Gail M Gauvreau
A8 Pregnancy: could it be a risk factor for primary immunodeficient patients
Roya Sherkat, Razieh Khoshnevisan, Saba Sheikhbahaei
A9 Clinical experience with Octagam: a Canadian retrospective chart review
Stephen Betschel, Richard Warrington, Robert Schellenberg
A10 Kounis syndrome secondary to contrast media with inferior ST elevations and bilateral ischemic stroke
Michael N Fein, Jean-Philippe Pelletier
A11 Honey bee venom immunotherapy ineffective in bumble bee-induced anaphylaxis: case report and review of literature
Manstein Kan, Robert Schellenberg
A12 Delayed immune reconstitution occurring after multiple immune complications of hematological stem cell transplantation for a leaky SCID
Roxane Labrosse, Guilhem Cros, Pierre Teira, Henrique Bittencourt, Helene Decaluwe, Michel Duval, Elie Haddad
A13 Comparison of Three Case Reports of Acquired Angioedema: presentation, management and outcome
Raymond Mak, James Loh, Amin Kanani
A14 Sitagliptin-associated angioedema not related to concurrent use of ARB or ACE inhibitor
Dominik A. Nowak, Paul K. Keith
A15 Sneddon-Wilkinson subcorneal pustular dermatosis associated with an IgA monoclonal gammopathy
Daniel Pannozzo, Dominik A. Nowak, Hermenio C. Lima
A16 Omalizumab can be effective in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
Diana Pham, Hoang Pham, Gonzalo G. Alvarez, Istvan T. Bencze, Krishna B. Sharma, Mark Smith, Shawn Aaron, Jennifer Block, Tara Keays, Judith Leech, David Schneidermen, Jodi Cameron, Jennifer Forgie, Alicia Ring, John W. O’Quinn, Stephanie Santucci, William H. Yang
A17 Efficacious use of omalizumab in the treatment of cystic fibrosis
Diana Pham, Hoang Pham, Ena Gaudet, Shawn Aaron, Stephanie Santucci, William H. Yang
A18 HAE with normal C1-INH with inconsistent response to C1 esterase inhibitor infusion but reliably responsive to icatibant
Hoang Pham, Stephanie Santucci, William H. Yang
A19 Anaphylaxis reaction to lactase enzyme
Mathew R. Voisin, Rozita Borici-Mazi
A20 Risk of solid tumor malignancies in patients with primary immune deficiency
Kateryna Vostretsova, Donald F. Stark
A21 Is it time to adopt the chromogenic assay for measuring C1 esterase inhibitor function in patients with HAE Type 2?
Elizabeth Yeboah, Paul K. Keith
A22 Emergency department visits for anaphylaxis and allergic reactions
Michelle Martin-Rhee, Cheryl Gula, Clare Cheng, Geoff Paltser
A23 START: Susceptibility To food Allergies in a Registry of Twins
Alizée Dery, Ann Clarke, Kari Nadeau, Laurie Harada, Kimberley Weatherall, Celia Greenwood, Denise Daley, Yuka Asai, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
A24 Qualifying the diagnostic approach employed by allergists when managing patients with self-diagnosed non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS)
Lee Horgan, Teresa Pun
A25 Retrospective analysis on the agreement between skin prick test and serum food specific IgE antibody in adults with suspected food allergy
Ling Ling, Maria B. Ospina, Kyriaki Sideri, Harissios Vliagoftis
A26 Staple food hypersensitivity from infancy to adolescence: a report from the BAMSE cohort
Jennifer L.P. Protudjer, Mirja Vetander, Marianne van Hage, Ola Olén, Magnus Wickman, Anna Bergström
A27 Evaluating the impact of supervised epinephrine autoinjector administration during food challenges on perceived parent confidence
Timothy Teoh, Christopher Mill, Tiffany Wong, Ingrid Baerg, Angela Alexander, Kyla J. Hildebrand, John Dean, Boris Kuzeljevic, Edmond S. Chan
A28 Local immunoglobulin production to Aspergillus fumigatus cystic fibrosis
Jonathan Argeny, Mia Gona-Hoepler, Petra Fucik, Edith Nachbaur, Saskia Gruber, Reto Crameri, Andreas Glaser, Zsolt Szépfalusi, Claudio Rhyner, Thomas Eiwegger
A29 Extract consumption with skin prick test (SPT) devices
Greg. Plunkett, Brad Mire
A30 Evaluation of our cases with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug reactions
Mehtap Yazicioglu, Ceren Can, Gokce Ciplak
A31 Reasons for referral and final diagnoses in a tertiary care pediatric allergy clinic
Victoria E. Cook, Kyla J. Hildebrand, Elodie Portales-Casamar, Christopher Mill, Edmond S. Chan
A32 Internist referral practices for inpatients with self-reported penicillin allergies at a tertiary care teaching hospital
Michael N Fein, Emil P Nashi
A33 Assessing the risk of reactions in children with a negative oral challenge after a subsequent use of amoxicillin
Sofianne Gabrielli, Christopher Mill, Marie-Noel Primeau, Christine Lejtenyi, Elena Netchiporouk, Alizee Dery, Greg Shand, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
A34 Validity of self-reported penicillin allergies
Erica Hoe, Joel Liem
A35 Effectiveness of allergy-test directed elimination diets in eosinophilic esophagitis
Jason K. Ko, David J.T. Huang, Jorge A. Mazza
A36 Allergy testing and dietary management in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE): A retrospective review of a tertiary Canadian centre’s experience
Mary McHenry, Anthony Otley,Wade Watson
A37 Visualizing the impact of atopic and allergic skin disease
Dominik A. Nowak, John N. Kraft
A38 Cystic fibrosis with and without nasal polyposis in pediatric patients: a cross-sectional comparative study
Mihaela Paina, Ahmed A. Darwish Hassan, Delia Heroux, Lynn Crawford, Gail Gauvreau, Judah Denburg, Linda Pedder, Paul K. Keith
A39 Evaluation of macrolide antibiotic hypersensitivity: the role of oral challenges in children
Bahar Torabi, Marie-Noel Primeau, Christine Lejtenyi, Elaine Medoff, Jennifer Mill, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
A40 Venom allergy testing: is a graded approach necessary?
Jaclyn A. Quirt, Xia Wen, Jonathan Kim, Angel Jimenez Herrero, Harold L. Kim
A41 The role of oral challenges in evaluating cephalosporin hypersensitivity reactions in children
Magdalena J. Grzyb, Marie-Noël Primeau, Christine Lejtenyi, Elaine Medoff, Jennifer Mill, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
A42 Breastfeeding and infant wheeze, atopy and atopic dermatitis: findings from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Study
Meghan B. Azad, Zihang Lu, Allan B. Becker, Padmaja Subbarao, Piushkumar J. Mandhane, Stuart E. Turvey, Malcolm R. Sears, the CHILD Study Investigators
A43 IL33 DNA methylation in bronchial epithelial cells is associated to asthma
Anne-Marie Boucher-Lafleur, Valérie Gagné-Ouellet, Éric Jacques, Sophie Plante, Jamila Chakir, Catherine Laprise
A44 NRF2 mediates the antioxidant response to organic dust-induced oxidative stress in bronchial epithelial cells
Michael Chen, Toby McGovern, Mikael Adner, James G. Martin
A45 The effects of perinatal distress, immune biomarkers and mother-infant interaction quality on childhood atopic dermatitis (rash) at 18 months
Nela Cosic, Henry Ntanda, Gerald Giesbrecht, Anita Kozyrskyj, Nicole Letourneau
A46 Examining the immunological mechanisms associated with cow’s milk allergy
Bassel Dawod, Jean Marshall
A47 Tryptase levels in children presenting with anaphylaxis to the Montréal Children’s Hospital
Sarah De Schryver, Michelle Halbrich, Ann Clarke, Sebastian La Vieille, Harley Eisman, Reza Alizadehfar, Lawrence Joseph, Judy Morris, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
A48 Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in infancy and the development of food hypersensitivity from childhood to adolescence
Laura Y. Feldman, Jesse D. Thacher, Inger Kull, Erik Melén, Göran Pershagen, Magnus Wickman, Jennifer L. P. Protudjer, Anna Bergström
A49 Combined exposure to diesel exhaust and allergen enhances allergic inflammation in the bronchial submucosa of atopic subjects
Ali Hosseini, Tillie L. Hackett, Jeremy Hirota, Kelly McNagny, Susan Wilson, Chris Carlsten
A50 Comparison of skin-prick test measurements by an automated system against the manual method
Saiful Huq, Rishma Chooniedass, Brenda Gerwing, Henry Huang, Diana Lefebvre, Allan Becker
A51 The accurate identification and quantification of urinary biomarkers of asthma and COPD through the use of novel DIL- LC-MS/MS methods
Mona M. Khamis, Hanan Awad, Kevin Allen, Darryl J. Adamko, Anas El-Aneed
A52 Systemic immune pathways associated with the mechanism of Cat-Synthetic Peptide Immuno-Regulatory Epitopes, a novel immunotherapy, in whole blood of cat-allergic people
Young Woong Kim, Daniel R. Gliddon, Casey P. Shannon, Amrit Singh, Pascal L. C. Hickey, Anne K. Ellis, Helen Neighbour, Mark Larche, Scott J. Tebbutt
A53 Reducing the health disparities: online support for children with asthma and allergies from low-income families
Erika Ladouceur, Miriam Stewart, Josh Evans, Jeff Masuda, Nicole Letourneau, Teresa To, Malcolm King
A54 Epigenetic association of PSORS1C1 and asthma in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean asthma study
Miriam Larouche, Liming Liang, Catherine Laprise
A55 IL-33 induces cytokine and chemokine production in human mast cells
Stephanie A. Legere, Ian D. Haidl, Jean-Francois Legaré, Jean S. Marshall
A56 Reference ranges for lung clearance index from infancy to adolescence for Canadian population
Zihang Lu, Malcolm Sears, Theo J. Moraes, Felix Ratjen, Per Gustafsson, Wendy Lou, Padmaja Subbarao
A57 Kingston Allergy Birth Cohort: cohort profile and mother/child characteristics to age 2
Michelle L. North, Elizabeth Lee, Vanessa Omana, Jenny Thiele, Jeff Brook, Anne K. Ellis
A58 Cow’s milk protein specific IgE, IgA and IgG4 as a predictor of outcome in oral immunotherapy
Tanvir Rahman, Duncan Lejtenyi, Sarah De Schryver, Ryan Fiter, Ciriaco Piccirillo, Moshe Ben-Shoshan, Bruce Mazer
A59 Age of peanut introduction and development of reactions and sensitization to peanut
Elinor Simons, Allan B. Becker, Rishma Chooniedass, Kyla Hildebrand, Edmond S. Chan, Stuart Turvey, Padmaja Subbarao, Malcolm Sears
A60 Multi-omic blood biomarker signatures of the late phase asthmatic response
Amrit Singh, Casey P. Shannon, Young Woong Kim, Mari DeMarco, Kim-Anh Le Cao, Gail M. Gauvreau, J. Mark FitzGerald, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Paul M. O’Byrne, Scott J. Tebbutt
A61 Early life gut microbial alterations in children diagnosed with asthma by three years of age
Leah T. Stiemsma, Marie-Claire Arrieta, Jasmine Cheng, Pedro A. Dimitriu, Lisa Thorson, Sophie Yurist, Boris Kuzeljevic, Diana L. Lefebvre, Padmaja Subbarao, Piush Mandhane, Allan Becker, Malcolm R. Sears, Kelly M. McNagny, Tobias Kollmann, the CHILD Study Investigators, William W. Mohn, B. Brett Finlay, Stuart E. Turvey
A62 The relationship between food sensitization and atopic dermatitis at age 1 year in a Canadian birth cohort
Maxwell M. Tran, Diana L. Lefebvre, Chinthanie F. Ramasundarahettige, Allan B. Becker, Wei Hao Dai, Padmaja Subbarao, Piush J. Mandhane, Stuart E. Turvey, Malcolm R. Sears
A63 Allergen inhalation enhances Toll-like receptor-induced thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor expression by hematopoietic progenitor cells in mild asthmatics
Damian Tworek, Delia Heroux, Seamus N. O’Byrne, Paul M. O’Byrne, Judah A. Denburg
A64 The Allergic Rhinitis Clinical Investigator Collaborative – replicated eosinophilia on repeated cumulative allergen challenges in nasal lavage samples
Laura Walsh, Mena Soliman, Jenny Thiele, Lisa M. Steacy, Daniel E. Adams, Anne K. Ellis
A65 The CHILD Study: optimizing subject retention in pediatric longitudinal cohort research
Linda Warner, Mary Ann Mauro, Robby Mamonluk, Stuart E. Turvey
A66 Differential expression of C3a and C5a in allergic asthma
ChenXi Yang, Amrit Singh, Casey P. Shannon, Young Woong Kim, Ed M. Conway, Scott J. Tebbutt
doi:10.1186/s13223-016-0118-0
PMCID: PMC5009563
9.  Yoga in Rheumatic Diseases 
Current rheumatology reports  2013;15(12):387.
Yoga is a popular activity which may be well suited for some individuals with certain rheumatic disorders. Regular yoga practice can increase muscle strength and endurance, proprioception and balance, with emphasis on movement through a full range of motion to increase flexibility and mobility. Additional beneficial elements of yoga include breathing, relaxation, body awareness and meditation, which can reduce stress and anxiety and promote a sense of calmness, general well-being and improved quality of life. Yoga also encourages a meditative focus, increased body awareness and mindfulness; some evidence suggests yoga may help decrease inflammatory mediators including C-reactive protein and interleukin-6. Yoga is best learned under the supervision of qualified teachers who are well informed about the potential musculoskeletal needs of each individual. Here, we briefly review the literature on yoga in healthy, musculoskeletal, and rheumatic disease populations and offer recommendations for discussing ways to begin yoga with patients.
doi:10.1007/s11926-013-0387-2
PMCID: PMC4415519  PMID: 24173693
yoga; rheumatic diseases; arthritis; osteoarthritis; rheumatoid arthritis; system lupus erythematosus
11.  Diagnosis and management of food allergies: new and emerging options: a systematic review 
It is reported that 6% of children and 3% of adults have food allergies, with studies suggesting increased prevalence worldwide over the last few decades. Despite this, our diagnostic capabilities and techniques for managing patients with food allergies remain limited. We have conducted a systematic review of literature published within the last 5 years on the diagnosis and management of food allergies. While the gold standard for diagnosis remains the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, this assessment is resource intensive and impractical in most clinical situations. In an effort to reduce the need for the double-blind, placebo-controlled food challenge, several risk-stratifying tests are employed, namely skin prick testing, measurement of serum-specific immunoglobulin E levels, component testing, and open food challenges. Management of food allergies typically involves allergen avoidance and carrying an epinephrine autoinjector. Clinical research trials of oral immunotherapy for some foods, including peanut, milk, egg, and peach, are under way. While oral immunotherapy is promising, its readiness for clinical application is controversial. In this review, we assess the latest studies published on the above diagnostic and management modalities, as well as novel strategies in the diagnosis and management of food allergy.
doi:10.2147/JAA.S49277
PMCID: PMC4216032  PMID: 25368525
skin prick testing; oral challenge; specific IgE; component testing; oral immunotherapy; epinephrine autoinjector
12.  Draft Genome Sequence of Acetobacter aceti Strain 1023, a Vinegar Factory Isolate 
Genome Announcements  2014;2(3):e00550-14.
The genome sequence of Acetobacter aceti 1023, an acetic acid bacterium adapted to traditional vinegar fermentation, comprises 3.0 Mb (chromosome plus plasmids). A. aceti 1023 is closely related to the cocoa fermenter Acetobacter pasteurianus 386B but possesses many additional insertion sequence elements.
doi:10.1128/genomeA.00550-14
PMCID: PMC4047455  PMID: 24903876
13.  Multiple Functional Motifs Are Required for the Tumor Suppressor Activity of a Constitutively-Active ErbB4 Mutant 
ErbB4 (HER4) is a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases, which includes the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR/ErbB1), ErbB2 (HER2/Neu), and ErbB3 (HER3). Mounting evidence indicates that ErbB4, unlike EGFR or ErbB2, functions as a tumor suppressor in many human malignancies. Previous analyses of the constitutively-dimerized and –active ErbB4 Q646C mutant indicate that ErbB4 kinase activity and phosphorylation of ErbB4 Tyr1056 are both required for the tumor suppressor activity of this mutant in human breast, prostate, and pancreatic cancer cell lines. However, the cytoplasmic region of ErbB4 possesses additional putative functional motifs, and the contributions of these functional motifs to ErbB4 tumor suppressor activity have been largely underexplored. Here we demonstrate that ErbB4 BH3 and LXXLL motifs, which are thought to mediate interactions with Bcl family proteins and steroid hormone receptors, respectively, are required for the tumor suppressor activity of the ErbB4 Q646C mutant. Furthermore, abrogation of the site of ErbB4 cleavage by gamma-secretase also disrupts the tumor suppressor activity of the ErbB4 Q646C mutant. This last result suggests that ErbB4 cleavage and subcellular trafficking of the ErbB4 cytoplasmic domain may be required for the tumor suppressor activity of the ErbB4 Q646C mutant. Indeed, here we demonstrate that mutants that disrupt ErbB4 kinase activity, ErbB4 phosphorylation at Tyr1056, or ErbB4 cleavage by gamma-secretase also disrupt ErbB4 trafficking away from the plasma membrane and to the cytoplasm. This supports a model for ErbB4 function in which ErbB4 tumor suppressor activity is dependent on ErbB4 trafficking away from the plasma membrane and to the cytoplasm, mitochondria, and/or the nucleus.
PMCID: PMC4002051  PMID: 24791013
ErbB4/HER4; Signal Transduction; Tumor Suppressor; Protein Trafficking
14.  Autocrine-Derived Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Ligands Contribute to Recruitment of Tumor-Associated Macrophage and Growth of Basal Breast Cancer Cells In Vivo 
Oncology research  2013;20(7):303-317.
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression has been linked to progression of basal breast cancers. Many breast cancer cells harbor the EGFR and produce its family of ligands, suggesting they may participate in autocrine and paracrine signaling with cells of the tumor microenvironment. EGFR ligand expression was profiled in the basal breast cancer cell line MDA-231 where AREG, TGF-α, and HBEGF were the three ligands most highly expressed. Autocrine signaling was modulated through silencing or overexpression of these three ligands using lentiviral constructs and the impact measured using motility, proliferation, and cytokine expression assays. Changes in receptor phosphorylation and receptor turnover were examined. Knockdown of AREG or TGF-α in vitro resulted in decreased motility (p < 0.05) and decreased expression of macrophage chemoattractants. Overexpression of TGF-α increased motility and chemoattractant expression, whereas AREG did not. HBEGF modulation had no effect on any cellular behaviors. All the cells with altered ligand production were inoculated into female athymic nude mice to form mammary fat pad tumors, followed by immunohistochemical analysis for necrosis, angiogenesis, and macrophage recruitment. In vivo, knockdown of AREG or TGF-α increased survival (p < 0.001) while decreasing angiogenesis (p < 0.001), tumor growth (p < 0.001), and macrophage attraction (p < 0.001). Overexpression of AREG appeared to elicit a greater effect than TGF-α on mammary fat pad tumor growth by increasing angiogenesis (p < 0.001) and macrophage attraction to the tumor (p < 0.01). We propose these changes in mammary tumor growth were the result of increased recruitment of macrophages to the tumor by cells with altered autocrine EGFR signaling. We conclude that AREG and TGF-α were somewhat interchangeable in their effects on EGFR signaling; however, TGF-α had a greater effect in vitro and AREG had a greater effect in vivo.
PMCID: PMC3984049  PMID: 23879171
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR); Amphiregulin; Breast cancer; Transforming growth factor-α (TGF-α); Macrophage colony-stimulating factor-1 (MCSF-1)
15.  EGFR ligands exhibit functional differences in models of paracrine and autocrine signaling 
Epidermal growth factor (EGF) family peptides are ligands for the EGF receptor (EGFR). Here, we elucidate functional differences among EGFR ligands and mechanisms underlying these distinctions. In 32D/EGFR myeloid and MCF10A breast cells, soluble amphiregulin (AR), transforming growth factor alpha (TGFα), neuregulin 2 beta, and epigen stimulate greater EGFR coupling to cell proliferation and DNA synthesis than do EGF, betacellulin, heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor, and epiregulin. EGF competitively antagonizes AR, indicating that its functional differences reflect dissimilar intrinsic activity at EGFR. EGF stimulates much greater phosphorylation of EGFR Tyr1045 than does AR. Moreover, the EGFR Y1045F mutation and z-cbl dominant-negative mutant of the c-cbl ubiquitin ligase potentiate the effect of EGF but not of AR. Both EGF and AR stimulate phosphorylation of EGFR Tyr992. However, the EGFR Y992F mutation and phospholipase C gamma inhibitor U73122 reduce the effect of AR much more than that of EGF. Expression of TGFα in 32D/EGFR cells causes greater EGFR coupling to cell proliferation than does expression of EGF. Moreover, expression of EGF in 32D/EGFR cells causes these cells to be largely refractory to stimulation with soluble EGF. Thus, EGFR ligands are functionally distinct in models of paracrine and autocrine signaling and EGFR coupling to biological responses may be specified by competition among functionally distinct EGFR ligands.
doi:10.3109/08977194.2011.649918
PMCID: PMC3962550  PMID: 22260327
Amphiregulin; EGF; TGFα; EGF receptor; ligand specificity; autocrine and paracrine growth regulation
16.  The Q43L mutant of neuregulin 2β is a pan-ErbB receptor antagonist 
The Biochemical journal  2012;443(1):133-144.
The ErbB4 receptor tyrosine kinase possesses both tumour suppressor and oncogenic activities. Thus pharmacological agents are needed to help elucidate ErbB4 functions. However, limitations of existing ErbB4 agonists and antagonists have led us to seek novel ErbB4 antagonists. The Q43L mutant of the ErbB4 agonist NRG2β (neuregulin 2β) stimulates ErbB4 tyrosine phosphorylation, yet fails to stimulate ErbB4 coupling to cell proliferation. Thus in the present paper we hypothesize that NRG2β/Q43L may be an ErbB4 antagonist. NRG2β/Q43L competitively antagonizes agonist stimulation of ErbB4 coupling to cell proliferation. NRG2β/Q43L stimulates less ErbB4 tyrosine phosphorylation than does NRG2β. In addition, NRG2β stimulation of cell proliferation requires PI3K (phosphoinositide 3-kinase) activity and NRG2β stimulates greater Akt phosphorylation than does NRG2β/Q43L. Moreover, EGFR [EGF (epidermal growth factor) receptor] kinase activity (but not that of ErbB4) is critical for coupling ErbB4 to proliferation. Experiments utilizing ErbB4 splicing isoforms and mutants suggest that NRG2β and NRG2β/Q43L may differentially stimulate ErbB4 coupling to the transcriptional co-regulator YAP (Yes-associated protein). Finally, NRG2β/Q43L competitively antagonizes agonist stimulation of EGFR and ErbB2/ErbB3, indicating that NRG2β/Q43L is a pan-ErbB antagonist. Thus we postulate that NRG2β/Q43L and other antagonistic ligands stimulate ErbB tyrosine phosphorylation on a set of residues distinct from that stimulated by agonists, thus suggesting a novel mechanism of ErbB receptor regulation. Moreover, NRG2β/Q43L and related ligand-based antagonists establish a paradigm for the discovery of anti-ErbB therapeutics.
doi:10.1042/BJ20110921
PMCID: PMC3960720  PMID: 22216880
antagonist; epidermal growth factor receptor; ErbB3; ErbB4; neuregulin
18.  A High Throughput, Interactive Imaging, Bright-Field Wound Healing Assay 
Cytometry  2011;79(3):227-232.
The wound healing assay is a commonly used technique to measure cell motility and migration. Traditional methods of performing the wound healing assay suffer from low throughput and a lack of quantitative data analysis. We have developed a new method to perform a high-throughput wound healing assay that produces quantitative data using the LEAP™ instrument. The LEAP™ instrument is used to create reproducible wounds in each well of a 96-well plate by laser ablation. The LEAP™ then records bright field images of each well at several time points. A custom texture segmentation algorithm is used to determine the wound area of each well at each time point. This texture segmentation analysis can provide faster and more accurate image analysis than traditional methods. Experimental results show that reproducible wounds are created by laser ablation with a wound area that varies by less than 10%. This method was tested by confirming that neuregulin-2β increases the rate of wound healing by MCF7 cells in a dose dependent manner. This automated wound healing assay has greatly improved the speed and accuracy, making it a suitable high-throughput method for drug screening.
doi:10.1002/cyto.a.21029
PMCID: PMC3306835  PMID: 22045642
wound healing assay; quantitative image analysis; image cytometry; high-throughput screening; interactive imaging; LEAP
19.  Ligand Stimulation of ErbB4 and A Constitutively-Active ErbB4 Mutant Result in Different Biological Responses In Human Pancreatic Tumor Cell Lines 
Experimental cell research  2010;317(4):392-404.
Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer death in the United States. Indeed, it has been estimated that 37,000 Americans will die from this disease in 2010. Late diagnosis, chemoresistance, and radioresistance of these tumors are major reasons for poor patient outcome, spurring the search for pancreatic cancer early diagnostic and therapeutic targets. ErbB4 (HER4) is a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), a family that also includes the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR/ErbB1/HER1), Neu/ErbB2/HER2, and ErbB3/HER3. These RTKs play central roles in many human malignancies by regulating cell proliferation, survival, differentiation, invasiveness, motility, and apoptosis. In this report we demonstrate that human pancreatic tumor cell lines exhibit minimal ErbB4 expression; in contrast, these cell lines exhibit varied and in some cases abundant expression and basal tyrosine phosphorylation of EGFR, ErbB2, and ErbB3. Expression of a constitutively-dimerized and -active ErbB4 mutant inhibits clonogenic proliferation of CaPan-1, HPAC, MIA PaCa-2, and PANC-1 pancreatic tumor cell lines. In contrast, expression of wild-type ErbB4 in pancreatic tumor cell lines potentiates stimulation of anchorage-independent colony formation by the ErbB4 ligand Neuregulin1β. These results illustrate the multiple roles that ErbB4 may be playing in pancreatic tumorigenesis and tumor progression.
doi:10.1016/j.yexcr.2010.11.007
PMCID: PMC3022118  PMID: 21110957
ErbB4/HER4; ErbB2/HER2/Neu; Pancreatic Cancer; Signal Transduction; Tumor Suppressor; Oncogene
20.  ErbB2 Is Necessary for ErbB4 Ligands to Stimulate Oncogenic Activities in Models of Human Breast Cancer 
Genes & Cancer  2011;2(8):792-804.
ErbB4 is a member of the ErbB family of receptor tyrosine kinases. This family includes ErbB2 (HER2/Neu), a validated therapeutic target in breast cancer. Several studies indicate that ErbB4 functions as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer, whereas others indicate that ErbB4 functions as an oncogene. Here the authors explore the context in which ErbB4 functions as an oncogene. Silencing expression of either ErbB2 or ErbB4 in breast tumor cell lines results in reduced stimulation of anchorage independence and cell motility by the ErbB4 agonist neuregulin 2β. ErbB2 tyrosine kinase activity, but not ErbB4 tyrosine kinase activity, is required for neuregulin 2β to stimulate cell proliferation. Moreover, sites of ErbB4 tyrosine phosphorylation, but not sites of ErbB2 tyrosine phosphorylation, are required for neuregulin 2β to couple to cell proliferation. These data suggest that targeting ErbB2 expression or tyrosine kinase activity may be effective in treating ErbB4-dependent breast tumors, even those tumors that lack ErbB2 overexpression.
doi:10.1177/1947601911431080
PMCID: PMC3278901  PMID: 22393464
ErbB2; ErbB4; crosstalk; breast cancer; invasiveness; motility
21.  EGFR may couple moderate alcohol consumption to increased breast cancer risk 
Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Nonetheless, the mechanism by which alcohol contributes to breast tumor initiation or progression has yet to be definitively established. Studies using cultured human tumor cell lines have identified signaling molecules that may contribute to the effects of alcohol, including reactive oxygen species and other ethanol metabolites, matrix metalloproteases, the ErbB2/Her2/Neu receptor tyrosine kinase, cytoplasmic protein kinases, adenylate cyclase, E-cadherins, estrogen receptor, and a variety of transcription factors. Emerging data suggest that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase may contribute to breast cancer genesis and progression. Here we integrate these findings and propose three mechanisms by which alcohol contributes to breast cancer. A common feature of these mechanisms is increased EGFR signaling. Finally, we discuss how these mechanisms suggest strategies for addressing the risks associated with alcohol consumption.
PMCID: PMC2872252  PMID: 24367161
alcohol; breast cancer risk factor; EGF receptor; matrix metalloprotease
22.  EGFR may couple moderate alcohol consumption to increased breast cancer risk 
Alcohol consumption is an established risk factor for breast cancer. Nonetheless, the mechanism by which alcohol contributes to breast tumor initiation or progression has yet to be definitively established. Studies using cultured human tumor cell lines have identified signaling molecules that may contribute to the effects of alcohol, including reactive oxygen species and other ethanol metabolites, matrix metalloproteases, the ErbB2/Her2/Neu receptor tyrosine kinase, cytoplasmic protein kinases, adenylate cyclase, E-cadherins, estrogen receptor, and a variety of transcription factors. Emerging data suggest that the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase may contribute to breast cancer genesis and progression. Here we integrate these findings and propose three mechanisms by which alcohol contributes to breast cancer. A common feature of these mechanisms is increased EGFR signaling. Finally, we discuss how these mechanisms suggest strategies for addressing the risks associated with alcohol consumption.
PMCID: PMC2872252  PMID: 24367161
alcohol; breast cancer risk factor; EGF receptor; matrix metalloprotease
23.  Inter-conversion of Neuregulin2 full and partial agonists for ErbB4 
The EGF family hormone NRG2β potently stimulates ErbB4 tyrosine phosphorylation and coupling to IL3 independence. In contrast, the NRG2α splicing isoform has lower affinity for ErbB4, does not potently stimulate ErbB4 phosphorylation, and fails to stimulate ErbB4 coupling. Here we investigate these differences. The NRG2β Q43L mutant potently stimulates ErbB4 phosphorylation but not ErbB4 coupling to IL3 independence. This failure to stimulate ErbB4 coupling is not due to differential ligand purity, glycosylation, or stability. The NRG2α K45F mutant potently stimulates ErbB4 phosphorylation but not ErbB4 coupling to IL3 independence. Thus, this failure to stimulate ErbB4 coupling is not due to inadequate affinity for ErbB4. In contrast, the NRG2α L43Q/K45F mutant stimulates ErbB4 coupling, even though it does not have greater affinity for ErbB4 than does NRG2α/K45F. Collectively, these data indicate that Gln43 of NRG2β is both necessary and sufficient for NRG2 stimulation of ErbB4 coupling to IL3 independence.
doi:10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.10.004
PMCID: PMC2094732  PMID: 17945187
Differential efficacy; ErbB4; Neuregulin; Signal transduction; Partial and full agonists

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