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1.  BCP-ALL blasts are not dependent on CD19 expression for leukaemic maintenance 
Leukemia  2016;30(9):1920-1923.
doi:10.1038/leu.2016.64
PMCID: PMC4950966  PMID: 27055873
2.  Long-term in vitro maintenance of clonal abundance and leukaemia-initiating potential in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia 
Leukemia  2016;30(8):1691-1700.
Lack of suitable in vitro culture conditions for primary acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) cells severely impairs their experimental accessibility and the testing of new drugs on cell material reflecting clonal heterogeneity in patients. We show that Nestin-positive human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) support expansion of a range of biologically and clinically distinct patient-derived ALL samples. Adherent ALL cells showed an increased accumulation in the S phase of the cell cycle and diminished apoptosis when compared with cells in the suspension fraction. Moreover, surface expression of adhesion molecules CD34, CDH2 and CD10 increased several fold. Approximately 20% of the ALL cells were in G0 phase of the cell cycle, suggesting that MSCs may support quiescent ALL cells. Cellular barcoding demonstrated long-term preservation of clonal abundance. Expansion of ALL cells for >3 months compromised neither feeder dependence nor cancer initiating ability as judged by their engraftment potential in immunocompromised mice. Finally, we demonstrate the suitability of this co-culture approach for the investigation of drug combinations with luciferase-expressing primograft ALL cells. Taken together, we have developed a preclinical platform with patient-derived material that will facilitate the development of clinically effective combination therapies for ALL.
doi:10.1038/leu.2016.79
PMCID: PMC4980562  PMID: 27109511
4.  Understanding the cancer stem cell 
British Journal of Cancer  2010;103(4):439-445.
The last 15 years has seen an explosion of interest in the cancer stem cell (CSC). Although it was initially believed that only a rare population of stem cells are able to undergo self-renewing divisions and differentiate to form all populations within a malignancy, a recent work has shown that these cells may not be as rare as thought first, at least in some malignancies. Improved experimental models are beginning to uncover a less rigid structure to CSC biology, in which the concepts of functional plasticity and clonal evolution must be incorporated into the traditional models. Slowly the genetic programmes and biological processes underlying stem cell biology are being elucidated, opening the door to the development of drugs targeting the CSC. The aim of ongoing research to understand CSCs is to develop novel stem cell-directed treatments, which will reduce therapy resistance, relapse and the toxicity associated with current, non-selective agents.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605821
PMCID: PMC2939794  PMID: 20664590
cancer stem cell; leukaemia stem cell; self-renewal; clonal evolution; tumour heterogeneity
6.  PI3K/AKT is involved in mediating survival signals that rescue Ewing tumour cells from fibroblast growth factor 2-induced cell death 
British Journal of Cancer  2005;92(4):705-710.
While in vitro studies had shown that fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) can induce cell death in Ewing tumours, it remained unclear how Ewing tumour cells survive in vivo within a FGF2-rich microenvironment. Serum- and integrin-mediated survival signals were, therefore, studied in adherent monolayer and anchorage-independent colony cell cultures. In a panel of Ewing tumour cell lines, either adhesion to collagen or exposure to serum alone only had a minor protective effect against FGF2. However, both combined led to complete resistance to 5 ng ml−1 FGF2 in three of four FGF2-sensitive cell lines (RD-ES, RM-82 and WE-68), and to an increased survival as compared to other culture conditions in TC-71 cells. Inhibition studies with LY294002 demonstrated that the serum signal is mediated via the phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase/AKT pathway. Thus, Ewing tumour cells escape FGF2-induced cell death by modulating FGF2 signalling. The tumour microenvironment provides the necessary survival signals by integrin-mediated adhesion and soluble serum factor(s). These survival signals warrant further investigation as a potential resistance mechanism to other apoptosis-inducing agents in vivo.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602384
PMCID: PMC3216036  PMID: 15685229
fibroblast growth factor 2; basic fibroblast growth factor; Ewing tumours; apoptosis; survival signals
7.  The MLL recombinome of acute leukemias in 2013 
Leukemia  2013;27(11):2165-2176.
Chromosomal rearrangements of the human MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) gene are associated with high-risk infant, pediatric, adult and therapy-induced acute leukemias. We used long-distance inverse-polymerase chain reaction to characterize the chromosomal rearrangement of individual acute leukemia patients. We present data of the molecular characterization of 1590 MLL-rearranged biopsy samples obtained from acute leukemia patients. The precise localization of genomic breakpoints within the MLL gene and the involved translocation partner genes (TPGs) were determined and novel TPGs identified. All patients were classified according to their gender (852 females and 745 males), age at diagnosis (558 infant, 416 pediatric and 616 adult leukemia patients) and other clinical criteria. Combined data of our study and recently published data revealed a total of 121 different MLL rearrangements, of which 79 TPGs are now characterized at the molecular level. However, only seven rearrangements seem to be predominantly associated with illegitimate recombinations of the MLL gene (∼90%): AFF1/AF4, MLLT3/AF9, MLLT1/ENL, MLLT10/AF10, ELL, partial tandem duplications (MLL PTDs) and MLLT4/AF6, respectively. The MLL breakpoint distributions for all clinical relevant subtypes (gender, disease type, age at diagnosis, reciprocal, complex and therapy-induced translocations) are presented. Finally, we present the extending network of reciprocal MLL fusions deriving from complex rearrangements.
doi:10.1038/leu.2013.135
PMCID: PMC3826032  PMID: 23628958
MLL; chromosomal translocations; translocation partner genes; acute leukemia; ALL; AML
8.  Differential expression of miR-17∼92 identifies BCL2 as a therapeutic target in BCR-ABL-positive B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemia 
Leukemia  2013;28(3):554-565.
Despite advances in allogeneic stem cell transplantation, BCR-ABL-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) remains a high-risk disease, necessitating the development of novel treatment strategies. As the known oncomir, miR-17∼92, is regulated by BCR-ABL fusion in chronic myeloid leukaemia, we investigated its role in BCR-ABL translocated ALL. miR-17∼92-encoded miRNAs were significantly less abundant in BCR-ABL-positive as compared to -negative ALL-cells and overexpression of miR-17∼19b triggered apoptosis in a BCR-ABL-dependent manner. Stable isotope labelling of amino acids in culture (SILAC) followed by liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) identified several apoptosis-related proteins including Bcl2 as potential targets of miR-17∼19b. We validated Bcl2 as a direct target of this miRNA cluster in mice and humans, and, similar to miR-17∼19b overexpression, Bcl2-specific RNAi strongly induced apoptosis in BCR-ABL-positive cells. Furthermore, BCR-ABL-positive human ALL cell lines were more sensitive to pharmacological BCL2 inhibition than negative ones. Finally, in a xenograft model using patient-derived leukaemic blasts, real-time, in vivo imaging confirmed pharmacological inhibition of BCL2 as a new therapeutic strategy in BCR-ABL-positive ALL. These data demonstrate the role of miR-17∼92 in regulation of apoptosis, and identify BCL2 as a therapeutic target of particular relevance in BCR-ABL-positive ALL.
doi:10.1038/leu.2013.361
PMCID: PMC3948162  PMID: 24280866
BCR-ABL; BCL2; acute lymphoblastic leukaemia; miRNA-17–92

Results 1-8 (8)