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1.  Benefit of continuous treatment for responders with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma in the randomized FIRST trial 
Leukemia  2017;31(11):2435-2442.
The phase 3, randomized Frontline Investigation of Revlimid and Dexamethasone Versus Standard Thalidomide (FIRST) trial investigating lenalidomide plus low-dose dexamethasone until disease progression (Rd continuous) vs melphalan, prednisone and thalidomide for 12 cycles (MPT) and Rd for 18 cycles (Rd18) in transplant-ineligible patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (NDMM) showed that Rd continuous prolonged progression-free survival and overall survival compared with MPT. A subanalysis of the FIRST trial was conducted to determine the benefits of Rd continuous in patients with NDMM based on depth of response. Patients randomized 1:1:1 to Rd continuous, Rd18 or MPT were divided into subgroups based on best response: complete response (CR; n=290), ⩾very good partial response (VGPR; n=679), ⩾partial response (PR; n=1 225) or ⩽stable disease (n=299). Over 13% of patients receiving Rd continuous who achieved ⩾VGPR as best response did so beyond 18 months of treatment. Rd continuous reduced the risk of progression or death by 67%, 51% and 35% vs MPT in patients with CR, ⩾VGPR and ⩾PR, respectively. Similarly, Rd continuous reduced the risk of progression or death by 61%, 54% and 38% vs Rd18 in patients with CR, ⩾VGPR and ⩾PR, respectively. In patients with CR, ⩾VGPR or ⩾PR, 4-year survival rates in the Rd continuous arm (81.1%, 73.1% or 64.6%, respectively) were higher vs MPT (70.8%, 59.8% or 57.2%, respectively) and similar vs Rd18 (76.5%, 67.7% and 62.5%, respectively). Rd continuous improved efficacy outcomes in all responding patients, including those with CR, compared with fixed duration treatment.
PMCID: PMC5668494  PMID: 28373701
2.  Direction-specific interaction forces underlying zinc oxide crystal growth by oriented attachment 
Nature Communications  2017;8:835.
Crystallization by particle attachment is impacting our understanding of natural mineralization processes and holds promise for novel materials design. When particles assemble in crystallographic alignment, expulsion of the intervening solvent and particle coalescence are enabled by near-perfect co-alignment via interparticle forces that remain poorly quantified. Here we report measurement and simulation of these nanoscale aligning forces for the ZnO(0001)-ZnO(000\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$\bar 1$$\end{document}1¯) system in aqueous solution. Dynamic force spectroscopy using nanoengineered single crystal probes reveals an attractive force with 60o rotational periodicity. Calculated distance and orientation-dependent potentials of mean force show several attractive free energy wells distinguished by numbers of intervening water layers, which reach a minimum when aligned. The calculated activation energy to separate the attractively bound solvated interfaces perfectly reproduces the measured 60o periodicity, revealing the key role of intervening water structuring as a basis to generate the interparticle torque that completes alignment and enables coalescence.
Crystal growth is a fundamental process, important in a wide range of fields, but the interparticle forces responsible for molecule alignment are not well understood. Here, the authors measure the alignment forces in ZnO using dynamic force spectroscopy, highlighting the role of intervening water molecules.
PMCID: PMC5635138  PMID: 29018200
3.  Regulation of spindle integrity and mitotic fidelity by BCCIP 
Oncogene  2017;36(33):4750-4766.
Centrosomes together with the mitotic spindle ensure the faithful distribution of chromosomes between daughter cells, and spindle orientation is a major determinant of cell fate during tissue regeneration. Spindle defects are not only an impetus of chromosome instability but are also a cause of developmental disorders involving defective asymmetric cell division. In this work, we demonstrate BCCIP, especially BCCIPα, as a previously unidentified component of the mitotic spindle pole and the centrosome. We demonstrate that BCCIP localizes proximal to the mother centriole and participates in microtubule organization and then redistributes to the spindle pole to ensure faithful spindle architecture. We find that BCCIP depletion leads to morphological defects, disoriented mitotic spindles, chromosome congression defects and delayed mitotic progression. Our study identifies BCCIP as a novel factor critical for microtubule regulation and explicates a mechanism utilized by BCCIP in tumor suppression.
PMCID: PMC5561484  PMID: 28394342
4.  NDPK-D (NM23-H4)-mediated externalization of cardiolipin enables elimination of depolarized mitochondria by mitophagy 
Cell Death and Differentiation  2016;23(7):1140-1151.
Mitophagy is critical for cell homeostasis. Externalization of the inner mitochondrial membrane phospholipid, cardiolipin (CL), to the surface of the outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) was identified as a mitophageal signal recognized by the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3. However, the CL-translocating machinery remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that a hexameric intermembrane space protein, NDPK-D (or NM23-H4), binds CL and facilitates its redistribution to the OMM. We found that mitophagy induced by a protonophoric uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), caused externalization of CL to the surface of mitochondria in murine lung epithelial MLE-12 cells and human cervical adenocarcinoma HeLa cells. RNAi knockdown of endogenous NDPK-D decreased CCCP-induced CL externalization and mitochondrial degradation. A R90D NDPK-D mutant that does not bind CL was inactive in promoting mitophagy. Similarly, rotenone and 6-hydroxydopamine triggered mitophagy in SH-SY5Y cells was also suppressed by knocking down of NDPK-D. In situ proximity ligation assay (PLA) showed that mitophagy-inducing CL-transfer activity of NDPK-D is closely associated with the dynamin-like GTPase OPA1, implicating fission–fusion dynamics in mitophagy regulation.
PMCID: PMC4946882  PMID: 26742431
5.  World Congress Integrative Medicine & Health 2017: Part one 
Brinkhaus, Benno | Falkenberg, Torkel | Haramati, Aviad | Willich, Stefan N. | Briggs, Josephine P. | Willcox, Merlin | Linde, Klaus | Theorell, Töres | Wong, Lisa M. | Dusek, Jeffrey | Wu, Darong | Eisenberg, David | Haramati, Aviad | Berger, Bettina | Kemper, Kathi | Stock-Schröer, Beate | Sützl-Klein, Hedda | Ferreri, Rosaria | Kaplan, Gary | Matthes, Harald | Rotter, Gabriele | Schiff, Elad | Arnon, Zahi | Hahn, Eckhard | Luberto, Christina M. | Martin, David | Schwarz, Silke | Tauschel, Diethard | Flower, Andrew | Gramminger, Harsha | Gupta, Hedwig H. | Gupta, S. N. | Kerckhoff, Annette | Kessler, Christian S. | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian S. | Kim, Eun S. | Jang, Eun H. | Kim, Rana | Jan, Sae B. | Mittwede, Martin | Mohme, Wiebke | Ben-Arye, Eran | Bonucci, Massimo | Saad, Bashar | Breitkreuz, Thomas | Rossi, Elio | Kebudi, Rejin | Daher, Michel | Razaq, Samaher | Gafer, Nahla | Nimri, Omar | Hablas, Mohamed | Kienle, Gunver Sophia | Samuels, Noah | Silbermann, Michael | Bandelin, Lena | Lang, Anna-Lena | Wartner, Eva | Holtermann, Christoph | Binstock, Maxwell | Riebau, Robert | Mujkanovic, Edin | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Michalsen, Andres | Ward, Lesley | Cramer, Holger | Irnich, Dominik | Stör, Wolfram | Burnstock, Geoffrey | Schaible, Hans-Georg | Ots, Thomas | Langhorst, Jost | Lauche, Romy | Sundberg, Tobias | Falkenberg, Torkel | Amarell, Catherina | Amarell, Catherina | Anheyer, Melanie | Eckert, Marion | Eckert, Marion | Ogal, Mercedes | Eckert, Marion | Amarell, Catherina | Schönauer, Annette | Reisenberger, Birgit | Brand, Bernhard | Anheyer, Dennis | Dobos, Gustav | Kroez, Matthias | Martin, David | Matthes, Harald | Ammendola, Aldo | Mao, Jun J. | Witt, Claudia | Yang, Yufei | Dobos, Gustav | Oritz, Miriam | Horneber, Markus | Voiß, Petra | Reisenberger, Birgit | von Rosenstiel, Alexandra | Eckert, Marion | Ogal, Mercedes | Amarell, Catharina | Anheyer, Melanie | Schad, Friedemann | Schläppi, Marc | Kröz, Matthias | Büssing, Arndt | Bar-Sela, Gil | Matthes, Harald | Schiff, Elad | Ben-Arye, Eran | Arnon, Zahi | Avshalomov, David | Attias, Samuel | Schönauer, Annette | Haramati, Aviad | Witt, Claudia | Brinkhaus, Benno | Cotton, Sian | Jong, Miek | Jong, Mats | Scheffer, Christian | Haramati, Aviad | Tauschel, Diethard | Edelhäuser, Friedrich | AlBedah, Abdullah | Lee, Myeong Soo | Khalil, Mohamed | Ogawa, Keiko | Motoo, Yoshiharu | Arimitsu, Junsuke | Ogawa, Masao | Shimizu, Genki | Stange, Rainer | Kraft, Karin | Kuchta, Kenny | Watanabe, Kenji | Bonin, D | Büssing, Arndt | Gruber, Harald | Koch, Sabine | Gruber, Harald | Pohlmann, Urs | Caldwell, Christine | Krantz, Barbara | Kortum, Ria | Martin, Lily | Wieland, Lisa S. | Kligler, Ben | Gould-Fogerite, Susan | Zhang, Yuqing | Wieland, Lisa S. | Riva, John J. | Lumpkin, Michael | Ratner, Emily | Ping, Liu | Jian, Pei | Hamme, Gesa-Meyer | Mao, Xiaosong | Chouping, Han | Schröder, Sven | Hummelsberger, Josef | Wullinger, Michael | Brodzky, Marc | Zalpour, Christoff | Langley, Julia | Weber, Wendy | Mudd, Lanay M. | Wayne, Peter | Witt, Clauda | Weidenhammer, Wolfgang | Fønnebø, Vinjar | Boon, Heather | Steel, Amie | Bugarcic, Andrea | Rangitakatu, Melisa | Steel, Amie | Adams, Jon | Sibbritt, David | Wardle, Jon | Leach, Matthew | Schloss, Janet | Dieze, Helene | Boon, Heather | Ijaz, Nadine | Willcox, Merlin | Heinrich, Michael | Lewith, George | Flower, Andrew | Graz, Bertrand | Adam, Daniela | Grabenhenrich, Linus | Ortiz, Miriam | Binting, Sylvia | Reinhold, Thomas | Brinkhaus, Benno | Andermo, Susanne | Sundberg, Tobias | Falkenberg, Torkel | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Arman, Maria | Bhasin, Manoj | Fan, Xueyi | Libermann, Towia | Fricchione, Gregory | Denninger, John | Benson, Herbert | Berger, Bettina | Stange, Rainer | Michalsen, Andreas | Martin, David D. | Boers, Inge | Vlieger, Arine | Jong, Miek | Brinkhaus, Benno | Teut, Michael | Ullmann, Alexander | Ortiz, Miriam | Rotter, Gabriele | Binting, Sylvia | Lotz, Fabian | Roll, Stephanie | Canella, Claudia | Mikolasek, Michael | Rostock, Matthias | Beyer, Jörg | Guckenberger, Matthias | Jenewein, Josef | Linka, Esther | Six, Claudia | Stoll, Sarah | Stupp, Roger | Witt, Claudia M. | Chuang, Elisabeth | Kligler, Ben | McKee, Melissa D. | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Klose, Petra | Lange, Silke | Langhorst, Jost | Dobos, Gustav | Chung, Vincent C. H. | Wong, Hoi L. C. | Wu, Xin Y. | Wen, Grace Y. G. | Ho, Robin S. T. | Ching, Jessica Y. L. | Wu, Justin C. Y. | Coakley, Amanda | Flanagan, Jane | Annese, Christine | Empoliti, Joanne | Gao, Zishan | Liu, Xugang | Yu, Shuguang | Yan, Xianzhong | Liang, Fanrong | Hohmann, Christoph D. | Steckhan, Nico | Ostermann, Thomas | Paetow, Arion | Hoff, Evelyn | Michalsen, Andreas | Hu, Xiao-Yang | Wu, Ruo-Han | Logue, Martin | Blonde, Clara | Lai, Lily Y. | Stuart, Beth | Flower, Andrew | Fei, Yu-Tong | Moore, Michael | Liu, Jian-Ping | Lewith, George | Hu, Xiao-Yang | Wu, Ruo-Han | Logue, Martin | Blonde, Clara | Lai, Lily Y. | Stuart, Beth | Flower, Andrew | Fei, Yu-Tong | Moore, Michael | Liu, Jian-Ping | Lewith, George | Jeitler, Michael | Zillgen, Hannah | Högl, Manuel | Steckhan, Nico | Stöckigt, Barbara | Seifert, Georg | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian | Khadivzadeh, Talat | Bashtian, Maryam Hassanzadeh | Aval, Shapour Badiee | Esmaily, Habibollah | Kim, Jihye | Kim, Keun H. | Klocke, Carina | Joos, Stefanie | Koshak, Abdulrahman | Wie, Li | Koshak, Emad | Wali, Siraj | Alamoudi, Omer | Demerdash, Abdulrahman | Qutub, Majdy | Pushparaj, Peter | Heinrich, Michael | Kruse, Sigrid | Fischer, Isabell | Tremel, Nadine | Rosenecker, Joseph | Leung, Brenda | Takeda, Wendy | Liang, Ning | Feng, Xue | Liu, Jian-ping | Cao, Hui-juan | Luberto, Christina M. | Shinday, Nina | Philpotts, Lisa | Park, Elyse | Fricchione, Gregory L. | Yeh, Gloria | Munk, Niki | Zakeresfahani, Arash | Foote, Trevor R. | Ralston, Rick | Boulanger, Karen | Özbe, Dominik | Gräßel, Elmar | Luttenberger, Katharina | Pendergrass, Anna | Pach, Daniel | Bellmann-Strobl, Judit | Chang, Yinhui | Pasura, Laura | Liu, Bin | Jäger, Sven F. | Loerch, Ronny | Jin, Li | Brinkhaus, Benno | Ortiz, Miriam | Reinhold, Thomas | Roll, Stephanie | Binting, Sylvia | Icke, Katja | Shi, Xuemin | Paul, Friedemann | Witt, Claudia M. | Rütz, Michaela | Lynen, Andreas | Schömitz, Meike | Vahle, Maik | Salomon, Nir | Lang, Alon | Lahat, Adi | Kopylov, Uri | Ben-Horin, Shomron | Har-Noi, Ofir | Avidan, Benjamin | Elyakim, Rami | Gamus, Dorit | NG, Siew | Chang, Jessica | Wu, Justin | Kaimiklotis, John | Schumann, Dania | Buttó, Ludovica | Langhorst, Jost | Dobos, Gustav | Haller, Dirk | Cramer, Holger | Smith, Caroline | de Lacey, Sheryl | Chapman, Michael | Ratcliffe, Julie | Johnson, Neil | Lyttleton, Jane | Boothroyd, Clare | Fahey, Paul | Tjaden, Bram | van Vliet, Marja | van Wietmarschen, Herman | Jong, Miek | Tröger, Wilfried | Vuolanto, Pia | Aarva, Paulina | Sorsa, Minna | Helin, Kaija | Wenzel, Claudia | Zoderer, Iris | Pammer, Patricia | Simon, Patrick | Tucek, Gerhard | Wode, Kathrin | Henriksson, Roger | Sharp, Lena | Stoltenberg, Anna | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Xiao-ying, Yang | Wang, Li-qiong | Li, Jin-gen | Liang, Ning | Wang, Ying | Liu, Jian-ping | Balneaves, Lynda | Capler, Rielle | Bocci, Chiara | Guffi, Marta | Paolini, Marina | Meaglia, Ilaria | Porcu, Patrizia | Ivaldi, Giovanni B. | Dragan, Simona | Bucuras, Petru | Pah, Ana M. | Badalica-Petrescu, Marius | Buleu, Florina | Hogea-Stoichescu, Gheorghe | Christodorescu, Ruxandra | Kao, Lan | Cho, Yumin | Klafke, Nadja | Mahler, Cornelia | von Hagens, Cornelia | Uhlmann, Lorenz | Bentner, Martina | Schneeweiss, Andreas | Mueller, Andreas | Szecsenyi, Joachim | Joos, Stefanie | Neri, Isabella | Ortiz, Miriam | Schnabel, Katharina | Teut, Michael | Rotter, Gabriele | Binting, Sylvia | Cree, Margit | Lotz, Fabian | Suhr, Ralf | Brinkhaus, Benno | Rossi, Elio | Baccetti, Sonia | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Monechi, Maria V. | Di Stefano, Mariella | Amunni, Gianni | Wong, Wendy | Chen, Bingzhong | Wu, Justin | Amri, Hakima | Haramati, Aviad | Kotlyanskaya, Lucy | Anderson, Belinda | Evans, Roni | Kligler, Ben | Marantz, Paul | Bradley, Ryan | Booth-LaForce, Cathryn | Zwickey, Heather | Kligler, Benjamin | Brooks, Audrey | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Lebensohn, Patricia | Goldblatt, Elisabeth | Esmel-Esmel, Neus | Jiménez-Herrera, Maria | Ijaz, Nadine | Boon, Heather | Jocham, Alexandra | Stock-Schröer, Beate | Berberat, Pascal O. | Schneider, Antonius | Linde, Klaus | Masetti, Morgana | Murakozy, Henriette | Van Vliet, Marja | Jong, Mats | Jong, Miek | Agdal, Rita | Atarzadeh, Fatemeh | Jaladat, Amir M. | Hoseini, Leila | Amini, Fatemeh | Bai, Chen | Liu, Tiegang | Zheng, Zian | Wan, Yuxiang | Xu, Jingnan | Wang, Xuan | Yu, He | Gu, Xiaohong | Daneshfard, Babak | Nimrouzi, Majid | Tafazoli, Vahid | Alorizi, Seyed M. Emami | Saghebi, Seyed A. | Fattahi, Mohammad R. | Salehi, Alireza | Rezaeizadeh, Hossein | Zarshenas, Mohammad M. | Nimrouzi, Majid | Fox, Kealoha | Hughes, John | Kostanjsek, Nenad | Espinosa, Stéphane | Lewith, George | Fisher, Peter | Latif, Abdul | Lefeber, Donald | Paske, William | Öztürk, Ali Ö. | Öztürk, Gizemnur | Boers, Inge | Tissing, Wim | Naafs, Marianne | Busch, Martine | Jong, Miek | Daneshfard, Babak | Sanaye, Mohammad R. | Dräger, Kilian | Fisher, Peter | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Evans, Roni | Leininger, Brent | Shafto, Kate | Breen, Jenny | Sanaye, Mohammad R. | Daneshfard, Babak | Simões-Wüst, Ana P. | Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina | van Dongen, Martien | Dagnelie, Pieter | Thijs, Carel | White, Shelley | Wiesener, Solveig | Salamonsen, Anita | Stub, Trine | Fønnebø, Vinjar | Abanades, Sergio | Blanco, Mar | Masllorens, Laia | Sala, Roser | Al-Ahnoumy, Shafekah | Han, Dongwoon | He, Luzhu | Kim, Ha Yun | In Choi, Da | Alræk, Terje | Stub, Trine | Kristoffersen, Agnete | von Sceidt, Christel | Michalsen, Andreas | Bruset, Stig | Musial, Frauke | Anheyer, Dennis | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Saha, Felix J. | Dobos, Gustav | Anheyer, Dennis | Haller, Heidemarie | Lauche, Romy | Dobos, Gustav | Cramer, Holger | Azizi, Hoda | Khadem, Nayereh | Hassanzadeh, Malihe | Estiri, Nazanin | Azizi, Hamideh | Tavassoli, Fatemeh | Lotfalizadeh, Marzieh | Zabihi, Reza | Esmaily, Habibollah | Azizi, Hoda | Shabestari, Mahmoud Mohammadzadeh | Paeizi, Reza | Azari, Masoumeh Alvandi | Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza | Zabihi, Reza | Azizi, Hamideh | Esmaily, Habibollah | Baars, Erik | De Bruin, Anja | Ponstein, Anne | Baccetti, Sonia | Di Stefano, Mariella | Rossi, Elio | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Segantini, Sergio | Monechi, Maria Valeria | Voller, Fabio | Barth, Jürgen | Kern, Alexandra | Lüthi, Sebastian | Witt, Claudia | Barth, Jürgen | Zieger, Anja | Otto, Fabius | Witt, Claudia | Beccia, Ariel | Dunlap, Corina | Courneene, Brendan | Bedregal, Paula | Passi, Alvaro | Rodríguez, Alfredo | Chang, Mayling | Gutiérrez, Soledad | Beissner, Florian | Beissner, Florian | Preibisch, Christine | Schweizer-Arau, Annemarie | Popovici, Roxana | Meissner, Karin | Beljanski, Sylvie | Belland, Laura | Rivera-Reyes, Laura | Hwang, Ula | Berger, Bettina | Sethe, Dominik | Hilgard, Dörte | Heusser, Peter | Bishop, Felicity | Al-Abbadey, Miznah | Bradbury, Katherine | Carnes, Dawn | Dimitrov, Borislav | Fawkes, Carol | Foster, Jo | MacPherson, Hugh | Roberts, Lisa | Yardley, Lucy | Lewith, George | Bishop, Felicity | Al-Abbadey, Miznah | Bradbury, Katherine | Carnes, Dawn | Dimitrov, Borislav | Fawkes, Carol | Foster, Jo | MacPherson, Hugh | Roberts, Lisa | Yardley, Lucy | Lewith, George | Bishop, Felicity | Holmes, Michelle | Lewith, George | Yardley, Lucy | Little, Paul | Cooper, Cyrus | Bogani, Patrizia | Maggini, Valentina | Gallo, Eugenia | Miceli, Elisangela | Biffi, Sauro | Mengoni, Alessio | Fani, Renato | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Brands-Guendling, Nadine | Guendling, Peter W. | Bronfort, Gert | Evans, Roni | Haas, Mitch | Leininger, Brent | Schulz, Craig | Bu, Xiangwei | Wang, J. | Fang, T. | Shen, Z. | He, Y. | Zhang, X. | Zhang, Zhengju | Wang, Dali | Meng, Fengxian | Büssing, Arndt | Baumann, Klaus | Frick, Eckhard | Jacobs, Christoph | Büssing, Arndt | Grünther, Ralph-Achim | Lötzke, Désirée | Büssing, Arndt | Jung, Sonny | Lötzke, Désirée | Recchia, Daniela R. | Robens, Sibylle | Ostermann, Thomas | Berger, Bettina | Stankewitz, Josephin | Kröz, Matthias | Jeitler, Mika | Kessler, Christian | Michalsen, Andreas | Cheon, Chunhoo | Jang, Bo H. | Ko, Seong G. | Huang, Ching W. | Sasaki, Yui | Ko, Youme | Cheshire, Anna | Ridge, Damien | Hughes, John | Peters, David | Panagioti, Maria | Simon, Chantal | Lewith, George | Cho, Hyun J. | Han, Dongwoon | Choi, Soo J. | Jung, Young S. | Im, Hyea B | Cooley, Kieran | Tummon-Simmons, Laura | Cotton, Sian | Luberto, Christina M. | Wasson, Rachel | Kraemer, Kristen | Sears, Richard | Hueber, Carly | Derk, Gwendolyn | Lill, JR | An, Ruopeng | Steinberg, Lois | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | la Fuente, Francisca García-de | De la Vega, Miguel | Vargas-Román, Keyla | Fernández-Ruiz, Jonatan | Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | García-De la Fuente, Francisca | Jiménez-Guerrero, Fanny | Vargas-Román, Keyla | Fernández-Ruiz, Jonatan | Galiano-Castillo, Noelia | Diaz-Saez, Gualberto | Torres-Jimenez, José I. | Garcia-Gomez, Olga | Hortal-Muñoz, Luis | Diaz-Diez, Camino | Dicen, Demijon | Diezel, Helene | Adams, Jon | Steel, Amie | Wardle, Jon | Diezel, Helene | Steel, Amie | Frawley, Jane | Wardle, Jon | Broom, Alex | Adams, Jon | Dong, Fei | Yu, He | Liu, Tiegang | Ma, Xueyan | Yan, Liyi | Wan, Yuxiang | Zheng, Zian | Gu, Xiaohong | Dong, Fei | Yu, He | Wu, Liqun | Liu, Tiegang | Ma, Xueyan | Ma, Jiaju | Yan, Liyi | Wan, Yuxiang | Zheng, Zian | Zhen, Jianhua | Gu, Xiaohong | Dubois, Julie | Rodondi, Pierre-Yves | Edelhäuser, Friedrich | Schwartze, Sophia | Trapp, Barbara | Cysarz, Dirk
PMCID: PMC5498855
6.  Hybrid Pixel-Waveform (HPWF) Enabled CdTe Detectors for Small Animal Gamma-Ray Imaging Applications 
This paper presents the design and preliminary evaluation of small-pixel CdTe gamma ray detectors equipped with a hybrid pixel-waveform (HPWF) readout system for gamma ray imaging applications with additional discussion on CZT due to its similarity. The HPWF readout system utilizes a pixelated anode readout circuitry which is designed to only provide the pixel address. This readout circuitry works in coincidence with a high-speed digitizer to sample the cathode waveform which provides the energy, timing, and depth-of-interaction (DOI) information. This work focuses on the developed and experimentally evaluated prototype HPWF-CdTe detectors with a custom CMOS pixel-ASIC to readout small anode pixels of 350 μm in size, and a discrete waveform sampling circuitry to digitize the signal waveform induced on the large cathode. The intrinsic timing, energy, and spatial resolution were experimentally evaluated in this paper in conjunction with methods for depth of interaction (DOI) partitioning of the CdTe crystal. While the experimental studies discussed in this paper are primarily for evaluating HPWF detectors for small animal PET imaging, these detectors could find their applications for ultrahigh-resolution SPECT and other imaging modalities.
PMCID: PMC5431752
7.  Helicobacter saguini, a Novel Helicobacter Isolated from Cotton-Top Tamarins with Ulcerative Colitis, Has Proinflammatory Properties and Induces Typhlocolitis and Dysplasia in Gnotobiotic IL-10−/− Mice 
Infection and Immunity  2016;84(8):2307-2316.
A urease-negative, fusiform, novel bacterium named Helicobacter saguini was isolated from the intestines and feces of cotton-top tamarins (CTTs) with chronic colitis. Helicobacter sp. was detected in 69% of feces or intestinal samples from 116 CTTs. The draft genome sequence, obtained by Illumina MiSeq sequencing, for H. saguini isolate MIT 97-6194-5, consisting of ∼2.9 Mb with a G+C content of 35% and 2,704 genes, was annotated using the NCBI Prokaryotic Genomes Automatic Annotation Pipeline. H. saguini contains homologous genes of known virulence factors found in other enterohepatic helicobacter species (EHS) and H. pylori. These include flagellin, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase (ggt), collagenase, the secreted serine protease htrA, and components of a type VI secretion system, but the genome does not harbor genes for cytolethal distending toxin (cdt). H. saguini MIT 97-6194-5 induced significant levels of interleukin-8 (IL-8) in HT-29 cell culture supernatants by 4 h, which increased through 24 h. mRNAs for the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-10, and IL-6 and the chemokine CXCL1 were upregulated in cocultured HT-29 cells at 4 h compared to levels in control cells. At 3 months postinfection, all H. saguini-monoassociated gnotobiotic C57BL/129 IL-10−/− mice were colonized and had seroconverted to H. saguini antigen with a significant Th1-associated increase in IgG2c (P < 0.0001). H. saguini induced a significant typhlocolitis, associated epithelial defects, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) hyperplasia, and dysplasia. Inflammatory cytokines IL-22, IL-17a, IL-1β, gamma interferon (IFN-γ), and TNF-α, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were significantly upregulated in the cecal tissues of infected mice. The expression of the DNA damage response molecule γ-H2AX was significantly higher in the ceca of H. saguini-infected gnotobiotic mice than in the controls. This model using a nonhuman primate Helicobacter sp. can be used to study the pathogenic potential of EHS isolated from primates with naturally occurring inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and colon cancer.
PMCID: PMC4962630  PMID: 27245408
8.  Whole-Genome Sequences and Classification of Streptococcus agalactiae Strains Isolated from Laboratory-Reared Long-Evans Rats (Rattus norvegicus) 
Genome Announcements  2017;5(1):e01435-16.
In collaboration with the CDC’s Streptococcus Laboratory, we report here the whole-genome sequences of seven Streptococcus agalactiae bacteria isolated from laboratory-reared Long-Evans rats. Four of the S. agalactiae isolates were associated with morbidity accompanied by endocarditis, metritis, and fatal septicemia, providing an opportunity for comparative genomic analysis of this opportunistic pathogen.
PMCID: PMC5255911  PMID: 28057750
9.  Origin of the low critical observing temperature of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 film 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:32732.
The experimental realization of the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in magnetically-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 films stands out as a landmark of modern condensed matter physics. However, ultra-low temperatures down to few tens of mK are needed to reach the quantization of Hall resistance, which is two orders of magnitude lower than the ferromagnetic phase transition temperature of the films. Here, we systematically study the band structure of V-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3 thin films by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and show unambiguously that the bulk valence band (BVB) maximum lies higher in energy than the surface state Dirac point. Our results demonstrate clear evidence that localization of BVB carriers plays an active role and can account for the temperature discrepancy.
PMCID: PMC5013448  PMID: 27599406
10.  Loss of OLFM4 promotes tumor migration through inducing interleukin-8 expression and predicts lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer 
Zhao, J | Shu, P | Duan, F | Wang, X | Min, L | Shen, Z | Ruan, Y | Qin, J | Sun, Y | Qin, X
Oncogenesis  2016;5(6):e234-.
Endoscopic surgery is increasingly used for early gastric cancer (EGC) treatment worldwide, and lymph node metastasis remains the most important risk factor for endoscopic surgery in EGC patients. Olfactomedin 4 (OLFM4) is mainly expressed in the digestive system and upregulated in several types of tumors. However, the role of OLFM4 in EGC has not been explored. We evaluated OLFM4 expression by immunohistochemical staining in 105 patients with EGC who underwent gastrectomy. The clinicopathological factors and OLFM4 expression were co-analyzed to predict lymph node metastasis in EGC. The metastatic mechanism of OLFM4 in gastric cancer was also investigated. We found that OLFM4 was upregulated in EGC tumor sections, and relatively low expression of OLFM4 was observed in patients with lymph node metastasis. OLFM4 expression as well as tumor size and differentiation were identified as independent factors, which could be co-analyzed to generate a better model for predicting lymph node metastasis in EGC patients. In vitro studies revealed that knockdown of OLFM4 promoted the migration of gastric cancer cells through activating the NF-κB/interleukin-8 axis. Negative correlation between OLFM4 and interleukin-8 expression was also observed in EGC tumor samples. Our study implies that OLFM4 expression is a potential predictor of lymph node metastasis in EGC, and combing OLFM4 with tumor size and differentiation could better stratify EGC patients with different risks of lymph node metastasis.
PMCID: PMC4945743  PMID: 27294866
11.  Persistent order due to transiently enhanced nesting in an electronically excited charge density wave 
Nature Communications  2016;7:10459.
Non-equilibrium conditions may lead to novel properties of materials with broken symmetry ground states not accessible in equilibrium as vividly demonstrated by non-linearly driven mid-infrared active phonon excitation. Potential energy surfaces of electronically excited states also allow to direct nuclear motion, but relaxation of the excess energy typically excites fluctuations leading to a reduced or even vanishing order parameter as characterized by an electronic energy gap. Here, using femtosecond time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy, we demonstrate a tendency towards transient stabilization of a charge density wave after near-infrared excitation, counteracting the suppression of order in the non-equilibrium state. Analysis of the dynamic electronic structure reveals a remaining energy gap in a highly excited transient state. Our observation can be explained by a competition between fluctuations in the electronically excited state, which tend to reduce order, and transiently enhanced Fermi surface nesting stabilizing the order.
Whilst excited electronic states may exhibit unique non-equilibrium behavior, order is inhibited by fluctuations. Here, the authors use femtosecond photoemission spectroscopy to demonstrate transient stabilization of charge density wave order in rare earth tritellurides after near-infrared excitation.
PMCID: PMC4737756  PMID: 26804717
12.  Raman and fluorescence characteristics of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering from doped superconducting cuprates 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:19657.
Measurements of spin excitations are essential for an understanding of spin-mediated pairing for superconductivity; and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) provides a considerable opportunity to probe high-energy spin excitations. However, whether RIXS correctly measures the collective spin excitations of doped superconducting cuprates remains under debate. Here we demonstrate distinct Raman- and fluorescence-like RIXS excitations of Bi1.5Pb0.6Sr1.54CaCu2O8+δ. Combining photon-energy and momentum dependent RIXS measurements with theoretical calculations using exact diagonalization provides conclusive evidence that the Raman-like RIXS excitations correspond to collective spin excitations, which are magnons in the undoped Mott insulators and evolve into paramagnons in doped superconducting compounds. In contrast, the fluorescence-like shifts are due primarily to the continuum of particle-hole excitations in the charge channel. Our results show that under the proper experimental conditions RIXS indeed can be used to probe paramagnons in doped high-Tc cuprate superconductors.
PMCID: PMC4726252  PMID: 26794437
13.  First imaging result with an ultrahigh resolution stationary MR compatible SPECT system 
In this paper, we will present the design and preliminary performance of an ultrahigh resolution stationary MR compatible SPECT (MRC-SPECT) system that is developed in our lab. The MRC-SPECT system is based on the second-generation energy-resolved photon-counting (ERPC) CdTe detectors and there are several key features associated with this system. Firstly, up to a total of twenty ERPC detectors will be assembled as a very compact ring, which provides an adequate angular sampling capability and a relatively high detection efficiency. The detectors are supported on a gantry made of high strength polyamide structure constructed using 3-D printing. This compact system can be directly operated inside an MR scanner. The detector module used in this system offers an intrinsic resolution of 350μm and an excellent energy resolution of around 3~4kev. Each ERPC detector module consists of four pixelated CdTe detectors with a total dimension of 4.5cm×2.25cm. Secondly, a die-cast platinum pinhole inserts and cast lead apertures are developed for this stationary SPECT system. Four 300/500μm diameter pinholes are used for each detector and all pinholes are mounted around a casted cylinder lead aperture tube. The inner diameter of the lead aperture tube is 6cm and the lead tube thickness is 16mm. The opposite detectors are placed 15.6cm apart and the magnification factor of this SPECT system is about 1.2. Thirdly, a comprehensive charge collection model inside strong magnetic field has been developed to account for the magnetic field induced distortion in the SPECT image. This model can accurately predict the detector’s energy and spatial response to gamma ray incident events and then help to compensate for the event position recording error due to the strong magnetic field. In this development, we have made an effort to minimize the amount of magnetic materials in the system to alleviate potential interference to magnetic field inhomogeneity.
PMCID: PMC4682676  PMID: 26692275
14.  Isolation of a Campylobacter lanienae-like Bacterium from Laboratory Chinchillas (Chinchilla laniger) 
Zoonoses and public health  2014;61(8):571-580.
Routine necropsies of 27 asymptomatic juvenile chinchillas revealed a high prevalence of gastric ulcers with microscopic lymphoplasmacytic gastroenteritis and typhlocolitis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis using Campylobacter genus-specific partial 16S rRNA primers revealed the presence of Campylobacter spp. DNA in the feces of 12 of 27 animals (44.4%). Species-specific partial 16S rRNA PCR and sequencing confirmed that these animals were colonized with C. lanienae, a gram-negative, microaerophilic bacterium that was first identified on routine fecal screening of slaughterhouse employees and subsequently isolated from feces of livestock. C. lanienae was isolated from the feces of six PCR-positive animals and identified with species-specific PCR and full 16S rRNA sequencing. Phylogenetic analysis showed that these isolates clustered with C. lanienae strain NCTC 13004. PCR analysis of DNA extracted from gastrointestinal tissues revealed the presence of C. lanienae DNA in the cecum and colon of these chinchillas. Gastrointestinal lesions were scored and compared between C. lanienae-positive and C. lanienae-negative animals. There was no correlation between colonization status and lesion severity in the stomach, liver, duodenum, or colon. Possible routes of C. lanienae infection in chinchillas could include waterborne transmission and fecal-oral transmission from wild mice and rats or livestock. Based on these findings, the authors conclude that C. lanienae colonizes the lower bowel of chinchillas in the absence of clinical disease. This is the first report of C. lanienae in any rodent species. C. lanienae isolates from different mammalian species demonstrate heterogeneity by 16S rRNA sequence comparison. Analysis using rpoB suggests that isolates and clones currently identified as C. lanienae may represent multiple species or subspecies.
PMCID: PMC4163145  PMID: 24628887
Campylobacter lanienae; chinchilla; DNA sequence analysis; 16S ribosomal RNA; rpoB
15.  Subtypes of major depression: latent class analysis in depressed Han Chinese women 
Psychological medicine  2014;44(15):3275-3288.
Despite substantial research, uncertainty remains about the clinical and etiological heterogeneity of major depression (MD). Can meaningful and valid subtypes be identified and would they be stable cross-culturally?
Symptoms at their lifetime worst depressive episode were assessed at structured psychiatric interview in 6008 women of Han Chinese descent, age ≥30 years, with recurrent DSM-IV MD. Latent class analysis (LCA) was performed in Mplus.
Using the nine DSM-IV MD symptomatic A criteria, the 14 disaggregated DSM-IV criteria and all independently assessed depressive symptoms (n=27), the best LCA model identified respectively three, four and six classes. A severe and non-suicidal class was seen in all solutions, as was a mild/moderate subtype. An atypical class emerged once bidirectional neurovegetative symptoms were included. The non-suicidal class demonstrated low levels of worthlessness/guilt and hopelessness. Patterns of co-morbidity, family history, personality, environmental precipitants, recurrence and body mass index (BMI) differed meaningfully across subtypes, with the atypical class standing out as particularly distinct.
MD is a clinically complex syndrome with several detectable subtypes with distinct clinical and demographic correlates. Three subtypes were most consistently identified in our analyses: severe, atypical and non-suicidal. Severe and atypical MD have been identified in multiple prior studies in samples of European ethnicity. Our non-suicidal subtype, with low levels of guilt and hopelessness, may represent a pathoplastic variant reflecting Chinese cultural influences.
PMCID: PMC4180813  PMID: 25065911
Atypical depression; China; depression; latent class analysis; melancholia; suicidal ideation
European cells & materials  2015;30:118-131.
Large segmental defects in bone fail to heal and remain a clinical problem. Muscle is highly osteogenic, and preliminary data suggest that autologous muscle tissue expressing bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP-2) efficiently heals critical size defects in rats. Translation into possible human clinical trials requires, inter alia, demonstration of efficacy in a large animal, such as the sheep. Scale-up is fraught with numerous biological, anatomical, mechanical and structural variables, which cannot be addressed systematically because of cost and other practical issues. For this reason, we developed a translational model enabling us to isolate the biological question of whether sheep muscle, transduced with adenovirus expressing BMP-2, could heal critical size defects in vivo. Initial experiments in athymic rats noted strong healing in only about one-third of animals because of unexpected immune responses to sheep antigens. For this reason, subsequent experiments were performed with Fischer rats under transient immunosuppression. Such experiments confirmed remarkably rapid and reliable healing of the defects in all rats, with bridging by 2 weeks and remodelling as early as 3-4 weeks, despite BMP-2 production only in nanogram quantities and persisting for only 1-3 weeks. By 8 weeks the healed defects contained well-organised new bone with advanced neo-cortication and abundant marrow. Bone mineral content and mechanical strength were close to normal values. These data demonstrate the utility of this model when adapting this technology for bone healing in sheep, as a prelude to human clinical trials.
PMCID: PMC4625846  PMID: 26388615
Bone healing; gene therapy; muscle; adenovirus; bone morphogenetic protein; sheep; rat; immunosuppression
17.  Explorations of high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound and microbubble-mediated gene delivery in mouse liver 
Gene therapy  2011;18(10):1006-1014.
Ultrasound (US) combined with microbubbles (MBs) is a promising technology for non-viral gene delivery. Significant enhancements of gene expression have been obtained in our previous studies. To optimize and prepare for application to larger animal models, the luciferase reporter gene transfer efficacy of lipid-based Definity MBs of various concentrations, pressure amplitudes and a novel unfocused high-intensity therapeutic US (HITU) system were explored. Luciferase expression exhibited a dependence on MB dose over the range of 0–25 vol%, and a strong dependence on acoustic peak negative pressure at over the range of 0–3.2 MPa. Gene expression reached an apparent plateau at MB concentration ≥2.5 vol% or at negative pressures >1.8 MPa. Maximum gene expression in treated animals was 700-fold greater than in negative controls. Pulse train US exposure protocols produced an upward trend of gene expression with increasing quiescent time. The hyperbolic correlation of gene expression and transaminase levels suggested that an optimum gene delivery effect can be achieved by maximizing acoustic cavitation-induced enhancement of DNA uptake and minimizing unproductive tissue damage. This study validated the new HITU system equipped with an unfocused transducer with a larger footprint capable of scanning large tissue areas to effectively enhance gene transfer efficiencies.
PMCID: PMC4549067  PMID: 21451579
non-viral gene therapy; microbubble-enhanced ultrasound therapy; high-intensity therapeutic ultrasound; acoustic cavitation; naked DNA transfer
18.  Observation of universal strong orbital-dependent correlation effects in iron chalcogenides 
Nature Communications  2015;6:7777.
Establishing the appropriate theoretical framework for unconventional superconductivity in the iron-based materials requires correct understanding of both the electron correlation strength and the role of Fermi surfaces. This fundamental issue becomes especially relevant with the discovery of the iron chalcogenide superconductors. Here, we use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to measure three representative iron chalcogenides, FeTe0.56Se0.44, monolayer FeSe grown on SrTiO3 and K0.76Fe1.72Se2. We show that these superconductors are all strongly correlated, with an orbital-selective strong renormalization in the dxy bands despite having drastically different Fermi surface topologies. Furthermore, raising temperature brings all three compounds from a metallic state to a phase where the dxy orbital loses all spectral weight while other orbitals remain itinerant. These observations establish that iron chalcogenides display universal orbital-selective strong correlations that are insensitive to the Fermi surface topology, and are close to an orbital-selective Mott phase, hence placing strong constraints for theoretical understanding of iron-based superconductors.
A proper theoretical description for unconventional superconductivity in iron-based compounds remains elusive. Here, the authors, to capture the electron correlation strength and the role of Fermi surfaces, report ARPES measurements of three iron chalcogenide superconductors to establish universal features.
PMCID: PMC4525196  PMID: 26204461
19.  Development of an indirect ELISA for bovine mastitis using Sip protein of Streptococcus agalactiae 
The sip gene encoding for a conserved highly immunogenic surface protein of Streptococcus agalactiae was amplified using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and subcloned into prokaryotic expression vector pET32a (+) and expressed as a recombinant protein in E. coli BL21 (DE3). An indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed using the purified Sip protein as a coating antigen, which could identify S. agalactiae specific antibody in sera. The coating antigen at a concentration of 3.125 μg/ml, serum diluted to 1:160, and HRP-conjugated secondary antibody concentration at 1:4000 was found to be most effective in exhibiting positive result. The ELISA was found to be highly specific for S. agalactiae that may be used for the detection of the pathogen in mastitis cases, for epidemiological studies and for surveillance.
PMCID: PMC4782699  PMID: 27175190
Bovine mastitis; ELISA; Streptococcusagalactiae
20.  Direct characterization of photoinduced lattice dynamics in BaFe2As2 
Nature Communications  2015;6:7377.
Ultrafast light pulses can modify electronic properties of quantum materials by perturbing the underlying, intertwined degrees of freedom. In particular, iron-based superconductors exhibit a strong coupling among electronic nematic fluctuations, spins and the lattice, serving as a playground for ultrafast manipulation. Here we use time-resolved X-ray scattering to measure the lattice dynamics of photoexcited BaFe2As2. On optical excitation, no signature of an ultrafast change of the crystal symmetry is observed, but the lattice oscillates rapidly in time due to the coherent excitation of an A1g mode that modulates the Fe–As–Fe bond angle. We directly quantify the coherent lattice dynamics and show that even a small photoinduced lattice distortion can induce notable changes in the electronic and magnetic properties. Our analysis implies that transient structural modification can be an effective tool for manipulating the electronic properties of multi-orbital systems, where electronic instabilities are sensitive to the orbital character of bands.
In BaFe2As2, the lattice couples strongly to the magnetic and electronic degrees of freedom, providing a way to control them. Here, by means of time-resolved X-ray scattering, the authors measure rapid lattice oscillations, which can induce changes in the material's electronic and magnetic properties.
PMCID: PMC4468847  PMID: 26051704
21.  Clinical significance of polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase-5 (GalNAc-T5) expression in patients with gastric cancer 
He, H | Shen, Z | Zhang, H | Wang, X | Tang, Z | Xu, J | Sun, Y
British Journal of Cancer  2014;110(8):2021-2029.
The family of polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferases is responsible for the altered O-linked glycosylation occurring during the development of various cancers and their progression via altering O-glycan biosynthesis. Our studies were designed to investigate the expression and prognostic values of GalNAc-T5 and improve the risk stratification in patients with gastric cancer.
Tissue samples from a training set and a validation set of patients with gastric adenocarcinoma from China were used for analyses. GalNAc-T5 expression was retrospectively analysed by immunohistochemistry. Results were assessed for association with clinicopathological parameters and overall survival by using Kaplan–Meier analysis. Prognostic values of GalNAc-T5 expression and clinical outcomes were evaluated by Cox regression analysis. A molecular prognostic stratification scheme incorporating GalNAc-T5 expression was determined by using receiver operating characteristic analysis.
GalNAc-T5 expression was markedly reduced in gastric cancer tissues compared with non-malignant gastric mucosa. Low intratumoral GalNAc-T5 density, which was associated with tumour cell differentiation, T classification, N classification, and TNM stage in the two independent sets, was an independent prognosticator for poor prognosis of gastric cancer patients. Applying the prognostic value of intratumoral GalNAc-T5 density to the conventional clinicopathologic TNM stage system showed a better prognostic value in patients with gastric cancer.
Intratumoral GalNAc-T5 expression was recognised as an independent prognostic marker for the overall survival of gastric cancer patients. Detection of GalNAc-T5 expression in gastric cancer tissues might add some prognostic information for patients with this disease and lead to a more accurate classification under the TNM stage system.
PMCID: PMC3992513  PMID: 24619076
polypeptide N-acetylgalactosaminyl transferase-5 (GalNAc-T5); prognostic; glycosylation; gastric cancer; overall survival
22.  High FoxP3 expression in tumour cells predicts better survival in gastric cancer and its role in tumour microenvironment 
British Journal of Cancer  2014;110(6):1552-1560.
Forkhead Box P3 (FoxP3) is thought to be a key transcription factor in regulatory T cells (Tregs), and recent data indicate that it is expressed in several tumour cells. However, its precise roles in gastric cancer (GC) and the underlying mechanisms regulating the interaction between GC cells and lymphocytes remain unclear.
FoxP3 expression was examined in tumour cells and Tregs in 150 cases of gastric precancer and cancer, and their prognostic significances were evaluated, respectively, using a tissue microarray containing 135 GC patient samples with a mean 102-month follow-up. FoxP3 involvement in the tumour cells–lymphocytes interaction and its gene function were further investigated.
strong cytoplasmic staining of FoxP3 was observed in GC cells. FoxP3 protein expression in tumour cells predicts a good prognosis, whereas high-density Treg predicts a poor prognosis. Moreover, FoxP3 expression in GC cells increased after coculture with peripheral blood mononuclear cells through coculture systems. Upregulation of FoxP3 inhibited tumour growth in tumour-bearing nude mice.
High FoxP3 expression in tumour cells predicts better survival in GC, possibility in relation to interaction between tumour cells and lymphocytes in microenvironment. Interfering with FoxP3 expression may open a new therapeutic strategy against tumour progression.
PMCID: PMC3960619  PMID: 24548868
FoxP3; Treg; gastric cancer; prognosis; gene function; coculture
23.  A benzimidazole derivative exhibiting antitumor activity blocks EGFR and HER2 activity and upregulates DR5 in breast cancer cells 
Chu, B | Liu, F | Li, L | Ding, C | Chen, K | Sun, Q | Shen, Z | Tan, Y | Tan, C | Jiang, Y
Cell Death & Disease  2015;6(3):e1686-.
Aberrant expression or function of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) or the closely related human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) can promote cell proliferation and survival, thereby contributing to tumorigenesis. Specific antibodies and low-molecular-weight tyrosine kinase inhibitors of both proteins are currently in clinical trials for cancer treatment. Benzimidazole derivatives possess diverse biological activities, including antitumor activity. However, the anticancer mechanism of 5a (a 2-aryl benzimidazole compound; 2-chloro-N-(2-p-tolyl-1H-benzo[d]imidazol-5-yl)acetamide, C16H14ClN3O, MW299), a novel 2-aryl benzimidazole derivative, toward breast cancer is largely unknown. Here, we demonstrate that 5a potently inhibited both EGFR and HER2 activity by reducing EGFR and HER2 tyrosine phosphorylation and preventing downstream activation of PI3K/Akt and MEK/Erk pathways in vitro and in vivo. We also show that 5a inhibited the phosphorylation of FOXO and promoted FOXO translocation from the cytoplasm into the nucleus, resulting in the G1-phase cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Moreover, 5a potently induced apoptosis via the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)-mediated death receptor 5 upregulation in breast cancer cells. The antitumor activity of 5a was consistent with additional results demonstrating that 5a significantly reduced tumor volume in nude mice in vivo. Analysis of the primary breast cancer cell lines with HER2 overexpression further confirmed that 5a significantly inhibited Akt Ser473 and Bad Ser136 phosphorylation and reduced cyclin D3 expression. On the basis of our findings, further development of this 2-aryl benzimidazole derivative, a new class of multitarget anticancer agents, is warranted and represents a novel strategy for improving breast cancer treatment.
PMCID: PMC4385914  PMID: 25766325
24.  Electrical/optical dual-function redox potential transistor 
Scientific Reports  2013;3:3391.
We demonstrate a new type of transistors, the electrical/optical “dual-function redox-potential transistors”, which is solution processable and environmentally stable. This device consists of vertically staked electrodes that act as gate, emitter and collector. It can perform as a normal transistor, whilst one electrode which is sensitised by dye enables to generate photocurrent when illuminated. Solution processable oxide-nanoparticles were used to form various functional layers, which allow an electrolyte to penetrate through and, consequently, the current between emitter and collector can be controlled by the gate potential modulated distribution of ions. The result here shows that the device performs with high ON-current under low driving voltage (<1 V), while the transistor performance can readily be controlled by photo-illumination. Such device with combined optical and electrical functionalities allows single device to perform the tasks that are usually done by a circuit/system with multiple optical and electrical components, and it is promising for various applications.
PMCID: PMC3853659  PMID: 24310311
25.  Double Aneuploidy 48,XXY,+21 Associated with a Congenital Heart Defect in a Neonate 
A neonate with a double aneuploidy associated with congenital heart defect (CHD) suffered from cyanosis after birth. He had typical features of Down syndrome (DS) including hypertelorism, slightly lowset ears with protruding pinna. Doppler echocardiography indicated complex congenital heart disease with an ostium secundum atrial septal defect, enlarged right ventricle, and mild tricuspid valve regurgitation. Further chromosomal analysis showed a karyotype of 48,XXY,+21: a double aneuploidy of DS and Klinefelter syndrome (KS). Until now, only seven cases of double aneuploidy associated with CHD defect have been reported.
PMCID: PMC4001422  PMID: 24778570
Double aneuploidy; Down syndrome (DS); Klinefelter syndrome (KS); 48,XXY,+21; Congenital heart defect (CHD)

Results 1-25 (59)