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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  Addendum Guidelines for the Prevention of Peanut Allergy in the United States 
Background
Food allergy is an important public health problem because it affects children and adults, it may be severe and even life-threatening, and it may be increasing in prevalence. Beginning in 2008, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), working with other organizations and advocacy groups, led the development of the first clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. A recent landmark clinical trial and other emerging data suggest that peanut allergy can be prevented through introduction of peanut-containing foods beginning in infancy.
Objectives
Prompted by these findings, along with 25 professional organizations, federal agencies, and patient advocacy groups, NIAID facilitated development of Addendum Guidelines to specifically address the prevention of peanut allergy.
Results
The Addendum provides three separate guidelines for infants at various risk levels for development of peanut allergy and is intended for use by a wide variety of health care providers. Topics addressed include the definition of risk categories, appropriate use of testing (specific IgE, skin prick testing, and oral food challenge) and the timing and approaches for introduction of peanut-containing foods in the health care provider’s office or at home. The Addendum Guidelines provide the background, rationale, and strength of evidence for each recommendation.
Conclusions
Guidelines have been developed for early introduction of peanut-containing foods into the diets of infants at various risk levels for peanut allergy.
doi:10.1016/j.jaci.2016.10.010
PMCID: PMC5226648  PMID: 28065278
Food; peanut; allergy; prevention; guidelines
2.  Lysosomotropism depends on glucose: a chloroquine resistance mechanism 
Cell Death & Disease  2017;8(8):e3014-.
There has been long-standing interest in targeting pro-survival autophagy as a combinational cancer therapeutic strategy. Clinical trials are in progress testing chloroquine (CQ) or its derivatives in combination with chemo- or radiotherapy for solid and haematological cancers. Although CQ has shown efficacy in preclinical models, its mechanism of action remains equivocal. Here, we tested how effectively CQ sensitises metastatic breast cancer cells to further stress conditions such as ionising irradiation, doxorubicin, PI3K-Akt inhibition and serum withdrawal. Contrary to the conventional model, the cytotoxic effects of CQ were found to be autophagy-independent, as genetic targeting of ATG7 or the ULK1/2 complex could not sensitise cells, like CQ, to serum depletion. Interestingly, although CQ combined with serum starvation was robustly cytotoxic, further glucose starvation under these conditions led to a full rescue of cell viability. Inhibition of hexokinase using 2-deoxyglucose (2DG) similarly led to CQ resistance. As this form of cell death did not resemble classical caspase-dependent apoptosis, we hypothesised that CQ-mediated cytotoxicity was primarily via a lysosome-dependent mechanism. Indeed, CQ treatment led to marked lysosomal swelling and recruitment of Galectin3 to sites of membrane damage. Strikingly, glucose starvation or 2DG prevented CQ from inducing lysosomal damage and subsequent cell death. Importantly, we found that the related compound, amodiaquine, was more potent than CQ for cell killing and not susceptible to interference from glucose starvation. Taken together, our data indicate that CQ effectively targets the lysosome to sensitise towards cell death but is prone to a glucose-dependent resistance mechanism, thus providing rationale for the related compound amodiaquine (currently used in humans) as a better therapeutic option for cancer.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2017.416
PMCID: PMC5596595  PMID: 28837152
3.  A humanized microbiota mouse model of ovalbumin-induced lung inflammation 
Gut Microbes  2016;7(4):342-352.
ABSTRACT
There is increasing evidence for a role of early life gut microbiota in later development of asthma in children. In our recent study, children with reduced abundance of the bacterial genera Lachnospira, Veillonella, Faecalibacterium, and Rothia had an increased risk of development of asthma and addition of these bacteria in a humanized mouse model reduced airway inflammation. In this Addendum, we provide additional data on the use of a humanized gut microbiota mouse model to study the development of asthma in children, highlighting the differences in immune development between germ-free mice colonized with human microbes compared to those colonized with mouse gut microbiota. We also demonstrate that there is no association between the composition of the gut microbiota in older children and the diagnosis of asthma, further suggesting the importance of the gut microbiota-immune system axis in the first 3 months of life.
doi:10.1080/19490976.2016.1182293
PMCID: PMC4988436  PMID: 27115049
asthma; germ-free mice; gut microbiota; infants; lung
4.  Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology annual scientific meeting 2016 
Alsayegh, Mohammad A. | Alshamali, Hanan | Khadada, Mousa | Ciccolini, Amanda | Ellis, Anne K. | Quint, Diana | Powley, William | Lee, Laurie | Fiteih, Yahya | Baksh, Shairaz | Vliagoftis, Harissios | Gerega, Sebastien K. | Millson, Brad | Charland, Katia | Barakat, Stephane | Sun, Xichun | Jimenez, Ricardo | Waserman, Susan | FitzGerald, Mark J. | Hébert, Jacques | Cognet-Sicé, Josiane | Renahan, Kevin E. | Huq, Saiful | Chooniedass, Rishma | Sawyer, Scott | Pasterkamp, Hans | Becker, Allan | Smith, Steven G. | Zhang, Shiyuan | Jayasundara, Kavisha | Tacon, Claire | Simidchiev, Alex | Nadeau, Gilbert | Gunsoy, Necdet | Mullerova, Hana | Albers, Frank | Kim, Young Woong | Shannon, Casey P. | Singh, Amrit | Neighbour, Helen | Larché, Mark | Tebbutt, Scott J. | Klopp, Annika | Vehling, Lorena | Becker, Allan B. | Subbarao, Padmaja | Mandhane, Piushkumar J. | Turvey, Stuart E. | Sears, Malcolm R. | Azad, Meghan B. | Loewen, Keely | Monchka, Barret | Mahmud, Salaheddin M. | Jong, Geert ‘t | Longo, Cristina | Bartlett, Gillian | Ducharme, Francine M. | Schuster, Tibor | MacGibbon, Brenda | Barnett, Tracie | North, Michelle L. | Brook, Jeff | Lee, Elizabeth | Omana, Vanessa | Thiele, Jenny | Steacy, Lisa M. | Evans, Greg | Diamond, Miriam | Sussman, Gordon L. | Amistani, Yann | Abiteboul, Kathy | Tenn, Mark W. | Yang, ChenXi | Carlsten, Christopher | Conway, Edward M. | Mack, Douglas | Othman, Yasmin | Barber, Colin M. | Kalicinsky, Chrystyna | Burke, Andrea E. | Messieh, Mary | Nair, Parameswaran | Che, Chun T. | Douglas, Lindsay | Liem, Joel | Duan, Lucy | Miller, Charlotte | Dupuis, Pascale | Connors, Lori A. | Fein, Michael N. | Shuster, Joseph | Hadi, Hani | Polk, Brooke | Raje, Nikita | Labrosse, Roxane | Bégin, Philippe | Paradis, Louis | Roches, Anne Des | Lacombe-Barrios, Jonathan | Mishra, Sanju | Lacuesta, Gina | Chiasson, Meredith | Haroon, Babar | Robertson, Kara | Issekutz, Thomas | Leddin, Desmond | Couban, Stephen | Connors, Lori | Roos, Adrienne | Kanani, Amin | Chan, Edmond S. | Schellenberg, Robert | Rosenfield, Lana | Cvetkovic, Anna | Woodward, Kevin | Quirt, Jaclyn | Watson, Wade T. A. | Castilho, Edson | Sullivan, Jennifer A. | Temple, Beverley | Martin, Donna | Cook, Victoria E. | Mills, Christopher | Portales-Casamar, Elodie | Fu, Lisa W. | Ho, Alexander | Zaltzman, Jeffrey | Chen, Lucy | Vadas, Peter | Gabrielli, Sofianne | Clarke, Ann | Eisman, Harley | Morris, Judy | Joseph, Lawrence | LaVieille, Sebastien | Ben-Shoshan, Moshe | Graham, François | Barnes, Charles | Portnoy, Jay | Stagg, Vincent | Simons, Elinor | Lefebvre, Diana | Dai, David | Mandhane, Piushkumar | Sears, Malcolm | Tam, Herman | Simons, F. Estelle R. | Alotaibi, Dhaifallah | Dawod, Bassel | Tunis, Matthew C. | Marshall, Jean | Desjardins, Marylin | Béland, Marianne | Lejtenyi, Duncan | Drolet, Jean-Phillipe | Lemire, Martine | Tsoukas, Christos | Noya, Francisco J.D. | Alizadehfar, Reza | McCusker, Christine T. | Mazer, Bruce D. | Maestre-Batlle, Danay | Gunawan, Evelyn | Rider, Christopher F. | Bølling, Anette K. | Pena, Olga M. | Suez, Daniel | Melamed, Isaac | Hussain, Iftikhar | Stein, Mark | Gupta, Sudhir | Paris, Kenneth | Fritsch, Sandor | Bourgeois, Christelle | Leibl, Heinz | McCoy, Barbara | Noel, Martin | Yel, Leman | Scott, Ori | Reid, Brenda | Atkinson, Adelle | Kim, Vy Hong-Diep | Roifman, Chaim M. | Grunebaum, Eyal | AlSelahi, Eiman | Aleman, Fernando | Oberle, Amber | Trus, Mike | Sussman, Gordon | Kanani, Amin S. | Chambenoi, Olivier | Chiva-Razavi, Sima | Grodecki, Savannah | Joshi, Nikhil | Menikefs, Peter | Holt, David | Pun, Teresa | Tworek, Damian | Hanna, Raphael | Heroux, Delia | Rosenberg, Elli | Stiemsma, Leah | Turvey, Stuart | Denburg, Judah | Mill, Christopher | Teoh, Timothy | Zimmer, Preeti | Avinashi, Vishal | Paina, Mihaela | Darwish Hassan, Ahmed A. | Oliveria, John Paul | Olesovsky, Chris | Gauvreau, Gail | Pedder, Linda | Keith, Paul K. | Plunkett, Greg | Bolner, Michelle | Pourshahnazari, Persia | Stark, Donald | Vostretsova, Kateryna | Moses, Andrew | Wakeman, Andrew | Singer, Alexander | Gerstner, Thomas | Abrams, Elissa | Johnson, Sara F. | Woodgate, Roberta L.
doi:10.1186/s13223-017-0192-y
PMCID: PMC5390240
5.  Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (3rd edition) 
Klionsky, Daniel J | Abdelmohsen, Kotb | Abe, Akihisa | Abedin, Md Joynal | Abeliovich, Hagai | Acevedo Arozena, Abraham | Adachi, Hiroaki | Adams, Christopher M | Adams, Peter D | Adeli, Khosrow | Adhihetty, Peter J | Adler, Sharon G | Agam, Galila | Agarwal, Rajesh | Aghi, Manish K | Agnello, Maria | Agostinis, Patrizia | Aguilar, Patricia V | Aguirre-Ghiso, Julio | Airoldi, Edoardo M | Ait-Si-Ali, Slimane | Akematsu, Takahiko | Akporiaye, Emmanuel T | Al-Rubeai, Mohamed | Albaiceta, Guillermo M | Albanese, Chris | Albani, Diego | Albert, Matthew L | Aldudo, Jesus | Algül, Hana | Alirezaei, Mehrdad | Alloza, Iraide | Almasan, Alexandru | Almonte-Beceril, Maylin | Alnemri, Emad S | Alonso, Covadonga | Altan-Bonnet, Nihal | Altieri, Dario C | Alvarez, Silvia | Alvarez-Erviti, Lydia | Alves, Sandro | Amadoro, Giuseppina | Amano, Atsuo | Amantini, Consuelo | Ambrosio, Santiago | Amelio, Ivano | Amer, Amal O | Amessou, Mohamed | Amon, Angelika | An, Zhenyi | Anania, Frank A | Andersen, Stig U | Andley, Usha P | Andreadi, Catherine K | Andrieu-Abadie, Nathalie | Anel, Alberto | Ann, David K | Anoopkumar-Dukie, Shailendra | Antonioli, Manuela | Aoki, Hiroshi | Apostolova, Nadezda | Aquila, Saveria | Aquilano, Katia | Araki, Koichi | Arama, Eli | Aranda, Agustin | Araya, Jun | Arcaro, Alexandre | Arias, Esperanza | Arimoto, Hirokazu | Ariosa, Aileen R | Armstrong, Jane L | Arnould, Thierry | Arsov, Ivica | Asanuma, Katsuhiko | Askanas, Valerie | Asselin, Eric | Atarashi, Ryuichiro | Atherton, Sally S | Atkin, Julie D | Attardi, Laura D | Auberger, Patrick | Auburger, Georg | Aurelian, Laure | Autelli, Riccardo | Avagliano, Laura | Avantaggiati, Maria Laura | Avrahami, Limor | Awale, Suresh | Azad, Neelam | Bachetti, Tiziana | Backer, Jonathan M | Bae, Dong-Hun | Bae, Jae-sung | Bae, Ok-Nam | Bae, Soo Han | Baehrecke, Eric H | Baek, Seung-Hoon | Baghdiguian, Stephen | Bagniewska-Zadworna, Agnieszka | Bai, Hua | Bai, Jie | Bai, Xue-Yuan | Bailly, Yannick | Balaji, Kithiganahalli Narayanaswamy | Balduini, Walter | Ballabio, Andrea | Balzan, Rena | Banerjee, Rajkumar | Bánhegyi, Gábor | Bao, Haijun | Barbeau, Benoit | Barrachina, Maria D | Barreiro, Esther | Bartel, Bonnie | Bartolomé, Alberto | Bassham, Diane C | Bassi, Maria Teresa | Bast, Robert C | Basu, Alakananda | Batista, Maria Teresa | Batoko, Henri | Battino, Maurizio | Bauckman, Kyle | Baumgarner, Bradley L | Bayer, K Ulrich | Beale, Rupert | Beaulieu, Jean-François | Beck, George R. | Becker, Christoph | Beckham, J David | Bédard, Pierre-André | Bednarski, Patrick J | Begley, Thomas J | Behl, Christian | Behrends, Christian | Behrens, Georg MN | Behrns, Kevin E | Bejarano, Eloy | Belaid, Amine | Belleudi, Francesca | Bénard, Giovanni | Berchem, Guy | Bergamaschi, Daniele | Bergami, Matteo | Berkhout, Ben | Berliocchi, Laura | Bernard, Amélie | Bernard, Monique | Bernassola, Francesca | Bertolotti, Anne | Bess, Amanda S | Besteiro, Sébastien | Bettuzzi, Saverio | Bhalla, Savita | Bhattacharyya, Shalmoli | Bhutia, Sujit K | Biagosch, Caroline | Bianchi, Michele Wolfe | Biard-Piechaczyk, Martine | Billes, Viktor | Bincoletto, Claudia | Bingol, Baris | Bird, Sara W | Bitoun, Marc | Bjedov, Ivana | Blackstone, Craig | Blanc, Lionel | Blanco, Guillermo A | Blomhoff, Heidi Kiil | Boada-Romero, Emilio | Böckler, Stefan | Boes, Marianne | Boesze-Battaglia, Kathleen | Boise, Lawrence H | Bolino, Alessandra | Boman, Andrea | Bonaldo, Paolo | Bordi, Matteo | Bosch, Jürgen | Botana, Luis M | Botti, Joelle | Bou, German | Bouché, Marina | Bouchecareilh, Marion | Boucher, Marie-Josée | Boulton, Michael E | Bouret, Sebastien G | Boya, Patricia | Boyer-Guittaut, Michaël | Bozhkov, Peter V | Brady, Nathan | Braga, Vania MM | Brancolini, Claudio | Braus, Gerhard H | Bravo-San Pedro, José M | Brennan, Lisa A | Bresnick, Emery H | Brest, Patrick | Bridges, Dave | Bringer, Marie-Agnès | Brini, Marisa | Brito, Glauber C | Brodin, Bertha | Brookes, Paul S | Brown, Eric J | Brown, Karen | Broxmeyer, Hal E | Bruhat, Alain | Brum, Patricia Chakur | Brumell, John H | Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola | Bryson-Richardson, Robert J | Buch, Shilpa | Buchan, Alastair M | Budak, Hikmet | Bulavin, Dmitry V | Bultman, Scott J | Bultynck, Geert | Bumbasirevic, Vladimir | Burelle, Yan | Burke, Robert E | Burmeister, Margit | Bütikofer, Peter | Caberlotto, Laura | Cadwell, Ken | Cahova, Monika | Cai, Dongsheng | Cai, Jingjing | Cai, Qian | Calatayud, Sara | Camougrand, Nadine | Campanella, Michelangelo | Campbell, Grant R | Campbell, Matthew | Campello, Silvia | Candau, Robin | Caniggia, Isabella | Cantoni, Lavinia | Cao, Lizhi | Caplan, Allan B | Caraglia, Michele | Cardinali, Claudio | Cardoso, Sandra Morais | Carew, Jennifer S | Carleton, Laura A | Carlin, Cathleen R | Carloni, Silvia | Carlsson, Sven R | Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac | Carneiro, Leticia AM | Carnevali, Oliana | Carra, Serena | Carrier, Alice | Carroll, Bernadette | Casas, Caty | Casas, Josefina | Cassinelli, Giuliana | Castets, Perrine | Castro-Obregon, Susana | Cavallini, Gabriella | Ceccherini, Isabella | Cecconi, Francesco | Cederbaum, Arthur I | Ceña, Valentín | Cenci, Simone | Cerella, Claudia | Cervia, Davide | Cetrullo, Silvia | Chaachouay, Hassan | Chae, Han-Jung | Chagin, Andrei S | Chai, Chee-Yin | Chakrabarti, Gopal | Chamilos, Georgios | Chan, Edmond YW | Chan, Matthew TV | Chandra, Dhyan | Chandra, Pallavi | Chang, Chih-Peng | Chang, Raymond Chuen-Chung | Chang, Ta Yuan | Chatham, John C | Chatterjee, Saurabh | Chauhan, Santosh | Che, Yongsheng | Cheetham, Michael E | Cheluvappa, Rajkumar | Chen, Chun-Jung | Chen, Gang | Chen, Guang-Chao | Chen, Guoqiang | Chen, Hongzhuan | Chen, Jeff W | Chen, Jian-Kang | Chen, Min | Chen, Mingzhou | Chen, Peiwen | Chen, Qi | Chen, Quan | Chen, Shang-Der | Chen, Si | Chen, Steve S-L | Chen, Wei | Chen, Wei-Jung | Chen, Wen Qiang | Chen, Wenli | Chen, Xiangmei | Chen, Yau-Hung | Chen, Ye-Guang | Chen, Yin | Chen, Yingyu | Chen, Yongshun | Chen, Yu-Jen | Chen, Yue-Qin | Chen, Yujie | Chen, Zhen | Chen, Zhong | Cheng, Alan | Cheng, Christopher HK | Cheng, Hua | Cheong, Heesun | Cherry, Sara | Chesney, Jason | Cheung, Chun Hei Antonio | Chevet, Eric | Chi, Hsiang Cheng | Chi, Sung-Gil | Chiacchiera, Fulvio | Chiang, Hui-Ling | Chiarelli, Roberto | Chiariello, Mario | Chieppa, Marcello | Chin, Lih-Shen | Chiong, Mario | Chiu, Gigi NC | Cho, Dong-Hyung | Cho, Ssang-Goo | Cho, William C | Cho, Yong-Yeon | Cho, Young-Seok | Choi, Augustine MK | Choi, Eui-Ju | Choi, Eun-Kyoung | Choi, Jayoung | Choi, Mary E | Choi, Seung-Il | Chou, Tsui-Fen | Chouaib, Salem | Choubey, Divaker | Choubey, Vinay | Chow, Kuan-Chih | Chowdhury, Kamal | Chu, Charleen T | Chuang, Tsung-Hsien | Chun, Taehoon | Chung, Hyewon | Chung, Taijoon | Chung, Yuen-Li | Chwae, Yong-Joon | Cianfanelli, Valentina | Ciarcia, Roberto | Ciechomska, Iwona A | Ciriolo, Maria Rosa | Cirone, Mara | Claerhout, Sofie | Clague, Michael J | Clària, Joan | Clarke, Peter GH | Clarke, Robert | Clementi, Emilio | Cleyrat, Cédric | Cnop, Miriam | Coccia, Eliana M | Cocco, Tiziana | Codogno, Patrice | Coers, Jörn | Cohen, Ezra EW | Colecchia, David | Coletto, Luisa | Coll, Núria S | Colucci-Guyon, Emma | Comincini, Sergio | Condello, Maria | Cook, Katherine L | Coombs, Graham H | Cooper, Cynthia D | Cooper, J Mark | Coppens, Isabelle | Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana | Corazzari, Marco | Corbalan, Ramon | Corcelle-Termeau, Elisabeth | Cordero, Mario D | Corral-Ramos, Cristina | Corti, Olga | Cossarizza, Andrea | Costelli, Paola | Costes, Safia | Cotman, Susan L | Coto-Montes, Ana | Cottet, Sandra | Couve, Eduardo | Covey, Lori R | Cowart, L Ashley | Cox, Jeffery S | Coxon, Fraser P | Coyne, Carolyn B | Cragg, Mark S | Craven, Rolf J | Crepaldi, Tiziana | Crespo, Jose L | Criollo, Alfredo | Crippa, Valeria | Cruz, Maria Teresa | Cuervo, Ana Maria | Cuezva, Jose M | Cui, Taixing | Cutillas, Pedro R | Czaja, Mark J | Czyzyk-Krzeska, Maria F | Dagda, Ruben K | Dahmen, Uta | Dai, Chunsun | Dai, Wenjie | Dai, Yun | Dalby, Kevin N | Dalla Valle, Luisa | Dalmasso, Guillaume | D'Amelio, Marcello | Damme, Markus | Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette | Dargemont, Catherine | Darley-Usmar, Victor M | Dasarathy, Srinivasan | Dasgupta, Biplab | Dash, Srikanta | Dass, Crispin R | Davey, Hazel Marie | Davids, Lester M | Dávila, David | Davis, Roger J | Dawson, Ted M | Dawson, Valina L | Daza, Paula | de Belleroche, Jackie | de Figueiredo, Paul | de Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz | de la Fuente, José | De Martino, Luisa | De Matteis, Antonella | De Meyer, Guido RY | De Milito, Angelo | De Santi, Mauro | de Souza, Wanderley | De Tata, Vincenzo | De Zio, Daniela | Debnath, Jayanta | Dechant, Reinhard | Decuypere, Jean-Paul | Deegan, Shane | Dehay, Benjamin | Del Bello, Barbara | Del Re, Dominic P | Delage-Mourroux, Régis | Delbridge, Lea MD | Deldicque, Louise | Delorme-Axford, Elizabeth | Deng, Yizhen | Dengjel, Joern | Denizot, Melanie | Dent, Paul | Der, Channing J | Deretic, Vojo | Derrien, Benoît | Deutsch, Eric | Devarenne, Timothy P | Devenish, Rodney J | Di Bartolomeo, Sabrina | Di Daniele, Nicola | Di Domenico, Fabio | Di Nardo, Alessia | Di Paola, Simone | Di Pietro, Antonio | Di Renzo, Livia | DiAntonio, Aaron | Díaz-Araya, Guillermo | Díaz-Laviada, Ines | Diaz-Meco, Maria T | Diaz-Nido, Javier | Dickey, Chad A | Dickson, Robert C | Diederich, Marc | Digard, Paul | Dikic, Ivan | Dinesh-Kumar, Savithrama P | Ding, Chan | Ding, Wen-Xing | Ding, Zufeng | Dini, Luciana | Distler, Jörg HW | Diwan, Abhinav | Djavaheri-Mergny, Mojgan | Dmytruk, Kostyantyn | Dobson, Renwick CJ | Doetsch, Volker | Dokladny, Karol | Dokudovskaya, Svetlana | Donadelli, Massimo | Dong, X Charlie | Dong, Xiaonan | Dong, Zheng | Donohue, Terrence M | Doran, Kelly S | D'Orazi, Gabriella | Dorn, Gerald W | Dosenko, Victor | Dridi, Sami | Drucker, Liat | Du, Jie | Du, Li-Lin | Du, Lihuan | du Toit, André | Dua, Priyamvada | Duan, Lei | Duann, Pu | Dubey, Vikash Kumar | Duchen, Michael R | Duchosal, Michel A | Duez, Helene | Dugail, Isabelle | Dumit, Verónica I | Duncan, Mara C | Dunlop, Elaine A | Dunn, William A | Dupont, Nicolas | Dupuis, Luc | Durán, Raúl V | Durcan, Thomas M | Duvezin-Caubet, Stéphane | Duvvuri, Umamaheswar | Eapen, Vinay | Ebrahimi-Fakhari, Darius | Echard, Arnaud | Eckhart, Leopold | Edelstein, Charles L | Edinger, Aimee L | Eichinger, Ludwig | Eisenberg, Tobias | Eisenberg-Lerner, Avital | Eissa, N Tony | El-Deiry, Wafik S | El-Khoury, Victoria | Elazar, Zvulun | Eldar-Finkelman, Hagit | Elliott, Chris JH | Emanuele, Enzo | Emmenegger, Urban | Engedal, Nikolai | Engelbrecht, Anna-Mart | Engelender, Simone | Enserink, Jorrit M | Erdmann, Ralf | Erenpreisa, Jekaterina | Eri, Rajaraman | Eriksen, Jason L | Erman, Andreja | Escalante, Ricardo | Eskelinen, Eeva-Liisa | Espert, Lucile | Esteban-Martínez, Lorena | Evans, Thomas J | Fabri, Mario | Fabrias, Gemma | Fabrizi, Cinzia | Facchiano, Antonio | Færgeman, Nils J | Faggioni, Alberto | Fairlie, W Douglas | Fan, Chunhai | Fan, Daping | Fan, Jie | Fang, Shengyun | Fanto, Manolis | Fanzani, Alessandro | Farkas, Thomas | Faure, Mathias | Favier, Francois B | Fearnhead, Howard | Federici, Massimo | Fei, Erkang | Felizardo, Tania C | Feng, Hua | Feng, Yibin | Feng, Yuchen | Ferguson, Thomas A | Fernández, Álvaro F | Fernandez-Barrena, Maite G | Fernandez-Checa, Jose C | Fernández-López, Arsenio | Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E | Feron, Olivier | Ferraro, Elisabetta | Ferreira-Halder, Carmen Veríssima | Fesus, Laszlo | Feuer, Ralph | Fiesel, Fabienne C | Filippi-Chiela, Eduardo C | Filomeni, Giuseppe | Fimia, Gian Maria | Fingert, John H | Finkbeiner, Steven | Finkel, Toren | Fiorito, Filomena | Fisher, Paul B | Flajolet, Marc | Flamigni, Flavio | Florey, Oliver | Florio, Salvatore | Floto, R Andres | Folini, Marco | Follo, Carlo | Fon, Edward A | Fornai, Francesco | Fortunato, Franco | Fraldi, Alessandro | Franco, Rodrigo | Francois, Arnaud | François, Aurélie | Frankel, Lisa B | Fraser, Iain DC | Frey, Norbert | Freyssenet, Damien G | Frezza, Christian | Friedman, Scott L | Frigo, Daniel E | Fu, Dongxu | Fuentes, José M | Fueyo, Juan | Fujitani, Yoshio | Fujiwara, Yuuki | Fujiya, Mikihiro | Fukuda, Mitsunori | Fulda, Simone | Fusco, Carmela | Gabryel, Bozena | Gaestel, Matthias | Gailly, Philippe | Gajewska, Malgorzata | Galadari, Sehamuddin | Galili, Gad | Galindo, Inmaculada | Galindo, Maria F | Galliciotti, Giovanna | Galluzzi, Lorenzo | Galluzzi, Luca | Galy, Vincent | Gammoh, Noor | Gandy, Sam | Ganesan, Anand K | Ganesan, Swamynathan | Ganley, Ian G | Gannagé, Monique | Gao, Fen-Biao | Gao, Feng | Gao, Jian-Xin | García Nannig, Lorena | García Véscovi, Eleonora | Garcia-Macía, Marina | Garcia-Ruiz, Carmen | Garg, Abhishek D | Garg, Pramod Kumar | Gargini, Ricardo | Gassen, Nils Christian | Gatica, Damián | Gatti, Evelina | Gavard, Julie | Gavathiotis, Evripidis | Ge, Liang | Ge, Pengfei | Ge, Shengfang | Gean, Po-Wu | Gelmetti, Vania | Genazzani, Armando A | Geng, Jiefei | Genschik, Pascal | Gerner, Lisa | Gestwicki, Jason E | Gewirtz, David A | Ghavami, Saeid | Ghigo, Eric | Ghosh, Debabrata | Giammarioli, Anna Maria | Giampieri, Francesca | Giampietri, Claudia | Giatromanolaki, Alexandra | Gibbings, Derrick J | Gibellini, Lara | Gibson, Spencer B | Ginet, Vanessa | Giordano, Antonio | Giorgini, Flaviano | Giovannetti, Elisa | Girardin, Stephen E | Gispert, Suzana | Giuliano, Sandy | Gladson, Candece L | Glavic, Alvaro | Gleave, Martin | Godefroy, Nelly | Gogal, Robert M | Gokulan, Kuppan | Goldman, Gustavo H | Goletti, Delia | Goligorsky, Michael S | Gomes, Aldrin V | Gomes, Ligia C | Gomez, Hernando | Gomez-Manzano, Candelaria | Gómez-Sánchez, Rubén | Gonçalves, Dawit AP | Goncu, Ebru | Gong, Qingqiu | Gongora, Céline | Gonzalez, Carlos B | Gonzalez-Alegre, Pedro | Gonzalez-Cabo, Pilar | González-Polo, Rosa Ana | Goping, Ing Swie | Gorbea, Carlos | Gorbunov, Nikolai V | Goring, Daphne R | Gorman, Adrienne M | Gorski, Sharon M | Goruppi, Sandro | Goto-Yamada, Shino | Gotor, Cecilia | Gottlieb, Roberta A | Gozes, Illana | Gozuacik, Devrim | Graba, Yacine | Graef, Martin | Granato, Giovanna E | Grant, Gary Dean | Grant, Steven | Gravina, Giovanni Luca | Green, Douglas R | Greenhough, Alexander | Greenwood, Michael T | Grimaldi, Benedetto | Gros, Frédéric | Grose, Charles | Groulx, Jean-Francois | Gruber, Florian | Grumati, Paolo | Grune, Tilman | Guan, Jun-Lin | Guan, Kun-Liang | Guerra, Barbara | Guillen, Carlos | Gulshan, Kailash | Gunst, Jan | Guo, Chuanyong | Guo, Lei | Guo, Ming | Guo, Wenjie | Guo, Xu-Guang | Gust, Andrea A | Gustafsson, Åsa B | Gutierrez, Elaine | Gutierrez, Maximiliano G | Gwak, Ho-Shin | Haas, Albert | Haber, James E | Hadano, Shinji | Hagedorn, Monica | Hahn, David R | Halayko, Andrew J | Hamacher-Brady, Anne | Hamada, Kozo | Hamai, Ahmed | Hamann, Andrea | Hamasaki, Maho | Hamer, Isabelle | Hamid, Qutayba | Hammond, Ester M | Han, Feng | Han, Weidong | Handa, James T | Hanover, John A | Hansen, Malene | Harada, Masaru | Harhaji-Trajkovic, Ljubica | Harper, J Wade | Harrath, Abdel Halim | Harris, Adrian L | Harris, James | Hasler, Udo | Hasselblatt, Peter | Hasui, Kazuhisa | Hawley, Robert G | Hawley, Teresa S | He, Congcong | He, Cynthia Y | He, Fengtian | He, Gu | He, Rong-Rong | He, Xian-Hui | He, You-Wen | He, Yu-Ying | Heath, Joan K | Hébert, Marie-Josée | Heinzen, Robert A | Helgason, Gudmundur Vignir | Hensel, Michael | Henske, Elizabeth P | Her, Chengtao | Herman, Paul K | Hernández, Agustín | Hernandez, Carlos | Hernández-Tiedra, Sonia | Hetz, Claudio | Hiesinger, P Robin | Higaki, Katsumi | Hilfiker, Sabine | Hill, Bradford G | Hill, Joseph A | Hill, William D | Hino, Keisuke | Hofius, Daniel | Hofman, Paul | Höglinger, Günter U | Höhfeld, Jörg | Holz, Marina K | Hong, Yonggeun | Hood, David A | Hoozemans, Jeroen JM | Hoppe, Thorsten | Hsu, Chin | Hsu, Chin-Yuan | Hsu, Li-Chung | Hu, Dong | Hu, Guochang | Hu, Hong-Ming | Hu, Hongbo | Hu, Ming Chang | Hu, Yu-Chen | Hu, Zhuo-Wei | Hua, Fang | Hua, Ya | Huang, Canhua | Huang, Huey-Lan | Huang, Kuo-How | Huang, Kuo-Yang | Huang, Shile | Huang, Shiqian | Huang, Wei-Pang | Huang, Yi-Ran | Huang, Yong | Huang, Yunfei | Huber, Tobias B | Huebbe, Patricia | Huh, Won-Ki | Hulmi, Juha J | Hur, Gang Min | Hurley, James H | Husak, Zvenyslava | Hussain, Sabah NA | Hussain, Salik | Hwang, Jung Jin | Hwang, Seungmin | Hwang, Thomas IS | Ichihara, Atsuhiro | Imai, Yuzuru | Imbriano, Carol | Inomata, Megumi | Into, Takeshi | Iovane, Valentina | Iovanna, Juan L | Iozzo, Renato V | Ip, Nancy Y | Irazoqui, Javier E | Iribarren, Pablo | Isaka, Yoshitaka | Isakovic, Aleksandra J | Ischiropoulos, Harry | Isenberg, Jeffrey S | Ishaq, Mohammad | Ishida, Hiroyuki | Ishii, Isao | Ishmael, Jane E | Isidoro, Ciro | Isobe, Ken-ichi | Isono, Erika | Issazadeh-Navikas, Shohreh | Itahana, Koji | Itakura, Eisuke | Ivanov, Andrei I | Iyer, Anand Krishnan V | Izquierdo, José M | Izumi, Yotaro | Izzo, Valentina | Jäättelä, Marja | Jaber, Nadia | Jackson, Daniel John | Jackson, William T | Jacob, Tony George | Jacques, Thomas S | Jagannath, Chinnaswamy | Jain, Ashish | Jana, Nihar Ranjan | Jang, Byoung Kuk | Jani, Alkesh | Janji, Bassam | Jannig, Paulo Roberto | Jansson, Patric J | Jean, Steve | Jendrach, Marina | Jeon, Ju-Hong | Jessen, Niels | Jeung, Eui-Bae | Jia, Kailiang | Jia, Lijun | Jiang, Hong | Jiang, Hongchi | Jiang, Liwen | Jiang, Teng | Jiang, Xiaoyan | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiang, Xuejun | Jiang, Ying | Jiang, Yongjun | Jiménez, Alberto | Jin, Cheng | Jin, Hongchuan | Jin, Lei | Jin, Meiyan | Jin, Shengkan | Jinwal, Umesh Kumar | Jo, Eun-Kyeong | Johansen, Terje | Johnson, Daniel E | Johnson, Gail VW | Johnson, James D | Jonasch, Eric | Jones, Chris | Joosten, Leo AB | Jordan, Joaquin | Joseph, Anna-Maria | Joseph, Bertrand | Joubert, Annie M | Ju, Dianwen | Ju, Jingfang | Juan, Hsueh-Fen | Juenemann, Katrin | Juhász, Gábor | Jung, Hye Seung | Jung, Jae U | Jung, Yong-Keun | Jungbluth, Heinz | Justice, Matthew J | Jutten, Barry | Kaakoush, Nadeem O | Kaarniranta, Kai | Kaasik, Allen | Kabuta, Tomohiro | Kaeffer, Bertrand | Kågedal, Katarina | Kahana, Alon | Kajimura, Shingo | Kakhlon, Or | Kalia, Manjula | Kalvakolanu, Dhan V | Kamada, Yoshiaki | Kambas, Konstantinos | Kaminskyy, Vitaliy O | Kampinga, Harm H | Kandouz, Mustapha | Kang, Chanhee | Kang, Rui | Kang, Tae-Cheon | Kanki, Tomotake | Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi | Kanno, Haruo | Kanthasamy, Anumantha G | Kantorow, Marc | Kaparakis-Liaskos, Maria | Kapuy, Orsolya | Karantza, Vassiliki | Karim, Md Razaul | Karmakar, Parimal | Kaser, Arthur | Kaushik, Susmita | Kawula, Thomas | Kaynar, A Murat | Ke, Po-Yuan | Ke, Zun-Ji | Kehrl, John H | Keller, Kate E | Kemper, Jongsook Kim
Autophagy  2016;12(1):1-222.
doi:10.1080/15548627.2015.1100356
PMCID: PMC4835977  PMID: 26799652
autolysosome; autophagosome; chaperone-mediated autophagy; flux; LC3; lysosome; macroautophagy; phagophore; stress; vacuole
6.  Addendum guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergy in the United States: report of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases-sponsored expert panel 
Background
Food allergy is an important public health problem because it affects children and adults, can be severe and even life-threatening, and may be increasing in prevalence. Beginning in 2008, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, working with other organizations and advocacy groups, led the development of the first clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. A recent landmark clinical trial and other emerging data suggest that peanut allergy can be prevented through introduction of peanut-containing foods beginning in infancy.
Objectives
Prompted by these findings, along with 25 professional organizations, federal agencies, and patient advocacy groups, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases facilitated development of addendum guidelines to specifically address the prevention of peanut allergy.
Results
The addendum provides 3 separate guidelines for infants at various risk levels for the development of peanut allergy and is intended for use by a wide variety of health care providers. Topics addressed include the definition of risk categories, appropriate use of testing (specific IgE measurement, skin prick tests, and oral food challenges), and the timing and approaches for introduction of peanut-containing foods in the health care provider’s office or at home. The addendum guidelines provide the background, rationale, and strength of evidence for each recommendation.
Conclusions
Guidelines have been developed for early introduction of peanut-containing foods into the diets of infants at various risk levels for peanut allergy.
doi:10.1186/s13223-016-0175-4
PMCID: PMC5217645
Food; Peanut; Allergy; Prevention; Guidelines
7.  Addendum guidelines for the prevention of peanut allergy in the United States: Report of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases–sponsored expert panel 
Background
Food allergy is an important public health problem because it affects children and adults, can be severe and even life-threatening, and may be increasing in prevalence. Beginning in 2008, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, working with other organizations and advocacy groups, led the development of the first clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and management of food allergy. A recent landmark clinical trial and other emerging data suggest that peanut allergy can be prevented through introduction of peanut-containing foods beginning in infancy.
Objectives
Prompted by these findings, along with 25 professional organizations, federal agencies, and patient advocacy groups, the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases facilitated development of addendum guidelines to specifically address the prevention of peanut allergy.
Results
The addendum provides 3 separate guidelines for infants at various risk levels for the development of peanut allergy and is intended for use by a wide variety of health care providers. Topics addressed include the definition of risk categories, appropriate use of testing (specific IgE measurement, skin prick tests, and oral food challenges), and the timing and approaches for introduction of peanut-containing foods in the health care provider’s office or at home. The addendum guidelines provide the background, rationale, and strength of evidence for each recommendation.
Conclusions
Guidelines have been developed for early introduction of peanut-containing foods into the diets of infants at various risk levels for peanut allergy.
doi:10.1186/s40413-016-0137-9
PMCID: PMC5217343
Food; Peanut; Allergy; Prevention; Guidelines
8.  Anaphylaxis across two Canadian pediatric centers: evaluating management disparities 
Background
There are no data on the percentage of visits due to anaphylaxis in the emergency department (ED), triggers, and management of anaphylaxis across different provinces in Canada.
Objective
To compare the percentage of anaphylaxis cases among all ED visits, as well as the triggers and management of anaphylaxis between two Canadian pediatric EDs (PEDs).
Methods
As part of the Cross-Canada Anaphylaxis Registry (C-CARE), children presenting to the British Columbia Children’s Hospital (BCCH) and Montreal Children’s Hospital (MCH) EDs with anaphylaxis were recruited. Characteristics, triggers, and management of anaphylaxis were documented using a standardized data entry form. Differences in demographics, triggers, and management were determined by comparing the difference of proportions and 95% confidence interval.
Results
Between June 2014 and June 2016, there were 346 visits due to anaphylaxis among 93,730 PED visits at the BCCH ED and 631 anaphylaxis visits among 164,669 pediatric visits at the MCH ED. In both centers, the majority of cases were triggered by food (BCCH 91.3% [88.7, 94.0], MCH 82.4% [79.7, 85.3]), of which peanuts were the most common culprit (24.7% [20.9, 29.9] and 19.0% [15.8, 22.7], respectively). Pre-hospital administration of epinephrine (BCCH 27.7% [23.2, 32.8], MCH 33.1% [29.5, 37.0]) and antihistamines (BCCH 50.6% [45.2, 56.0], MCH 47.1% [43.1, 51.0]) was similar. In-hospital management differed in terms of increased epinephrine, antihistamine, and steroid use at the BCCH (59.2% [53.9, 64.4], 59.8% [54.4, 65.0], and 60.1% [54.7, 65.3], respectively) compared to the MCH (42.2% [38.3, 46.2], 36.2% [32.5, 40.1], and 11.9% [9.5, 14.8], respectively). Despite differences in management, percentage of cases admitted to the intensive care unit was similar between the two centers.
Conclusion
Compared to previous European and North American reports, there is a high percentage of anaphylaxis cases in two PEDs across Canada with substantial differences in hospital management practices. It is crucial to develop training programs that aim to increase epinephrine use in anaphylaxis.
doi:10.2147/JAA.S123053
PMCID: PMC5221795  PMID: 28115856
anaphylaxis; emergency department; epinephrine; triggers of anaphylaxis; management
9.  AllerGen’s 8th research conference 
Arrieta, Marie-Claire | Arevalos, Andrea | Stiemsma, Leah | Chico, Marta E. | Sandoval, Carlos | Jin, Minglian | Walter, Jens | Cooper, Phil | Finlay, Brett | Bernatchez, Emilie | Gold, Matthew J. | Langlois, Anick | Blais-Lecours, Pascale | Duchaine, Caroline | Marsolais, David | McNagny, Kelly M. | Blanchet, Marie-Renée | Brubacher, Jordan | Chhetri, Bimal | Sabaliauskas, Kelly | Bassil, Kate | Kwong, Jeff | Coates, Frances | Takaro, Tim K. | Chow, Angela | Miller, Gregory E. | Chen, Edith | Mandhane, Piushkumar J. | Turvey, Stuart E. | Elliott, Susan J. | Becker, Allan B. | Subbarao, Padmaja | Sears, Malcolm R. | Kozyrskyj, Anita L. | Dubeau, Aimée | Lu, Zihang | Balkovec, Susan | Kowalik, Krzysztof | Gustafsson, Per | Ratjen, Felix | Edgar, Rachel D. | Bush, Nicole R. | MacIssac, Julie L. | McEwen, Lisa M. | Boyce, Thomas W. | Kobor, Michael S. | Emmerson, Melanie | Dubeau, Aimée | Lu, Zihang | Shen, Bingqing | Kowalik, Krzysztof | Ratjen, Felix | Moraes, Theo J. | Gabrielli, Sofianne | Clarke, Ann | Eisman, Harley | Morris, Judy | Joseph, Lawrence | LaVieille, Sebastien | Ben-Shoshan, Moshe | Islam, Sumaiya A. | Brückmann, Christof | Nieratschker, Vanessa | Jamieson, Kyla C. | Proud, David | Kanagaratham, Cynthia | Camateros, Pierre | Kopriva, Frantisek | Henri, Jennifer | Hajduch, Marian | Radzioch, Danuta | Kang, Liane J. | Koleva, Petya T. | Field, Catherine J. | Konya, Tedd | Scott, James A. | Konya, Theodore | Azad, Meghan B. | Brook, Jeff | Guttman, David | Kumari, Manjeet | Bridgman, Sarah L. | Tun, Mon H. | Mandal, Rupasri | Wishart, David S. | Lee, Amy H. Y. | Xia, Jeff | Gill, Erin | Hancock, Bob | Maestre, Danay | Sutherland, Darren | Hirota, Jeremy | Pena, Olga | Carlsten, Christopher | McEwen, Lisa M. | Jones, Meaghan J. | MacIsaac, Julia L. | Dow, William H. | Rosero-Bixby, Luis | Rehkopf, David H. | Morimoto, Takeshi | Smith, Steven G. | Oliveria, John-Paul | Beaudin, Suzanne | Schlatman, Abbey | Howie, Karen | Obminski, Caitlin | Nusca, Graeme | Sehmi, Roma | Gauvreau, Gail M. | O’Byrne, Paul M. | North, Michelle | Peng, Cheng | Sanchez-Guerra, Marco | Byun, Hyang-Min | Ellis, Anne K. | Baccarelli, Andrea A. | Okeme, Joseph O. | Dhal, Suman | Saini, Aman | Diamond, Miriam L. | Olesovsky, Christopher J. | Salter, Brittany M. | Wang, Michael | Lacy, Paige | O’Sullivan, Michael J. | Park, Chan Y. | Fredberg, Jeffrey J. | Lauzon, Anne-Marie | Martin, James G. | Ryu, Min Hyung | Mookherjee, Neeloffer | Carlsten, Christopher | Simons, Elinor | Lefebvre, Diana | Dai, David | Singh, Amrit | Shannon, Casey P. | Kim, Young Woong | Yang, Chen Xi | Mark FitzGerald, J. | Boulet, Louis-Philippe | Tebbutt, Scott J. | Singhera, Gurpreet K. | JasemineYang, S. | Dorscheid, Delbert R. | Sinnock, Hasantha | Goruk, Susan | Tavakoli, Hamid | Lynd, Larry D. | Sadatsafavi, Mohsen | Tenn, Mark W. | Thiele, Jenny | Adams, Daniel E. | Steacy, Lisa M. | Ellis, Anne K. | Torabi, Bahar | De Schryver, Sarah | Lejtenyi, Duncan | Baerg, Ingrid | Chan, Edmond S. | Mazer, Bruce D. | Tran, Maxwell M. | Dai, Wei Hao | Lou, Wendy | Chari, Radha S. | Conway, Edward M. | Neighbour, Helen | Larché, Mark | Tebbutt, Scott J
doi:10.1186/s13223-016-0164-7
PMCID: PMC5260783
10.  Proceedings of the Canadian society of allergy and clinical immunology annual scientific meeting 2015 
Côté, Marie-Ève | Boulay, Marie-Ève | Plante, Sophie | Chakir, Jamila | Boulet, Louis-Philippe | Ahmed, Hanan | Ospina, Maria-Beatriz | Sideri, Kyriaki | Vliagoftis, Harissios | Johnson, Sara F. | Woodgate, Roberta L. | Cros, Guilhem | Teira, Pierre | Cellot, Sonia | Bittencourt, Henrique | Decaluwe, Helene | Vachon, Marie France | Duval, Michel | Haddad, Elie | Kim, Vy H. D. | Pham-Huy, Anne | Grunebaum, Eyal | Oliveria, John-Paul | Phan, Stephanie | Tenn, Mark W. | Tworek, Damian | Smith, Steven G. | Baatjes, Adrian J. | Obminski, Caitlin D. | Munoz, Caroline E. | Scime, Tara X. | Sehmi, Roma | Gauvreau, Gail M. | Salter, Brittany M. | Smith, Steven G. | Obminski, Caitlin D. | Munoz, Caroline E. | Schlatman, Abbey | Scime, Tara X. | Watson, Rick | Sherkat, Roya | Khoshnevisan, Razieh | Sheikhbahaei, Saba | Betschel, Stephen | Warrington, Richard | Schellenberg, Robert | Fein, Michael N. | Pelletier, Jean-Philippe | Kan, Manstein | Labrosse, Roxane | Mak, Raymond | Loh, James | Kanani, Amin | Nowak, Dominik A. | Keith, Paul K. | Pannozzo, Daniel | Lima, Hermenio C. | Pham, Diana | Pham, Hoang | Alvarez, Gonzalo G. | Bencze, Istvan T. | Sharma, Krishna B. | Smith, Mark | Aaron, Shawn | Block, Jennifer | Keays, Tara | Leech, Judith | Schneidermen, David | Cameron, Jodi | Forgie, Jennifer | Ring, Alicia | O’Quinn, John W. | Santucci, Stephanie | Yang, William H. | Gaudet, Ena | Aaron, Shawn | Voisin, Mathew R. | Borici-Mazi, Rozita | Vostretsova, Kateryna | Stark, Donald F. | Yeboah, Elizabeth | Martin-Rhee, Michelle | Gula, Cheryl | Cheng, Clare | Paltser, Geoff | Dery, Alizée | Clarke, Ann | Nadeau, Kari | Harada, Laurie | Weatherall, Kimberley | Greenwood, Celia | Daley, Denise | Asai, Yuka | Ben-Shoshan, Moshe | Ling, Ling | Ospina, Maria B. | Protudjer, Jennifer L. P. | Vetander, Mirja | van Hage, Marianne | Olén, Ola | Wickman, Magnus | Bergström, Anna | Teoh, Timothy | Mill, Christopher | Wong, Tiffany | Baerg, Ingrid | Alexander, Angela | Hildebrand, Kyla J. | Dean, John | Kuzeljevic, Boris | Chan, Edmond S. | Argeny, Jonathan | Gona-Hoepler, Mia | Fucik, Petra | Nachbaur, Edith | Gruber, Saskia | Crameri, Reto | Glaser, Andreas | Szépfalusi, Zsolt | Rhyner, Claudio | Eiwegger, Thomas | Plunkett, Greg | Mire, Brad | Yazicioglu, Mehtap | Can, Ceren | Ciplak, Gokce | Cook, Victoria E. | Portales-Casamar, Elodie | Nashi, Emil P. | Gabrielli, Sofianne | Primeau, Marie-Noel | Lejtenyi, Christine | Netchiporouk, Elena | Dery, Alizee | Shand, Greg | Hoe, Erica | Liem, Joel | Ko, Jason K. | Huang, David J. T. | Mazza, Jorge A. | McHenry, Mary | Otley, Anthony | Watson, Wade | Kraft, John N. | Paina, Mihaela | Darwish Hassan, Ahmed A. | Heroux, Delia | Crawford, Lynn | Gauvreau, Gail | Denburg, Judah | Pedder, Linda | Chad, Zave | Sussman, Gordon | Hébert, Jacques | Frankish, Charles | Olynych, Timothy | Cheema, Amarjit | Del Carpio, Jaime | Harrison, Rachel | Torabi, Bahar | Medoff, Elaine | Mill, Jennifer | Quirt, Jaclyn A. | Wen, Xia | Kim, Jonathan | Herrero, Angel Jimenez | Kim, Harold L. | Grzyb, Magdalena J. | Primeau, Marie-Noël | Azad, Meghan B. | Lu, Zihang | Becker, Allan B. | Subbarao, Padmaja | Mandhane, Piushkumar J. | Turvey, Stuart E. | Sears, Malcolm R. | Boucher-Lafleur, Anne-Marie | Gagné-Ouellet, Valérie | Jacques, Éric | Laprise, Catherine | Chen, Michael | McGovern, Toby | Adner, Mikael | Martin, James G. | Cosic, Nela | Ntanda, Henry | Giesbrecht, Gerald | Kozyrskyj, Anita | Letourneau, Nicole | Dawod, Bassel | Marshall, Jean | De Schryver, Sarah | Halbrich, Michelle | La Vieille, Sebastian | Eisman, Harley | Alizadehfar, Reza | Joseph, Lawrence | Morris, Judy | Feldman, Laura Y. | Thacher, Jesse D. | Kull, Inger | Melén, Erik | Pershagen, Göran | Protudjer, Jennifer L. P. | Hosseini, Ali | Hackett, Tillie L. | Hirota, Jeremy | McNagny, Kelly | Wilson, Susan | Carlsten, Chris | Huq, Saiful | Chooniedass, Rishma | Gerwing, Brenda | Huang, Henry | Lefebvre, Diana | Becker, Allan | Khamis, Mona M. | Awad, Hanan | Allen, Kevin | Adamko, Darryl J. | El-Aneed, Anas | Kim, Young Woong | Gliddon, Daniel R. | Shannon, Casey P. | Singh, Amrit | Hickey, Pascal L. C. | Ellis, Anne K. | Neighbour, Helen | Larche, Mark | Tebbutt, Scott J. | Ladouceur, Erika | Stewart, Miriam | Evans, Josh | Masuda, Jeff | To, Teresa | King, Malcolm | Larouche, Miriam | Liang, Liming | Legere, Stephanie A. | Haidl, Ian D. | Legaré, Jean-Francois | Marshall, Jean S. | Sears, Malcolm | Moraes, Theo J. | Ratjen, Felix | Gustafsson, Per | Lou, Wendy | North, Michelle L. | Lee, Elizabeth | Omana, Vanessa | Thiele, Jenny | Brook, Jeff | Rahman, Tanvir | Lejtenyi, Duncan | Fiter, Ryan | Piccirillo, Ciriaco | Mazer, Bruce | Simons, Elinor | Hildebrand, Kyla | Turvey, Stuart | DeMarco, Mari | Le Cao, Kim-Anh | Gauvreau, Gail M. | Mark FitzGerald, J. | O’Byrne, Paul M. | Stiemsma, Leah T. | Arrieta, Marie-Claire | Cheng, Jasmine | Dimitriu, Pedro A. | Thorson, Lisa | Yurist, Sophie | Lefebvre, Diana L. | Mandhane, Piush | McNagny, Kelly M. | Kollmann, Tobias | Mohn, William W. | Brett Finlay, B. | Tran, Maxwell M. | Lefebvre, Diana L. | Ramasundarahettige, Chinthanie F. | Dai, Wei Hao | Mandhane, Piush J. | Tworek, Damian | O’Byrne, Seamus N. | O’Byrne, Paul M. | Denburg, Judah A. | Walsh, Laura | Soliman, Mena | Steacy, Lisa M. | Adams, Daniel E. | Warner, Linda | Mauro, Mary Ann | Mamonluk, Robby | Yang, ChenXi | Conway, Ed M.
Table of contents
A1 Role of fibrocytes in allergic rhinitis
Marie-Ève Côté, Marie-Ève Boulay, Sophie Plante, Jamila Chakir, Louis-Philippe Boulet
A2 Patterns of aeroallergens sensitization in Northern Alberta
Hanan Ahmed, Maria-Beatriz Ospina, Kyriaki Sideri, Harissios Vliagoftis
A3 Addressing acceptable risk for adolescents with Food-Induced Anaphylaxis (FIA)
Sara F. Johnson, Roberta L. Woodgate
A4 Outcomes of matched related and unrelated bone marrow transplantation after reduced-toxicity conditioning for children suffering from Chronic Granulomatous Disease
Guilhem Cros, Pierre Teira, Sonia Cellot, Henrique Bittencourt, Helene Decaluwe, Marie France Vachon, Michel Duval, Elie Haddad
A5 Outcomes of patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) prior to and after initiation of newborn screening for SCID in Ontario
Vy H.D. Kim, Anne Pham-Huy, Eyal Grunebaum
A6 Detection of regulatory B cells in the airways of subjects with asthma
John-Paul Oliveria, Stephanie Phan, Mark W. Tenn, Damian Tworek, Steven G. Smith, Adrian J. Baatjes, Caitlin D. Obminski, Caroline E. Munoz, Tara X. Scime, Roma Sehmi, Gail M Gauvreau
A7 Characterization of IgE-expressing B cells in the airways and peripheral blood of allergic asthmatic subjects
John-Paul Oliveria, Stephanie Phan, Mark W. Tenn, Brittany M Salter, Steven G Smith, Caitlin D Obminski, Caroline E Munoz, Abbey Schlatman, Tara X Scime, Rick Watson, Roma Sehmi, Gail M Gauvreau
A8 Pregnancy: could it be a risk factor for primary immunodeficient patients
Roya Sherkat, Razieh Khoshnevisan, Saba Sheikhbahaei
A9 Clinical experience with Octagam: a Canadian retrospective chart review
Stephen Betschel, Richard Warrington, Robert Schellenberg
A10 Kounis syndrome secondary to contrast media with inferior ST elevations and bilateral ischemic stroke
Michael N Fein, Jean-Philippe Pelletier
A11 Honey bee venom immunotherapy ineffective in bumble bee-induced anaphylaxis: case report and review of literature
Manstein Kan, Robert Schellenberg
A12 Delayed immune reconstitution occurring after multiple immune complications of hematological stem cell transplantation for a leaky SCID
Roxane Labrosse, Guilhem Cros, Pierre Teira, Henrique Bittencourt, Helene Decaluwe, Michel Duval, Elie Haddad
A13 Comparison of Three Case Reports of Acquired Angioedema: presentation, management and outcome
Raymond Mak, James Loh, Amin Kanani
A14 Sitagliptin-associated angioedema not related to concurrent use of ARB or ACE inhibitor
Dominik A. Nowak, Paul K. Keith
A15 Sneddon-Wilkinson subcorneal pustular dermatosis associated with an IgA monoclonal gammopathy
Daniel Pannozzo, Dominik A. Nowak, Hermenio C. Lima
A16 Omalizumab can be effective in patients with allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis
Diana Pham, Hoang Pham, Gonzalo G. Alvarez, Istvan T. Bencze, Krishna B. Sharma, Mark Smith, Shawn Aaron, Jennifer Block, Tara Keays, Judith Leech, David Schneidermen, Jodi Cameron, Jennifer Forgie, Alicia Ring, John W. O’Quinn, Stephanie Santucci, William H. Yang
A17 Efficacious use of omalizumab in the treatment of cystic fibrosis
Diana Pham, Hoang Pham, Ena Gaudet, Shawn Aaron, Stephanie Santucci, William H. Yang
A18 HAE with normal C1-INH with inconsistent response to C1 esterase inhibitor infusion but reliably responsive to icatibant
Hoang Pham, Stephanie Santucci, William H. Yang
A19 Anaphylaxis reaction to lactase enzyme
Mathew R. Voisin, Rozita Borici-Mazi
A20 Risk of solid tumor malignancies in patients with primary immune deficiency
Kateryna Vostretsova, Donald F. Stark
A21 Is it time to adopt the chromogenic assay for measuring C1 esterase inhibitor function in patients with HAE Type 2?
Elizabeth Yeboah, Paul K. Keith
A22 Emergency department visits for anaphylaxis and allergic reactions
Michelle Martin-Rhee, Cheryl Gula, Clare Cheng, Geoff Paltser
A23 START: Susceptibility To food Allergies in a Registry of Twins
Alizée Dery, Ann Clarke, Kari Nadeau, Laurie Harada, Kimberley Weatherall, Celia Greenwood, Denise Daley, Yuka Asai, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
A24 Qualifying the diagnostic approach employed by allergists when managing patients with self-diagnosed non-celiac gluten sensitivity (NCGS)
Lee Horgan, Teresa Pun
A25 Retrospective analysis on the agreement between skin prick test and serum food specific IgE antibody in adults with suspected food allergy
Ling Ling, Maria B. Ospina, Kyriaki Sideri, Harissios Vliagoftis
A26 Staple food hypersensitivity from infancy to adolescence: a report from the BAMSE cohort
Jennifer L.P. Protudjer, Mirja Vetander, Marianne van Hage, Ola Olén, Magnus Wickman, Anna Bergström
A27 Evaluating the impact of supervised epinephrine autoinjector administration during food challenges on perceived parent confidence
Timothy Teoh, Christopher Mill, Tiffany Wong, Ingrid Baerg, Angela Alexander, Kyla J. Hildebrand, John Dean, Boris Kuzeljevic, Edmond S. Chan
A28 Local immunoglobulin production to Aspergillus fumigatus cystic fibrosis
Jonathan Argeny, Mia Gona-Hoepler, Petra Fucik, Edith Nachbaur, Saskia Gruber, Reto Crameri, Andreas Glaser, Zsolt Szépfalusi, Claudio Rhyner, Thomas Eiwegger
A29 Extract consumption with skin prick test (SPT) devices
Greg. Plunkett, Brad Mire
A30 Evaluation of our cases with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug reactions
Mehtap Yazicioglu, Ceren Can, Gokce Ciplak
A31 Reasons for referral and final diagnoses in a tertiary care pediatric allergy clinic
Victoria E. Cook, Kyla J. Hildebrand, Elodie Portales-Casamar, Christopher Mill, Edmond S. Chan
A32 Internist referral practices for inpatients with self-reported penicillin allergies at a tertiary care teaching hospital
Michael N Fein, Emil P Nashi
A33 Assessing the risk of reactions in children with a negative oral challenge after a subsequent use of amoxicillin
Sofianne Gabrielli, Christopher Mill, Marie-Noel Primeau, Christine Lejtenyi, Elena Netchiporouk, Alizee Dery, Greg Shand, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
A34 Validity of self-reported penicillin allergies
Erica Hoe, Joel Liem
A35 Effectiveness of allergy-test directed elimination diets in eosinophilic esophagitis
Jason K. Ko, David J.T. Huang, Jorge A. Mazza
A36 Allergy testing and dietary management in pediatric eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE): A retrospective review of a tertiary Canadian centre’s experience
Mary McHenry, Anthony Otley,Wade Watson
A37 Visualizing the impact of atopic and allergic skin disease
Dominik A. Nowak, John N. Kraft
A38 Cystic fibrosis with and without nasal polyposis in pediatric patients: a cross-sectional comparative study
Mihaela Paina, Ahmed A. Darwish Hassan, Delia Heroux, Lynn Crawford, Gail Gauvreau, Judah Denburg, Linda Pedder, Paul K. Keith
A39 Evaluation of macrolide antibiotic hypersensitivity: the role of oral challenges in children
Bahar Torabi, Marie-Noel Primeau, Christine Lejtenyi, Elaine Medoff, Jennifer Mill, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
A40 Venom allergy testing: is a graded approach necessary?
Jaclyn A. Quirt, Xia Wen, Jonathan Kim, Angel Jimenez Herrero, Harold L. Kim
A41 The role of oral challenges in evaluating cephalosporin hypersensitivity reactions in children
Magdalena J. Grzyb, Marie-Noël Primeau, Christine Lejtenyi, Elaine Medoff, Jennifer Mill, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
A42 Breastfeeding and infant wheeze, atopy and atopic dermatitis: findings from the Canadian Healthy Infant Longitudinal Development Study
Meghan B. Azad, Zihang Lu, Allan B. Becker, Padmaja Subbarao, Piushkumar J. Mandhane, Stuart E. Turvey, Malcolm R. Sears, the CHILD Study Investigators
A43 IL33 DNA methylation in bronchial epithelial cells is associated to asthma
Anne-Marie Boucher-Lafleur, Valérie Gagné-Ouellet, Éric Jacques, Sophie Plante, Jamila Chakir, Catherine Laprise
A44 NRF2 mediates the antioxidant response to organic dust-induced oxidative stress in bronchial epithelial cells
Michael Chen, Toby McGovern, Mikael Adner, James G. Martin
A45 The effects of perinatal distress, immune biomarkers and mother-infant interaction quality on childhood atopic dermatitis (rash) at 18 months
Nela Cosic, Henry Ntanda, Gerald Giesbrecht, Anita Kozyrskyj, Nicole Letourneau
A46 Examining the immunological mechanisms associated with cow’s milk allergy
Bassel Dawod, Jean Marshall
A47 Tryptase levels in children presenting with anaphylaxis to the Montréal Children’s Hospital
Sarah De Schryver, Michelle Halbrich, Ann Clarke, Sebastian La Vieille, Harley Eisman, Reza Alizadehfar, Lawrence Joseph, Judy Morris, Moshe Ben-Shoshan
A48 Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure in infancy and the development of food hypersensitivity from childhood to adolescence
Laura Y. Feldman, Jesse D. Thacher, Inger Kull, Erik Melén, Göran Pershagen, Magnus Wickman, Jennifer L. P. Protudjer, Anna Bergström
A49 Combined exposure to diesel exhaust and allergen enhances allergic inflammation in the bronchial submucosa of atopic subjects
Ali Hosseini, Tillie L. Hackett, Jeremy Hirota, Kelly McNagny, Susan Wilson, Chris Carlsten
A50 Comparison of skin-prick test measurements by an automated system against the manual method
Saiful Huq, Rishma Chooniedass, Brenda Gerwing, Henry Huang, Diana Lefebvre, Allan Becker
A51 The accurate identification and quantification of urinary biomarkers of asthma and COPD through the use of novel DIL- LC-MS/MS methods
Mona M. Khamis, Hanan Awad, Kevin Allen, Darryl J. Adamko, Anas El-Aneed
A52 Systemic immune pathways associated with the mechanism of Cat-Synthetic Peptide Immuno-Regulatory Epitopes, a novel immunotherapy, in whole blood of cat-allergic people
Young Woong Kim, Daniel R. Gliddon, Casey P. Shannon, Amrit Singh, Pascal L. C. Hickey, Anne K. Ellis, Helen Neighbour, Mark Larche, Scott J. Tebbutt
A53 Reducing the health disparities: online support for children with asthma and allergies from low-income families
Erika Ladouceur, Miriam Stewart, Josh Evans, Jeff Masuda, Nicole Letourneau, Teresa To, Malcolm King
A54 Epigenetic association of PSORS1C1 and asthma in the Saguenay-Lac-Saint-Jean asthma study
Miriam Larouche, Liming Liang, Catherine Laprise
A55 IL-33 induces cytokine and chemokine production in human mast cells
Stephanie A. Legere, Ian D. Haidl, Jean-Francois Legaré, Jean S. Marshall
A56 Reference ranges for lung clearance index from infancy to adolescence for Canadian population
Zihang Lu, Malcolm Sears, Theo J. Moraes, Felix Ratjen, Per Gustafsson, Wendy Lou, Padmaja Subbarao
A57 Kingston Allergy Birth Cohort: cohort profile and mother/child characteristics to age 2
Michelle L. North, Elizabeth Lee, Vanessa Omana, Jenny Thiele, Jeff Brook, Anne K. Ellis
A58 Cow’s milk protein specific IgE, IgA and IgG4 as a predictor of outcome in oral immunotherapy
Tanvir Rahman, Duncan Lejtenyi, Sarah De Schryver, Ryan Fiter, Ciriaco Piccirillo, Moshe Ben-Shoshan, Bruce Mazer
A59 Age of peanut introduction and development of reactions and sensitization to peanut
Elinor Simons, Allan B. Becker, Rishma Chooniedass, Kyla Hildebrand, Edmond S. Chan, Stuart Turvey, Padmaja Subbarao, Malcolm Sears
A60 Multi-omic blood biomarker signatures of the late phase asthmatic response
Amrit Singh, Casey P. Shannon, Young Woong Kim, Mari DeMarco, Kim-Anh Le Cao, Gail M. Gauvreau, J. Mark FitzGerald, Louis-Philippe Boulet, Paul M. O’Byrne, Scott J. Tebbutt
A61 Early life gut microbial alterations in children diagnosed with asthma by three years of age
Leah T. Stiemsma, Marie-Claire Arrieta, Jasmine Cheng, Pedro A. Dimitriu, Lisa Thorson, Sophie Yurist, Boris Kuzeljevic, Diana L. Lefebvre, Padmaja Subbarao, Piush Mandhane, Allan Becker, Malcolm R. Sears, Kelly M. McNagny, Tobias Kollmann, the CHILD Study Investigators, William W. Mohn, B. Brett Finlay, Stuart E. Turvey
A62 The relationship between food sensitization and atopic dermatitis at age 1 year in a Canadian birth cohort
Maxwell M. Tran, Diana L. Lefebvre, Chinthanie F. Ramasundarahettige, Allan B. Becker, Wei Hao Dai, Padmaja Subbarao, Piush J. Mandhane, Stuart E. Turvey, Malcolm R. Sears
A63 Allergen inhalation enhances Toll-like receptor-induced thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor expression by hematopoietic progenitor cells in mild asthmatics
Damian Tworek, Delia Heroux, Seamus N. O’Byrne, Paul M. O’Byrne, Judah A. Denburg
A64 The Allergic Rhinitis Clinical Investigator Collaborative – replicated eosinophilia on repeated cumulative allergen challenges in nasal lavage samples
Laura Walsh, Mena Soliman, Jenny Thiele, Lisa M. Steacy, Daniel E. Adams, Anne K. Ellis
A65 The CHILD Study: optimizing subject retention in pediatric longitudinal cohort research
Linda Warner, Mary Ann Mauro, Robby Mamonluk, Stuart E. Turvey
A66 Differential expression of C3a and C5a in allergic asthma
ChenXi Yang, Amrit Singh, Casey P. Shannon, Young Woong Kim, Ed M. Conway, Scott J. Tebbutt
doi:10.1186/s13223-016-0118-0
PMCID: PMC5009563
11.  Advances in Autophagy Regulatory Mechanisms 
Cells  2016;5(2):24.
Autophagy plays a critical role in cell metabolism by degrading and recycling internal components when challenged with limited nutrients. This fundamental and conserved mechanism is based on a membrane trafficking pathway in which nascent autophagosomes engulf cytoplasmic cargo to form vesicles that transport their content to the lysosome for degradation. Based on this simple scheme, autophagy modulates cellular metabolism and cytoplasmic quality control to influence an unexpectedly wide range of normal mammalian physiology and pathophysiology. In this review, we summarise recent advancements in three broad areas of autophagy regulation. We discuss current models on how autophagosomes are initiated from endogenous membranes. We detail how the uncoordinated 51-like kinase (ULK) complex becomes activated downstream of mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1). Finally, we summarise the upstream signalling mechanisms that can sense amino acid availability leading to activation of MTORC1.
doi:10.3390/cells5020024
PMCID: PMC4931673  PMID: 27187479
autophagy; amino acids; ULK; MTOR; autophagosome; isolation membrane; Beclin 1; VPS34; ATG14L
12.  ATG7 regulates energy metabolism, differentiation and survival of Philadelphia-chromosome-positive cells 
Autophagy  2016;12(6):936-948.
ABSTRACT
A major drawback of tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatment in chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is that primitive CML cells are able to survive TKI-mediated BCR-ABL inhibition, leading to disease persistence in patients. Investigation of strategies aiming to inhibit alternative survival pathways in CML is therefore critical. We have previously shown that a nonspecific pharmacological inhibition of autophagy potentiates TKI-induced death in Philadelphia chromosome-positive cells. Here we provide further understanding of how specific and pharmacological autophagy inhibition affects nonmitochondrial and mitochondrial energy metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated differentiation of CML cells and highlight ATG7 (a critical component of the LC3 conjugation system) as a potential specific therapeutic target. By combining extra- and intracellular steady state metabolite measurements by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry with metabolic flux assays using labeled glucose and functional assays, we demonstrate that knockdown of ATG7 results in decreased glycolysis and increased flux of labeled carbons through the mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle. This leads to increased oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial ROS accumulation. Furthermore, following ROS accumulation, CML cells, including primary CML CD34+ progenitor cells, differentiate toward the erythroid lineage. Finally, ATG7 knockdown sensitizes CML progenitor cells to TKI-induced death, without affecting survival of normal cells, suggesting that specific inhibitors of ATG7 in combination with TKI would provide a novel therapeutic approach for CML patients exhibiting persistent disease.
doi:10.1080/15548627.2016.1162359
PMCID: PMC4922442  PMID: 27168493
ATG7; autophagy; chronic myeloid leukemia; energy metabolism; erythroid differentiation; glycolysis; oxidative phosphorylation; reactive oxygen species; tyrosine kinase inhibitor
13.  Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants 
The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food introduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim guidance based on consensus among the following organizations: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; American Academy of Pediatrics; American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy; Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Japanese Society for Allergology; Society for Pediatric Dermatology; and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases – sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.
doi:10.1186/s40413-015-0076-x
PMCID: PMC4522975  PMID: 26312127
Allergy prevention; Complementary feeding; Peanut allergy
14.  Consensus communication on early peanut introduction and the prevention of peanut allergy in high-risk infants 
The purpose of this brief communication is to highlight emerging evidence to existing guidelines regarding potential benefits of supporting early, rather than delayed, peanut introduction during the period of complementary food ntroduction in infants. This document should be considered as interim guidance based on consensus among the following organizations: American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; American Academy of Pediatrics; American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology; Australasian Society of Clinical Immunology and Allergy; Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Israel Association of Allergy and Clinical Immunology; Japanese Society for Allergology; Society for Pediatric Dermatology; and World Allergy Organization. More formal guidelines regarding early-life, complementary feeding practices and the risk of allergy development will follow in the next year from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases – sponsored Working Group and the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology.
doi:10.1186/s13223-015-0087-8
PMCID: PMC4545358  PMID: 26300927
Allergy prevention; Complementary feeding; Peanut allergy
15.  Diagnosis and management of eosinophilic esophagitis in children 
Canadian Family Physician  2015;61(8):687-690.
Abstract
Question After a few years of difficulty swallowing solids and feeling like food was getting stuck, a 13-year-old boy in my practice with peanut allergy and asthma was recently diagnosed with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). What is EoE and how is it diagnosed and managed?
Answer Eosinophilic esophagitis is an immune-mediated disease resulting in inflammation of the esophagus. It is increasing in prevalence and incidence in countries like Canada, and frequently occurs in children with other allergic conditions. Unexplained feeding difficulties, vomiting, and solid-food dysphagia, especially in boys with atopy, supports the possibility of having EoE. A formal diagnosis is obtained by reviewing esophageal biopsies obtained through upper endoscopy performed while the patient is taking a proton pump inhibitor. Once EoE has been established, management should involve working collaboratively with gastroenterology and allergy specialists. Medical or dietary treatments are acceptable therapeutic approaches.
PMCID: PMC4541432  PMID: 26505065
16.  Anaphylaxis in the acute care setting 
doi:10.1503/cmaj.131130
PMCID: PMC4049994  PMID: 24591280
17.  Accidental exposures to peanut in a large cohort of Canadian children with peanut allergy 
Background
We previously estimated that the annual rate of accidental exposure to peanut in 1411 children with peanut allergy, followed for 2227 patient-years, was 11.9% (95% CI, 10.6, 13.5). This cohort has increased to 1941 children, contributing 4589 patient-years, and we determined the annual incidence of accidental exposure, described the severity, management, location, and identified associated factors.
Findings
Children with physician-confirmed peanut allergy were recruited from Canadian allergy clinics and allergy advocacy organizations from 2004 to May 2014. Parents completed questionnaires regarding accidental exposure to peanut over the preceding year. Five hundred and sixty-seven accidental exposures occurred in 429 children over 4589 patient-years, yielding an annual incidence rate of 12.4% (95% CI, 11.4, 13.4). Of 377 accidental exposures that were moderate or severe, only 109 (28.9%) sought medical attention and of these 109, only 40 (36.7%) received epinephrine. Of the 181 moderate/severe accidental exposures treated outside a health care facility, only 11.6% received epinephrine. Thirty-seven percent of accidental exposures occurred at home. In multivariate analyses, longer disease duration, recruitment through an allergy advocacy association, and having other food allergies decreased the likelihood of accidental exposures. Age ≥ 13 years at study entry and living with a single parent increased the risk.
Conclusion
Despite increased awareness, accidental exposures continue to occur, mainly at home, and most are managed inappropriately by both health care professionals and caregivers. Consequently, more education is required on the importance of strict allergen avoidance and the need for prompt and correct management of anaphylaxis.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13601-015-0055-x) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13601-015-0055-x
PMCID: PMC4389801  PMID: 25861446
Peanut allergy; Accidental exposure; Epidemiology; Food allergy; Treatment
18.  CSACI position statement: systemic effect of inhaled corticosteroids on adrenal suppression in the management of pediatric asthma 
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the airways that affects a growing number of children and adolescents. Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the mainstay of treatment in persistent asthma, with a stepwise approach to increasing doses of ICS depending on asthma severity and control. ICS have known local and systemic side effects, of which adrenal suppression is still under-recognized. The latter is associated with chronic exposure and higher doses, although it has rarely been reported in children receiving low doses for a short period of time. The Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (CSACI) therefore recommends that physicians screen for adrenal suppression in children receiving high doses for more than 6 months and to consider screening those on medium dose if the risk is deemed higher by factors that increase an individual’s systemic corticosteroid exposure. Morning serum cortisol level can be used as a screening tool and abnormal results or normal results with a high index of suspicion should be confirmed with low-dose ACTH stimulation tests.
doi:10.1186/s13223-015-0075-z
PMCID: PMC4369840  PMID: 25802532
Asthma; Inhaled corticosteroids; Fluticasone; Adrenal suppression
20.  Dietary exposures and allergy prevention in high-risk infants 
Paediatrics & Child Health  2013;18(10):545-549.
Allergic conditions in children are a prevalent health concern in Canada. The burden of disease and the societal costs of proper diagnosis and management are considerable, making the primary prevention of allergic conditions a desirable health care objective. This position statement reviews current evidence on dietary exposures and allergy prevention in infants at high risk for developing allergic conditions. It revisits previous dietary recommendations for pregnancy, breastfeeding and formula feeding, and provides an approach for introducing solid foods to high-risk infants. While there is no evidence that delaying the introduction of any specific food beyond six months of age helps to prevent allergy, the protective effect of early introduction of potentially allergenic foods (at four to six months of age) remains under investigation. Recent research appears to suggest that regularly ingesting a new, potentially allergenic food may be as important as when that food is first introduced.
PMCID: PMC3907352  PMID: 24497783
Allergy prevention; Atopic dermatitis; Breastfeeding; Food allergy; Formula feeding; Solid food introduction
22.  IgE-Mediated allergy to wheat in a child with celiac disease – a case report 
Introduction
Celiac disease and immediate type hypersensitivity to wheat are immune responses with different pathogenic mechanisms. Both diseases are well known entities but their coexistence in the same patient is rarely reported. This is a unique case presentation of a patient with celiac disease who developed concomitant IgE-mediated wheat allergy and presented with immediate symptoms in two body systems.
Case presentation
We report the case of a girl with celiac disease who subsequently developed IgE-mediated hypersensitivity to wheat. The patient is a Caucasian female who was diagnosed with celiac disease at 18 months of age after presenting with recurrent vomiting and failure to thrive. Her anti-tTG antibody level was greater than 200 E.U. and biopsy results from endoscopy were consistent with celiac disease. Specific IgE antibody to wheat was negative at 2 years of age. Around seven years of age, she developed immediate symptoms of urticaria, cough and shortness of breath with accidental exposures to wheat. Specific IgE antibody testing was repeated and positive to wheat (42.5 kU/L), as well as rye (33.9 kU/L), barley (53.4 kU/L) and oat (11.3 kU/L). At 9 years of age, skin prick testing was positive to wheat, barley and rye but negative to oat. The patient has subsequently tolerated an open oral food challenge to oat. She continues to avoid wheat, rye and barley and carries an epinephrine autoinjector at all times.
Conclusion
To our knowledge, this is the first report of a patient with celiac disease and concomitant IgE-mediated allergy to wheat presenting with immediate symptoms in two body systems. Although the pathophysiology of these diseases is different, this case demonstrates that they are not exclusive of one another. In patients who develop unexplained symptoms consistent with IgE-mediated allergy, an allergy assessment should be considered.
doi:10.1186/1710-1492-10-56
PMCID: PMC4363205  PMID: 25788950
Celiac disease; Allergy; Wheat
23.  Inhibition of KRAS-driven tumorigenicity by interruption of an autocrine cytokine circuit 
Cancer discovery  2014;4(4):452-465.
Although the roles of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K) signaling in KRAS-driven tumorigenesis are well established, KRAS activates additional pathways required for tumor maintenance, inhibition of which are likely to be necessary for effective KRAS-directed therapy. Here we show that the IKK-related kinases TBK1 and IKKε promote KRAS-driven tumorigenesis by regulating autocrine CCL5 and IL-6 and identify CYT387 as a potent JAK/TBK1/IKKε inhibitor. CYT387 treatment ablates RAS-associated cytokine signaling and impairs Kras-driven murine lung cancer growth. Combined CYT387 and MEK inhibitor therapy induces regression of aggressive murine lung adenocarcinomas driven by Kras mutation and p53 loss. These observations reveal that TBK1/IKKε promote tumor survival by activating CCL5 and IL-6 and identify concurrent inhibition of TBK1/IKKε, JAK, and MEK signaling as an effective approach to inhibit the actions of oncogenic KRAS.
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-13-0646
PMCID: PMC3980023  PMID: 24444711
KRAS; cytokines; TBK1/IKKε; JAK; lung cancer
24.  Dietary exposures and allergy prevention in high-risk infants: a joint position statement of the Canadian Society of Allergy and Clinical Immunology and the Canadian Paediatric Society 
Allergic conditions in children are a prevalent health concern in Canada. The burden of disease and the societal costs of proper diagnosis and management are considerable, making the primary prevention of allergic conditions a desirable health care objective. This position statement reviews current evidence on dietary exposures and allergy prevention in infants at high risk of developing allergic conditions. It revisits previous dietary recommendations for pregnancy, breastfeeding and formula-feeding, and provides an approach for introducing solid foods to high-risk infants. While there is no evidence that delaying the introduction of any specific food beyond six months of age helps to prevent allergy, the protective effect of early introduction of potentially allergenic foods (at four to six months) remains under investigation. Recent research appears to suggest that regularly ingesting a new, potentially allergenic food may be as important as when that food is first introduced. This article has already been published (Paediatr Child Health. 2013 Dec;18(10):545–54), and is being re-published with permission from the original publisher, the Canadian Paediatric Society.
doi:10.1186/1710-1492-10-45
PMCID: PMC4407306  PMID: 25908933
Allergy prevention; Atopic dermatitis; Breastfeeding; Food allergy; Formula feeding; Solid food introduction
25.  Early exposure to food and food allergy in children 
Canadian Family Physician  2014;60(4):338-339.
Abstract
Question I have been under the impression that infants should avoid potential allergenic foods such as nuts, cow’s milk, and eggs in order to avoid developing allergic reactions. What advice should I give parents regarding the introduction of food in infancy and the development of food allergy?
Answer There is no evidence that delaying the introduction of any specific food beyond 6 months of age helps to prevent allergy. A recent Canadian Paediatric Society statement recommends no delay in the introduction of food in infancy. Recent research also appears to suggest that early introduction of potentially allergenic foods (at 4 to 6 months of age) might actually provide a form of protection and help prevent allergy, but more research is needed.
PMCID: PMC4046529  PMID: 24733323

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