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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  Cigarette Smoking and Sociodemographic, Military, and Health Characteristics of Operation Enduring Freedom and Operation Iraqi Freedom Veterans 
Public Health Reports  2016;131(5):714-727.
Objective:
We examined the sociodemographic, military, and health characteristics of current cigarette smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers among Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) / Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) veterans and estimated smoking prevalence to better understand cigarette use in this population.
Methods:
We analyzed data from the US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) 2009-2011 National Health Study for a New Generation of US Veterans. On the basis of a stratified random sample of 60 000 OEF/OIF veterans, we sought responses to a 72-item questionnaire via mail, telephone, or Internet. Cigarette smoking status was based on self-reported cigarette use in the past year. We used multinomial logistic regression to evaluate associations between smoking status and sociodemographic, military, and health characteristics.
Results:
Among 19 911 veterans who provided information on cigarette smoking, 5581 were current smokers (weighted percentage: 32.5%, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 31.7-33.2). Current smokers were more likely than nonsmokers or former smokers to be younger, to have less education or income, to be separated/divorced or never married/single, and to have served on active duty or in the army. Comparing current smokers and nonsmokers, some significant associations from adjusted analyses included the following: having a Mental Component Summary score (a measure of overall mental health) above the mean of the US population relative to below the mean (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 0.81, 95% CI: 0.73-0.90); having physician-diagnosed depression (aOR = 1.52, 95% CI: 1.33-1.74), respiratory conditions (aOR = 1.16, 95% CI: 1.04-1.30), or repeated seizures/blackouts/convulsions (aOR = 1.80, 95% CI: 1.22-2.67); heavy alcohol use vs never use (aOR = 5.49, 95% CI: 4.57-6.59); a poor vs excellent perception of overall health (aOR = 3.79, 95% CI: 2.60-5.52); and being deployed vs nondeployed (aOR = 0.87, 95% CI: 0.78-0.96). Using health care services from the VA protected against current smoking.
Conclusion:
Mental and physical health, substance use, and military service characteristics shape cigarette-smoking patterns in OEF/OIF veterans.
doi:10.1177/0033354916664864
PMCID: PMC5230820  PMID: 28123213
veterans; cigarettes; smoking; OEF/OIF; Operation Iraqi Freedom; Operation Enduring Freedom; health; Afghanistan; Iraq
2.  Rescinding Community Mitigation Strategies in an Influenza Pandemic 
Emerging Infectious Diseases  2008;14(3):365-372.
Thresholds for these strategies reduced the number of days strategies were needed without increasing illness rates.
Using a networked, agent-based computational model of a stylized community, we evaluated thresholds for rescinding 2 community mitigation strategies after an influenza pandemic. We ended child sequestering or all-community sequestering when illness incidence waned to thresholds of 0, 1, 2, or 3 cases in 7 days in 2 levels of pandemic severity. An unmitigated epidemic or strategy continuation for the epidemic duration served as control scenarios. The 0-case per 7-day rescinding threshold was comparable to the continuation strategy on infection and illness rates but reduced the number of days strategies would be needed by 6% to 32% in mild or severe pandemics. If cases recurred, strategies were resumed at a predefined 10-case trigger, and epidemic recurrence was thwarted. Strategies were most effective when used with high compliance and when combined with stringent rescinding thresholds. The need for strategies implemented for control of an influenza pandemic was reduced, without increasing illness rates.
doi:10.3201/eid1403.070673
PMCID: PMC2570828  PMID: 18325247
Pandemic influenza; community mitigation; school closing; nonpharmaceutical interventions; social distancing; sequestering; quarantine; epidemic modeling; agent-based model; research
4.  Infectious Disease Modeling and Military Readiness 
doi:10.3201/eid1509.090702
PMCID: PMC2819869  PMID: 21972475
Infectious disease; pandemic; influenza; modeling; military; conference summary
5.  The Impact of the 2004–2005 Influenza Vaccine Shortage in the Veterans Health Administration 
Journal of General Internal Medicine  2007;22(8):1132-1138.
Background
The Veterans Health Administration (VHA) serves a population at high risk of influenza-related morbidity and mortality. The national public health response to the vaccine shortage of the 2004–2005 season resulted in prioritization of recipients and redistribution of available supply.
Objective
To characterize the impact of the 2004–2005 influenza vaccine shortage on vaccination among users of VHA facilities.
Design
Analysis using data from the cross-sectional VHA Survey of Healthcare Experiences of Patients.
Participants
Outpatients seen in VHA clinics during the months September 2004–March 2005.
Measurements
Sociodemographics, vaccination prevalence, setting of vaccination, and reasons cited for not getting vaccinated.
Results
Influenza vaccination prevalence among VHA outpatients aged 50–64 was 56% and for those aged ≥65 was 86%. Compared to the 2 previous seasons, this estimate was lower for patients age 50–64 but similar for patients ≥65. After adjustment for patient characteristics, unvaccinated patients aged 50–64 were 8.3 (95% CI 6.0, 11.4) times as likely to cite that they were told they were not eligible for vaccination because of the national shortage compared to patients ≥65. Regional VHA variation in vaccination receipt and shortage-related reasons for nonvaccination was small.
Conclusions
The national influenza vaccine shortage of 2004–2005 primarily affected VHA users aged 50–64, consistent with the tiered prioritization guidance issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices. Despite the shortage, vaccination prevalence among VHA users ≥65 remained high.
doi:10.1007/s11606-007-0249-6
PMCID: PMC2305749  PMID: 17546477
influenza vaccine; veteran; vaccine shortage
6.  Effective, Robust Design of Community Mitigation for Pandemic Influenza: A Systematic Examination of Proposed US Guidance 
PLoS ONE  2008;3(7):e2606.
Background
The US government proposes pandemic influenza mitigation guidance that includes isolation and antiviral treatment of ill persons, voluntary household member quarantine and antiviral prophylaxis, social distancing of individuals, school closure, reduction of contacts at work, and prioritized vaccination. Is this the best strategy combination? Is choice of this strategy robust to pandemic uncertainties? What are critical enablers of community resilience?
Methods and Findings
We systematically simulate a broad range of pandemic scenarios and mitigation strategies using a networked, agent-based model of a community of explicit, multiply-overlapping social contact networks. We evaluate illness and societal burden for alterations in social networks, illness parameters, or intervention implementation. For a 1918-like pandemic, the best strategy minimizes illness to <1% of the population and combines network-based (e.g. school closure, social distancing of all with adults' contacts at work reduced), and case-based measures (e.g. antiviral treatment of the ill and prophylaxis of household members). We find choice of this best strategy robust to removal of enhanced transmission by the young, additional complexity in contact networks, and altered influenza natural history including extended viral shedding. Administration of age-group or randomly targeted 50% effective pre-pandemic vaccine with 7% population coverage (current US H5N1 vaccine stockpile) had minimal effect on outcomes. In order, mitigation success depends on rapid strategy implementation, high compliance, regional mitigation, and rigorous rescinding criteria; these are the critical enablers for community resilience.
Conclusions
Systematic evaluation of feasible, recommended pandemic influenza interventions generally confirms the US community mitigation guidance yields best strategy choices for pandemic planning that are robust to a wide range of uncertainty. The best strategy combines network- and case-based interventions; network-based interventions are paramount. Because strategies must be applied rapidly, regionally, and stringently for greatest benefit, preparation and public education is required for long-lasting, high community compliance during a pandemic.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0002606
PMCID: PMC2432023  PMID: 18596963

Results 1-6 (6)