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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  Optimization of microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and soxhlet extraction of phenolic compound from licorice root 
In present study, response surface methodology was used to optimize extraction condition of phenolic compounds from licorice root by microwave application. Investigated factors were solvent (ethanol 80 %, methanol 80 % and water), liquid/solid ratio (10:1–25:1) and time (2–6 min). Experiments were designed according to the central composite rotatable design. The results showed that extraction conditions had significant effect on the extraction yield of phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacities. Optimal condition in microwave assisted method were ethanol 80 % as solvent, extraction time of 5–6 min and liquid/solid ratio of 12.7/1. Results were compared with those obtained by soxhlet extraction. In soxhlet extraction, Optimum conditions were extraction time of 6 h for ethanol 80 % as solvent. Value of phenolic compounds and extraction yield of licorice root in microwave assisted (MAE), and soxhlet were 47.47 mg/g and 16.38 %, 41.709 mg/g and 14.49 %, respectively. These results implied that MAE was more efficient extracting method than soxhlet.
doi:10.1007/s13197-014-1384-9
PMCID: PMC4444855  PMID: 26028705
Optimization; Microwave assisted extraction; Soxhlet extraction; RSM
2.  Effects of storage time on compositional, micro-structural, rheological and sensory properties of low fat Iranian UF-Feta cheese fortified with fish oil or fish oil powder 
The fish oil (FO), and fish oil powder (FOP) at 10 % of recommended daily intake (RDI) were used to make two types of fortified feta cheeses. The physicochemical, rheological and sensory properties of ripened samples at 0, 30, and 60th days of cold store (5 °C) showed that the FO samples had a faster pH reduction, higher MSNF (milk solid non-fat) increase (p < 0.05) and more pores formation. Storage (G’) and loss (G”) moduli for both samples decreased until the 30th day of cold storage and then increased until the end of the storage time but both of them were higher for FOP samples. The index of secondary lipid oxidation or thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) of FO was lower than FOP samples. Although the polyunsaturated fatty acids of both samples were much higher than common feta cheese, their degradation in FO was less than FOP samples after storage. The sensory scores of FO were significantly higher than FOP sample (P < 0.05), and it obtained up to 70 % of overall acceptability after 30 and 60 days storage for its better hardness, texture and flavor.
doi:10.1007/s13197-013-1163-z
PMCID: PMC4348299  PMID: 25745205
Fortification; Fish oil; Fish oil powder; Omega 3; Microstructure; Storage and loss moduli
3.  Effect of ultrasound assisted extraction upon the Genistin and Daidzin contents of resultant soymilk 
Journal of Food Science and Technology  2012;51(10):2857-2861.
The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of ultrasound treatment on the contents of daidzin, genistin, and their respective aglycones, daidzein and genistein, in resultant soymilk. Soybean slurry was exposed to ultrasound treatment, filtered, and placed in an ultrasound cleaning bath set with different frequencies (35and 130 KHz), treatment temperatures (20 and 40 °C), and times (20, 40, and 60 min). Concentrations for these isoflavones were determined using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Results indicated that both frequencies significantly (p < 0.05) increased isoflavone content (IC), glycosides, and aglycones in extracted soymilk. These results were attributed to induced cavitation, which increases the permeability of plant tissues. However, the frequency of 35 kHz caused a noticeably higher increase in IC than 130 kHz. Results also revealed significant increases in IC with increased sonication time (from 20 to 60 min) and with increased temperature (from 20 to 40 °C).
doi:10.1007/s13197-012-0744-6
PMCID: PMC4190193  PMID: 25328238
Soymilk; Ultrasound; Isoflavones; Daidzin; Genistin; Daidzein; Genistein
4.  Investigation on proteolysis and formation of volatile compounds of Lighvan cheese during ripening 
Journal of Food Science and Technology  2012;51(10):2454-2462.
The volatile compounds and protein profiles of Lighvan cheese, (raw traditional sheep cheese) were investigated over a 90-days ripening period. Solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry [SPME–GC–MS] and sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [SDS-PAGE] were used to identify volatile compounds and assess proteolysis assessment, respectively. Ripening breakdown products viz., acids (butanoic acid, 3 methyl butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, octanoic acid, decanoic acid,…) comprised of the highest number of detected individual compounds (10) followed by esters (9), alcohols (7), cyclic aromatic compounds (6), ketones (5) and aldehydes (4). Carboxylic acids were the dominant identified group; their levels increased during ripening and involved 48.22 % of the total volatile compounds at the end (90 days) of ripening. Esters, ketones, cyclic aromatic compounds and aldehydes also increased, whereas the alcohol content slightly decreased towards the end of the ripening. Degradation of β- and αS- casein was higher during the initial stage of ripening (1st month) of ripening than at later stages, which could be related to the inhibitory effect of salt on some bacteria and proteolytic enzymes.
doi:10.1007/s13197-012-0755-3
PMCID: PMC4190257  PMID: 25328184
Lighvan cheese; Proteolysis; Ripening; Volatile compounds
5.  Effect of processing parameters on fouling resistances during microfiltration of red plum and watermelon juices: a comparative study 
This study evaluated the total (Rt), reversible (Rrev), irreversible (Rirr), and cake (Rc) resistances during microfiltration of watermelon juice (as a juice with colloid particles) and red plum juice (as a juice without colloid particles). Results showed that the total resistance decreased by about 45% when the feed velocity was increased during clarification of red plum juice due to change in cake resistance. Also, increasing the feed temperature from 20 to 30°C decreased the total fouling resistance by about 9% due to decreases in the irreversible and reversible fouling resistances. Also, mixed cellulose ester (MCE) membrane (which is hydrophilic) had a lower cake resistance compared to polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane (which is hydrophobic). Examination of the microfiltration of watermelon juice showed that Rt decreased by about 54% when the feed temperature was increased from 20 to 50°C, partially due to the reduction of reversible fouling resistance by 78%. Also, increasing transmembrane pressures from 0.5 to 2.5 bars greatly increased total fouling resistance. The feed velocity had a different effect on fouling resistances during microfiltration of watermelon juice compared to red plum juice: in contrast with red plum juice, increasing the feed velocity for watermelon juice increased cake resistance.
doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0472-3
PMCID: PMC3857398  PMID: 24426065
Fouling resistance; Juice; Membrane; Microfiltration; Red plum; Watermelon
6.  Effects of heating method and conditions on the evaporation rate and quality attributes of black mulberry (Morus nigra) juice concentrate 
Black mulberry juice was concentrated by different heating methods, including conventional heating and microwave heating, at different operational pressures (7.3, 38.5 and 100 kPa). The effects of each method on evaporation rate, quality attributes of concentrated juice were investigated. The final juice concentration of 42° Brix was achieved in 140, 120, and 95 min at 100, 38.5, and 7.3 kPa respectively by using a rotary evaporator. Applying microwave energy decreased required times to 115, 95, and 60 min. The changes in color, anthocyanin content during the concentration processes were investigated. Hunter parameters (L, a, and b) were measured to estimate the intensity of color loss. All Hunter color parameters decreased with time. Results showed that the degradation of color and consequently anthocyanins, was more pronounced in rotary evaporation compared to microwave heating method.
doi:10.1007/s13197-011-0246-y
PMCID: PMC3550951  PMID: 24425885
Microwave heating; Rotary evaporation; Evaporation rate; Total Anthocyanin Content; Browning index
7.  Effect of carrier type and spray drying on the physicochemical properties of powdered and reconstituted pomegranate juice (Punica Granatum L.) 
Pomegranate juice was diluted to 12° Brix and carriers (maltodextrin, gum Arabic, waxy starch) were added with varying concentrations of cellulose before being reduced to powder by spray drying. All carrier concentrations improved dryer yield, with gum Arabic being the most effective. The bulk density of the powder decreased when higher carrier concentrations were used. As cellulose concentration increased in solution, the solubility of the final product decreased. The optical properties of the powder were affected by the type and concentration of the carrier; powders produced with gum Arabic showed the greatest color change. Adding a carrier increased the Tg of the powder and its storage stability. Variation in the anthocyanin may be related to the type of carrier agent and its behavior during spray drying.
doi:10.1007/s13197-010-0195-x
PMCID: PMC3551052  PMID: 23572804
Pomegranate juice; Spray drying; Physicochemical properties; Optical properties; Glass transition temperature (Tg)

Results 1-7 (7)