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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology annual scientific meeting 2016 
Alsayegh, Mohammad A. | Alshamali, Hanan | Khadada, Mousa | Ciccolini, Amanda | Ellis, Anne K. | Quint, Diana | Powley, William | Lee, Laurie | Fiteih, Yahya | Baksh, Shairaz | Vliagoftis, Harissios | Gerega, Sebastien K. | Millson, Brad | Charland, Katia | Barakat, Stephane | Sun, Xichun | Jimenez, Ricardo | Waserman, Susan | FitzGerald, Mark J. | Hébert, Jacques | Cognet-Sicé, Josiane | Renahan, Kevin E. | Huq, Saiful | Chooniedass, Rishma | Sawyer, Scott | Pasterkamp, Hans | Becker, Allan | Smith, Steven G. | Zhang, Shiyuan | Jayasundara, Kavisha | Tacon, Claire | Simidchiev, Alex | Nadeau, Gilbert | Gunsoy, Necdet | Mullerova, Hana | Albers, Frank | Kim, Young Woong | Shannon, Casey P. | Singh, Amrit | Neighbour, Helen | Larché, Mark | Tebbutt, Scott J. | Klopp, Annika | Vehling, Lorena | Becker, Allan B. | Subbarao, Padmaja | Mandhane, Piushkumar J. | Turvey, Stuart E. | Sears, Malcolm R. | Azad, Meghan B. | Loewen, Keely | Monchka, Barret | Mahmud, Salaheddin M. | Jong, Geert ‘t | Longo, Cristina | Bartlett, Gillian | Ducharme, Francine M. | Schuster, Tibor | MacGibbon, Brenda | Barnett, Tracie | North, Michelle L. | Brook, Jeff | Lee, Elizabeth | Omana, Vanessa | Thiele, Jenny | Steacy, Lisa M. | Evans, Greg | Diamond, Miriam | Sussman, Gordon L. | Amistani, Yann | Abiteboul, Kathy | Tenn, Mark W. | Yang, ChenXi | Carlsten, Christopher | Conway, Edward M. | Mack, Douglas | Othman, Yasmin | Barber, Colin M. | Kalicinsky, Chrystyna | Burke, Andrea E. | Messieh, Mary | Nair, Parameswaran | Che, Chun T. | Douglas, Lindsay | Liem, Joel | Duan, Lucy | Miller, Charlotte | Dupuis, Pascale | Connors, Lori A. | Fein, Michael N. | Shuster, Joseph | Hadi, Hani | Polk, Brooke | Raje, Nikita | Labrosse, Roxane | Bégin, Philippe | Paradis, Louis | Roches, Anne Des | Lacombe-Barrios, Jonathan | Mishra, Sanju | Lacuesta, Gina | Chiasson, Meredith | Haroon, Babar | Robertson, Kara | Issekutz, Thomas | Leddin, Desmond | Couban, Stephen | Connors, Lori | Roos, Adrienne | Kanani, Amin | Chan, Edmond S. | Schellenberg, Robert | Rosenfield, Lana | Cvetkovic, Anna | Woodward, Kevin | Quirt, Jaclyn | Watson, Wade T. A. | Castilho, Edson | Sullivan, Jennifer A. | Temple, Beverley | Martin, Donna | Cook, Victoria E. | Mills, Christopher | Portales-Casamar, Elodie | Fu, Lisa W. | Ho, Alexander | Zaltzman, Jeffrey | Chen, Lucy | Vadas, Peter | Gabrielli, Sofianne | Clarke, Ann | Eisman, Harley | Morris, Judy | Joseph, Lawrence | LaVieille, Sebastien | Ben-Shoshan, Moshe | Graham, François | Barnes, Charles | Portnoy, Jay | Stagg, Vincent | Simons, Elinor | Lefebvre, Diana | Dai, David | Mandhane, Piushkumar | Sears, Malcolm | Tam, Herman | Simons, F. Estelle R. | Alotaibi, Dhaifallah | Dawod, Bassel | Tunis, Matthew C. | Marshall, Jean | Desjardins, Marylin | Béland, Marianne | Lejtenyi, Duncan | Drolet, Jean-Phillipe | Lemire, Martine | Tsoukas, Christos | Noya, Francisco J.D. | Alizadehfar, Reza | McCusker, Christine T. | Mazer, Bruce D. | Maestre-Batlle, Danay | Gunawan, Evelyn | Rider, Christopher F. | Bølling, Anette K. | Pena, Olga M. | Suez, Daniel | Melamed, Isaac | Hussain, Iftikhar | Stein, Mark | Gupta, Sudhir | Paris, Kenneth | Fritsch, Sandor | Bourgeois, Christelle | Leibl, Heinz | McCoy, Barbara | Noel, Martin | Yel, Leman | Scott, Ori | Reid, Brenda | Atkinson, Adelle | Kim, Vy Hong-Diep | Roifman, Chaim M. | Grunebaum, Eyal | AlSelahi, Eiman | Aleman, Fernando | Oberle, Amber | Trus, Mike | Sussman, Gordon | Kanani, Amin S. | Chambenoi, Olivier | Chiva-Razavi, Sima | Grodecki, Savannah | Joshi, Nikhil | Menikefs, Peter | Holt, David | Pun, Teresa | Tworek, Damian | Hanna, Raphael | Heroux, Delia | Rosenberg, Elli | Stiemsma, Leah | Turvey, Stuart | Denburg, Judah | Mill, Christopher | Teoh, Timothy | Zimmer, Preeti | Avinashi, Vishal | Paina, Mihaela | Darwish Hassan, Ahmed A. | Oliveria, John Paul | Olesovsky, Chris | Gauvreau, Gail | Pedder, Linda | Keith, Paul K. | Plunkett, Greg | Bolner, Michelle | Pourshahnazari, Persia | Stark, Donald | Vostretsova, Kateryna | Moses, Andrew | Wakeman, Andrew | Singer, Alexander | Gerstner, Thomas | Abrams, Elissa | Johnson, Sara F. | Woodgate, Roberta L.
PMCID: PMC5390240
2.  Primum non nocere—first do no harm. And then feed peanut 
The Addendum Guidelines for the Prevention of Peanut Allergy in the United States—Report of the NIAID-Sponsored Expert Panel were developed to build on previous food allergy guidelines after several key studies demonstrated the benefit of early introduction of allergenic foods. These landmark studies including the Learning Early about Peanut (LEAP), LEAP-On and Enquiring about Tolerance trials created a paradigm shift in food allergy prevention. The “take home” messages of this guideline include that peanut should be introduced early in the first year of life, and for the majority of infants, peanut can be introduced at home. The only group of infants for which medical assessment is recommended is those with severe eczema, egg allergy or both. Here we summarize the Guideline recommendations, endorsed by the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, and highlight important aspects relevant to Canadian practitioners.
PMCID: PMC5299733
Peanut allergy; Prevention; High-risk; Infant
3.  T-cell receptor phenotype pattern in atopic children using commercial fluorescently labeled antibodies against 21 human class-specific v segments for the tcrβ chain (vβ) of peripheral blood: a cross sectional study 
T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoire development is an integral part of the adaptive immune response. T-cell activation requires recognition of appropriately processed antigens by the TCR. Development of a diverse repertoire of TCRs is therefore essential to ensure adequate protection from potential threats. The majority of T-cells in peripheral blood have TCRs composed of an alpha and a beta chain. At the DNA level, the TCR genes are formed through directed recombination from germline sequences—the so-called VDJ recombination [variable (V) joining (J) diversity (D) gene segments] which results in variations in the repertoire. The most variable part of TCRs is the Vβ region (VβTCR), which has multiple V segment families that can be quantitatively measured. However, only sparse data exists on the normal levels of the VβTCR repertoire in healthy children. We aimed to establish normal values for the VβTCR repertoire in atopic children without immunodeficiency.
Fifty-three children were recruited from food allergy, drug allergy, chronic urticaria and anaphylaxis registries and were divided into groups based on age: >0–2 years, 3–6 years, and 6–18 years. We used commercially available and fluorescently labeled antibodies against 21 human class-specific V segments of the TCRβ chain (Vβ) to study in peripheral blood the quantitative pattern of Vβ variation by flow cytometry.
Children of all ages exhibited a similar pattern of TCR Vβ expression. Vβ 2 was the most commonly expressed family in all three age groups [9.5 % (95 % CI, 8.9, 10 %), 8.8 % (95 % CI, 7.4, 10.2 %) and 7.6 % (7.0, 8.3 %) respectively]. However, the percentage of Vβ 2 decreased in older children and the percentage of Vβ 1 was higher in males. TCR Vβ expression in our sample of atopic children did not differ substantially from previously published levels in non-atopic cohorts.
TCR Vβ diversity follows a predictable and comparable pattern in atopic and healthy non-atopic children. Establishing normal levels for healthy children with and without atopy will contribute to a better definition of Vβ receptor deviation in children with primary immunodeficiency and/or immunodysregulation conditions.
PMCID: PMC4776431  PMID: 26941803
4.  The Extended Clinical Phenotype of 26 Patients with Chronic Mucocutaneous Candidiasis due to Gain-of-Function Mutations in STAT1 
Gain-of-function (GOF) mutations in the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) result in unbalanced STAT signaling and cause immune dysregulation and immunodeficiency. The latter is often characterized by the susceptibility to recurrent Candida infections, resulting in the clinical picture of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). This study aims to assess the frequency of GOF STAT1 mutations in a large international cohort of CMC patients.
STAT1 was sequenced in genomic DNA from 57 CMC patients and 35 healthy family members. The functional relevance of nine different STAT1 variants was shown by flow cytometric analysis of STAT1 phosphorylation in patients’ peripheral blood cells (PBMC) after stimulation with interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-γ or interleukin-27 respectively. Extended clinical data sets were collected and summarized for 26 patients.
Heterozygous mutations within STAT1 were identified in 35 of 57 CMC patients (61 %). Out of 39 familial cases from 11 families, 26 patients (67 %) from 9 families and out of 18 sporadic cases, 9 patients (50 %) were shown to have heterozygous mutations within STAT1. Thirteen distinct STAT1 mutations are reported in this paper. Eight of these mutations are known to cause CMC (p.M202V, p.A267V, p.R274W, p.R274Q, p.T385M, p.K388E, p.N397D, and p.F404Y). However, five STAT1 variants (p.F172L, p.Y287D, p.P293S, p.T385K and p.S466R) have not been reported before in CMC patients.
STAT1 mutations are frequently observed in patients suffering from CMC. Thus, sequence analysis of STAT1 in CMC patients is advised. Measurement of IFN- or IL-induced STAT1 phosphorylation in PBMC provides a fast and reliable diagnostic tool and should be carried out in addition to genetic testing.
PMCID: PMC4718942  PMID: 26604104
Chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis; CMC; primary immunodeficiency; PID; signal transducer and activator of transcription 1; STAT1; gain-of-function; GOF; phosphorylation
5.  Critical upper airway obstruction in sporadic angioedema responding to C1-esterase inhibitor 
BMJ Case Reports  2013;2013:bcr2013009616.
We describe a case of recurrent oropharyngeal angioedema in a 16-year-old boy with a history of sickle cell disease and thrombocytopenia and with no family history of angioedema. Emergency treatment of angioedema with C1-esterase inhibitor (C1-INH) provided immediate relief, avoiding the placement of a surgical airway. Further evaluation has shown C1-INH to be normal in quantity and function, with normal complement studies during acute attacks. Genetic testing revealed no abnormality in the factor XII gene. Our case exemplifies that even in cases of sporadic angioedema, treatment with C1-INH may be an effective and life-saving management strategy.
PMCID: PMC3669871  PMID: 23661661
6.  Canadian hereditary angioedema guideline 
Hereditary angioedema (HAE) is a disease which is associated with random and often unpredictable attacks of painful swelling typically affecting the extremities, bowel mucosa, genitals, face and upper airway. Attacks are associated with significant functional impairment, decreased Health Related Quality of Life, and mortality in the case of laryngeal attacks. Caring for patients with HAE can be challenging due to the complexity of this disease. The care of patients with HAE in Canada is neither optimal nor uniform across the country. It lags behind other countries where there are more organized models for HAE management, and where additional therapeutic options are licensed and available for use. The objective of this guideline is to provide graded recommendations for the management of patients in Canada with HAE. This includes the treatment of attacks, short-term prophylaxis, long-term prophylaxis, and recommendations for self-administration, individualized therapy, quality of life, and comprehensive care. It is anticipated that by providing this guideline to caregivers, policy makers, patients and their advocates, that there will be an improved understanding of the current recommendations regarding management of HAE and the factors that need to be considered when choosing therapies and treatment plans for individual patients. The primary target users of this guideline are healthcare providers who are managing patients with HAE. Other healthcare providers who may use this guideline are emergency physicians, gastroenterologists, dentists and otolaryngologists, who will encounter patients with HAE and need to be aware of this condition. Hospital administrators, insurers and policy makers may also find this guideline helpful.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/1710-1492-10-50) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
PMCID: PMC4210625  PMID: 25352908
Hereditary angioedema; Guideline; Recommendations; Acute attacks; Short-term prophylaxis; Long-term prophylaxis; Self-administration; Individualized therapy; Quality of life; Comprehensive care; GRADE
7.  Mannose Binding Lectin Deficiency: More than Meets the Eye 
This case report describes a 5-year-old boy who presented to the emergency department with clinical symptoms and chest X-ray findings suggestive of pneumonia. Further history revealed multiple other infections, and workup for immunodeficiency revealed a deficiency of mannose-binding lectin (MBL), a pattern recognition receptor involved in activation of the complement system. Innate immunodeficiency may be more common than currently appreciated, with mutations of MBL affecting up to 50% of individuals in some populations. While pneumonia is a common presentation in the Pediatric Emergency Department, clinical presentations of children with defects of innate immunity can be unpredictable. Children may initially appear well with sudden deterioration. These cases pose particular challenges to physicians, and the level of suspicion for innate defects must remain high. It is crucial to identify patients with such impairments to better manage and prevent future complications.
PMCID: PMC3620812  PMID: 23641170
mannose binding lectin; innate immunity; complement; pneumonia; immunodeficiency
8.  Primary immunodeficiency 
Primary immunodeficiency disorder (PID) refers to a heterogeneous group of over 130 disorders that result from defects in immune system development and/or function. PIDs are broadly classified as disorders of adaptive immunity (i.e., T-cell, B-cell or combined immunodeficiencies) or of innate immunity (e.g., phagocyte and complement disorders). Although the clinical manifestations of PIDs are highly variable, most disorders involve at least an increased susceptibility to infection. Early diagnosis and treatment are imperative for preventing significant disease-associated morbidity and, therefore, consultation with a clinical immunologist is essential. PIDs should be suspected in patients with: recurrent sinus or ear infections or pneumonias within a 1 year period; failure to thrive; poor response to prolonged use of antibiotics; persistent thrush or skin abscesses; or a family history of PID. Patients with multiple autoimmune diseases should also be evaluated. Diagnostic testing often involves lymphocyte proliferation assays, flow cytometry, measurement of serum immunoglobulin (Ig) levels, assessment of serum specific antibody titers in response to vaccine antigens, neutrophil function assays, stimulation assays for cytokine responses, and complement studies. The treatment of PIDs is complex and generally requires both supportive and definitive strategies. Ig replacement therapy is the mainstay of therapy for B-cell disorders, and is also an important supportive treatment for many patients with combined immunodeficiency disorders. The heterogeneous group of disorders involving the T-cell arm of the adaptive system, such as severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), require immune reconstitution as soon as possible. The treatment of innate immunodeficiency disorders varies depending on the type of defect, but may involve antifungal and antibiotic prophylaxis, cytokine replacement, vaccinations and bone marrow transplantation. This article provides a detailed overview of the major categories of PIDs and strategies for the appropriate diagnosis and management of these rare disorders.
PMCID: PMC3245434  PMID: 22165913
9.  Cognitive Impairment among Older Adults in the Emergency Department 
Within the next 30 years, the number of visits older adults will make to emergency departments (EDs) is expected to double from 16 million, or 14% of all visits, to 34 million and comprise nearly a quarter of all visits.
The objectives of this study were to determine prevalence rates of cognitive impairment among older adults in the ED and to identify associations, if any, between environmental factors unique to the ED and rates of cognitive impairment.
A cross-sectional observational study of adults 65 and older admitted to the ED of a large, urban, tertiary academic health center was conducted between September 2007 and May 2008. Patients were screened for cognitive impairment in orientation, recall and executive function using the Six-Item Screen (SIS) and the CLOX1, clock drawing task. Cognitive impairment among this ED population was assessed and both patient demographics and ED characteristics (crowding, triage time, location of assessment, triage class) were compared through adjusted generalized linear models.
Forty-two percent (350/829) of elderly patients presented with deficits in orientation and recall as assessed by the SIS. An additional 36% of elderly patients with no impairment in orientation or recall had deficits in executive function as assessed by the CLOX1. In full model adjusted analyses patients were more likely to screen deficits in orientation and recall (SIS) if they were 85 years or older (Relative Risk [RR]=1.63, 95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]=1.3–2.07), black (RR=1.85, 95% CI=1.5–2.4) and male (RR=1.42, 95% CI=1.2–1.7). Only age was significantly associated with executive functioning deficits in the ED screened using the clock drawing task (CLOX1) (75–84 years: RR=1.35, 95% CI= 1.2–1.6; 85+ years: RR=1.69, 95% CI= 1.5–2.0).
These findings have several implications for patients seen in the ED. The SIS coupled with a clock drawing task (CLOX1) provide a rapid and simple method for assessing and documenting cognition when lengthier assessment tools are not feasible and add to the literature on the use of these tools in the ED. Further research on provider use of these tools and potential implication for quality improvement is needed.
PMCID: PMC3088375  PMID: 21691473
10.  Coronary computerized tomography angiography for rapid discharge of low-risk patients with cocaine-associated chest pain 
Journal of Medical Toxicology  2009;5(3):111-119.
Most patients presenting to emergency departments (EDs) with cocaine-associated chest pain are admitted for at least 12 hours and receive a “rule out acute coronary syndrome” protocol, often with noninvasive testing prior to discharge. In patients without cocaine use, coronary computerized tomography angiography (CTA) has been shown to be useful for identifying a group of patients at low risk for cardiac events who can be safely discharged. It is unclear whether a coronary CTA strategy would be efficacious in cocaine-associated chest pain, as coronary vasospasm may account for some of the ischemia. We studied whether a negative coronary CTA in patients with cocaine-associated chest pain could identify a subset safe for discharge.
We prospectively evaluated the safety of coronary CTA for low-risk patients who presented to the ED with cocaineassociated chest pain (self-reported or positive urine test). Consecutive patients received either immediate coronary CTA in the ED (without serial markers) or underwent coronary CTA after a brief observation period with serial cardiac marker measurements. Patients with negative coronary CTA (maximal stenosis less than 50%) were discharged. The main outcome was 30-day cardiovascular death or myocardial infarction.
A total of 59 patients with cocaine-associated chest pain were evaluated. Patients had a mean age of 45.6 ± 6.6 yrs and were 86% black, 66% male. Seventy-nine percent had a normal or nonspecific ECG and 85% had a TIMI score < 2. Twenty patients received coronary CTA immediately in the ED, 18 of whom were discharged following CTA (90%). Thirty-nine received coronary CTA after a brief observation period, with 37 discharged home following CTA (95%). Six patients had coronary stenosis ≥50%. During the 30-day follow-up period, no patients died of a cardiovascular event (0%; 95% CI, 0–6.1%) and no patient sustained a nonfatal myocardial infarction (0%; 95% CI, 0–6.1%).
Although cocaine-associated myocardial ischemia can result from coronary vasoconstriction, patients with cocaineassociated chest pain, a non-ischemic ECG, and a TIMI risk score < 2 may be safely discharged from the ED after a negative coronary CTA with a low risk of 30-day adverse events.
PMCID: PMC3550393  PMID: 19655282
cocaine; chest pain; acute coronary syndrome; complications; risk stratification; observation units; computerized tomography
11.  Inter-Rater Reliability of Historical Data Collected by Non-Medical Research Assistants and Physicians in Patients with Acute Abdominal Pain 
In many academic emergency departments (ED), physicians are asked to record clinical data for research that may be time consuming and distracting from patient care. We hypothesized that non-medical research assistants (RAs) could obtain historical information from patients with acute abdominal pain as accurately as physicians.
Prospective comparative study conducted in an academic ED of 29 RAs to 32 resident physicians (RPs) to assess inter-rater reliability in obtaining historical information in abdominal pain patients. Historical features were independently recorded on standardized data forms by a RA and RP blinded to each others’ answers. Discrepancies were resolved by a third person (RA) who asked the patient to state the correct answer on a third questionnaire, constituting the “criterion standard.” Inter-rater reliability was assessed using kappa statistics (κ) and percent crude agreement (CrA).
Sixty-five patients were enrolled (mean age 43). Of 43 historical variables assessed, the median agreement was moderate (κ 0.59 [Interquartile range 0.37–0.69]; CrA 85.9%) and varied across data categories: initial pain location (κ 0.61 [0.59–0.73]; CrA 87.7%), current pain location (κ 0.60 [0.47–0.67]; CrA 82.8%), past medical history (κ 0.60 [0.48–0.74]; CrA 93.8%), associated symptoms (κ 0.38 [0.37–0.74]; CrA 87.7%), and aggravating/alleviating factors (κ 0.09 [−0.01–0.21]; CrA 61.5%). When there was disagreement between the RP and the RA, the RA more often agreed with the criterion standard (64% [55–71%]) than the RP (36% [29–45%]).
Non-medical research assistants who focus on clinical research are often more accurate than physicians, who may be distracted by patient care responsibilities, at obtaining historical information from ED patients with abdominal pain.
PMCID: PMC2672296  PMID: 19561765
12.  Pediatric Hemophagocytic Syndromes: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge 
Pediatric hemophagocytic syndrome (HS) is a severe and often fatal clinical disorder. This syndrome is frequently unrecognized, and thus, affected children may receive suboptimal management, leading to an increase in mortality. The purpose of this review is to provide a clinical guide to (1) the recognition of HS based on clinical, biologic, and pathologic features; (2) the identification of the primary cause of HS in a given affected child; and (3) the initiation of effective treatment in a timely manner.
PMCID: PMC2877072  PMID: 20529219
13.  Building Canada’s health research capacity within the framework of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research 
Paediatrics & Child Health  2001;6(8):517-521.
The establishment of the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) generated considerable excitement about the capacity for health research in Canada. The long term success of the CIHR will be determined, in part, by its ability to recruit, train and retain a cadre of talented researchers. During a workshop to develop the research agenda for one of the proposed institutes within the CIHR, a national, multidisciplinary group of clinical and basic science research trainees were invited to present their views about the challenges that face Canadian researchers of tomorrow. The objective of this paper is to present the challenges associated with recruiting, training and retaining health researchers, and to identify new opportunities provided by the creation of the CIHR. The present paper concludes with suggestions that may improve the success of researchers and, ultimately, the success of the CIHR.
PMCID: PMC2805586  PMID: 20084120
Brain drain; Faculty shortages; Recruitment; Research training; Mentorship

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