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1.  The National Violent Death Reporting System 
American journal of preventive medicine  2016;51(5 Suppl 3):S169-S172.
PMCID: PMC5569389  PMID: 27745605
2.  Assessing Homicides by and of U.S. Law-Enforcement Officers 
The New England journal of medicine  2016;375(16):1509-1511.
PMCID: PMC5559881  PMID: 27537352
3.  Suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and occupations among employed adults aged 18–64 years in the United States 
Comprehensive psychiatry  2016;66:176-186.
Approximately 70% of all US suicides are among working-age adults. This study was to determine whether and how 12-month suicidal ideation and suicide attempt were associated with specific occupations among currently employed adults aged 18–64 in the U.S.
Data were from 184,300 currently employed adults who participated in the 2008–2013 National Surveys on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). NSDUH provides nationally representative data on suicidal ideation and suicide attempt. Descriptive analyses and multivariable logistic regressions were conducted.
Among currently employed adults aged 18–64 in the U.S., 3.5% had suicidal ideation in the past 12 months (3.1% had suicidal ideation only, and 0.4% had suicidal ideation and attempted suicide). Compared with adults in farming, fishing, and forestry occupations (model adjusted prevalence (MAP) = 1.6%), adults in the following occupations were 3.0–3.6 times more likely to have suicidal ideation in the past year (model adjusted relative risks (MARRs) = 3.0–3.6): lawyers, judges, and legal support workers (MAP = 4.8%), social scientists and related workers (MAP = 5.4%), and media and communication workers (MAP = 5.8%).
Among employed adults aged 18–64 in the U.S., the 12-month prevalence of suicidal ideation varies by occupations. Adults in occupations that are at elevated risk for suicidal ideation may warrant focused suicide prevention.
PMCID: PMC4959536  PMID: 26995251
4.  Characteristics of U.S. Suicide Decedents in 2005–2010 Who Had Received Mental Health Treatment 
To inform suicide prevention efforts in mental health treatment, the study assessed associations between recent mental health treatment, personal characteristics, and circumstances of suicide among suicide decedents.
Data from 18 states reporting to the National Violent Death Reporting System between 2005 and 2010 (N=57,877 suicides) were used to compare circumstances among adult decedents receiving any or no type of mental health treatment within two months before death.
Of suicide decedents, 28.5% received treatment before suicide. Several variables were associated with higher odds of receiving treatment, including death by poisoning with commonly prescribed substances (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]=3.04, 95% confidence interval [CI]52.84–3.26), a history of suicide attempts (AOR=2.77, CI=2.64–2.90), depressed mood (AOR=1.69, CI=1.62–1.76), and nonalcoholic substance abuse or dependence (AOR=1.13, CI=1.07–1.19).
For nearly a third of all suicide decedents, better mental health care might have prevented death. Efforts to reduce access to lethal doses of prescription medications seem warranted to prevent overdosing with commonly prescribed substances.
PMCID: PMC4959535  PMID: 24584526
5.  Impact of depression on quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) directly as well as indirectly through suicide 
To estimate quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE) loss among US adults due to depression and QALE losses associated with the increased risk of suicide attributable to depression.
We ascertained depressive symptoms using the eight-item Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-8) on the 2006, 2008, and 2010 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) surveys. We estimated health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores from BRFSS data (n = 276,442) and constructed life tables from US Compressed Mortality Files to calculate QALE by depression status. QALE loss due to depression is the difference in QALE between depressed and non-depressed adults. QALE loss associated with suicide deaths is the difference between QALE from only those deaths that did not have suicide recorded on the death certificate and QALE from all deaths including those with a suicide recorded on the death certificate.
At age 18, QALE was 28.0 more years for depressed adults and 56.8 more years for non-depressed adults, a 28.9-year QALE loss due to depression. For depressed adults, only 0.41 years of QALE loss resulted from deaths by suicide, and only 0.26 years of this loss could be attributed to depression.
Depression symptoms lead to a significant burden of disease from both mortality and morbidity as assessed by QALE loss. The 28.9-year QALE loss at age 18 associated with depression markedly exceeds estimates reported elsewhere for stroke (12.4-year loss), heart disease (10.3-year loss), diabetes mellitus (11.1-year loss), hypertension (6.3-year loss), asthma (7.0-year loss), smoking (11.0-year loss), and physical inactivity (8.0-year loss).
PMCID: PMC4590980  PMID: 25660550
Depression; Suicide; Health-related quality of life (HRQOL); Quality-adjusted life expectancy (QALE); Life expectancy
6.  Self-Harm and Suicide Attempts among High-Risk, Urban Youth in the U.S.: Shared and Unique Risk and Protective Factors 
The extent to which self-harm and suicidal behavior overlap in community samples of vulnerable youth is not well known. Secondary analyses were conducted of the “linkages study” (N = 4,131), a cross-sectional survey of students enrolled in grades 7, 9, 11/12 in a high-risk community in the U.S. in 2004. Analyses were conducted to determine the risk and protective factors (i.e., academic grades, binge drinking, illicit drug use, weapon carrying, child maltreatment, social support, depression, impulsivity, self-efficacy, parental support, and parental monitoring) associated with both self-harm and suicide attempt. Findings show that 7.5% of participants reported both self-harm and suicide attempt, 2.2% of participants reported suicide attempt only, and 12.4% of participants reported self-harm only. Shared risk factors for co-occurring self-harm and suicide attempt include depression, binge drinking, weapon carrying, child maltreatment, and impulsivity. There were also important differences by sex, grade level, and race/ethnicity that should be considered for future research. The findings show that there is significant overlap in the modifiable risk factors associated with self-harm and suicide attempt that can be targeted for future research and prevention strategies.
PMCID: PMC3315085  PMID: 22470286
self-harm; suicide attempt; youth; adolescents; U.S.; high-risk; school; cross-sectional
7.  Suicidal Behaviors in the African American Community 
This article reviews the risk and protective factors associated with suicidal thoughts and behaviors in the African American community. The authors provide a brief review of the history of suicide research in African American communities and critique some of the paradigms and underlying assumptions that have made it difficult to address the problem of suicidal behaviors in the African American community. The article also summarizes the articles that are presented in this special edition of the Journal of Black Psychology on suicidality in the African American community.
PMCID: PMC1615885  PMID: 17047727
suicide; African Americans; epidemiology; risk and protective factors
8.  Child and adolescent violent deaths: an epidemiologic investigation. 
OBJECTIVES: An apparent increase in violent deaths among children and adolescents in Detroit, MI in 2002 prompted a coordinated epidemiologic investigation involving federal, state and local organizations. METHODS: A descriptive analysis of cases and violent deaths (homicide, suicide or firearm-related) among juveniles <17 years was conducted, along with a case-control study using records from the medical examiner, police, schools and social service agencies. RESULTS: Twenty-nine cases were identified. Median age was 10 years (range 1 day-16 years), and 15 (52%) were male. There were 25 homicides, two suicides and two unintentional firearm-related deaths. Nine (31%) homicides resulted from child abuse and neglect, and eight (28%) were among bystanders. The most common mechanism of fatal injury was firearm (63%). Victims' families were more likely to have a history of familial violence, prior contact with the state social services agency, > or = 2 adults and > or = 4 persons in the household (P<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The 2002 deaths did not represent a statistically significant increase from previous years. Several findings were remarkable: the proportion of deaths among bystanders, females and children age <5.
PMCID: PMC2595075  PMID: 16708501

Results 1-8 (8)