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1.  World Congress Integrative Medicine & Health 2017: Part one 
Brinkhaus, Benno | Falkenberg, Torkel | Haramati, Aviad | Willich, Stefan N. | Briggs, Josephine P. | Willcox, Merlin | Linde, Klaus | Theorell, Töres | Wong, Lisa M. | Dusek, Jeffrey | Wu, Darong | Eisenberg, David | Haramati, Aviad | Berger, Bettina | Kemper, Kathi | Stock-Schröer, Beate | Sützl-Klein, Hedda | Ferreri, Rosaria | Kaplan, Gary | Matthes, Harald | Rotter, Gabriele | Schiff, Elad | Arnon, Zahi | Hahn, Eckhard | Luberto, Christina M. | Martin, David | Schwarz, Silke | Tauschel, Diethard | Flower, Andrew | Gramminger, Harsha | Gupta, Hedwig H. | Gupta, S. N. | Kerckhoff, Annette | Kessler, Christian S. | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian S. | Kim, Eun S. | Jang, Eun H. | Kim, Rana | Jan, Sae B. | Mittwede, Martin | Mohme, Wiebke | Ben-Arye, Eran | Bonucci, Massimo | Saad, Bashar | Breitkreuz, Thomas | Rossi, Elio | Kebudi, Rejin | Daher, Michel | Razaq, Samaher | Gafer, Nahla | Nimri, Omar | Hablas, Mohamed | Kienle, Gunver Sophia | Samuels, Noah | Silbermann, Michael | Bandelin, Lena | Lang, Anna-Lena | Wartner, Eva | Holtermann, Christoph | Binstock, Maxwell | Riebau, Robert | Mujkanovic, Edin | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Michalsen, Andres | Ward, Lesley | Cramer, Holger | Irnich, Dominik | Stör, Wolfram | Burnstock, Geoffrey | Schaible, Hans-Georg | Ots, Thomas | Langhorst, Jost | Lauche, Romy | Sundberg, Tobias | Falkenberg, Torkel | Amarell, Catherina | Amarell, Catherina | Anheyer, Melanie | Eckert, Marion | Eckert, Marion | Ogal, Mercedes | Eckert, Marion | Amarell, Catherina | Schönauer, Annette | Reisenberger, Birgit | Brand, Bernhard | Anheyer, Dennis | Dobos, Gustav | Kroez, Matthias | Martin, David | Matthes, Harald | Ammendola, Aldo | Mao, Jun J. | Witt, Claudia | Yang, Yufei | Dobos, Gustav | Oritz, Miriam | Horneber, Markus | Voiß, Petra | Reisenberger, Birgit | von Rosenstiel, Alexandra | Eckert, Marion | Ogal, Mercedes | Amarell, Catharina | Anheyer, Melanie | Schad, Friedemann | Schläppi, Marc | Kröz, Matthias | Büssing, Arndt | Bar-Sela, Gil | Matthes, Harald | Schiff, Elad | Ben-Arye, Eran | Arnon, Zahi | Avshalomov, David | Attias, Samuel | Schönauer, Annette | Haramati, Aviad | Witt, Claudia | Brinkhaus, Benno | Cotton, Sian | Jong, Miek | Jong, Mats | Scheffer, Christian | Haramati, Aviad | Tauschel, Diethard | Edelhäuser, Friedrich | AlBedah, Abdullah | Lee, Myeong Soo | Khalil, Mohamed | Ogawa, Keiko | Motoo, Yoshiharu | Arimitsu, Junsuke | Ogawa, Masao | Shimizu, Genki | Stange, Rainer | Kraft, Karin | Kuchta, Kenny | Watanabe, Kenji | Bonin, D | Büssing, Arndt | Gruber, Harald | Koch, Sabine | Gruber, Harald | Pohlmann, Urs | Caldwell, Christine | Krantz, Barbara | Kortum, Ria | Martin, Lily | Wieland, Lisa S. | Kligler, Ben | Gould-Fogerite, Susan | Zhang, Yuqing | Wieland, Lisa S. | Riva, John J. | Lumpkin, Michael | Ratner, Emily | Ping, Liu | Jian, Pei | Hamme, Gesa-Meyer | Mao, Xiaosong | Chouping, Han | Schröder, Sven | Hummelsberger, Josef | Wullinger, Michael | Brodzky, Marc | Zalpour, Christoff | Langley, Julia | Weber, Wendy | Mudd, Lanay M. | Wayne, Peter | Witt, Clauda | Weidenhammer, Wolfgang | Fønnebø, Vinjar | Boon, Heather | Steel, Amie | Bugarcic, Andrea | Rangitakatu, Melisa | Steel, Amie | Adams, Jon | Sibbritt, David | Wardle, Jon | Leach, Matthew | Schloss, Janet | Dieze, Helene | Boon, Heather | Ijaz, Nadine | Willcox, Merlin | Heinrich, Michael | Lewith, George | Flower, Andrew | Graz, Bertrand | Adam, Daniela | Grabenhenrich, Linus | Ortiz, Miriam | Binting, Sylvia | Reinhold, Thomas | Brinkhaus, Benno | Andermo, Susanne | Sundberg, Tobias | Falkenberg, Torkel | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Arman, Maria | Bhasin, Manoj | Fan, Xueyi | Libermann, Towia | Fricchione, Gregory | Denninger, John | Benson, Herbert | Berger, Bettina | Stange, Rainer | Michalsen, Andreas | Martin, David D. | Boers, Inge | Vlieger, Arine | Jong, Miek | Brinkhaus, Benno | Teut, Michael | Ullmann, Alexander | Ortiz, Miriam | Rotter, Gabriele | Binting, Sylvia | Lotz, Fabian | Roll, Stephanie | Canella, Claudia | Mikolasek, Michael | Rostock, Matthias | Beyer, Jörg | Guckenberger, Matthias | Jenewein, Josef | Linka, Esther | Six, Claudia | Stoll, Sarah | Stupp, Roger | Witt, Claudia M. | Chuang, Elisabeth | Kligler, Ben | McKee, Melissa D. | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Klose, Petra | Lange, Silke | Langhorst, Jost | Dobos, Gustav | Chung, Vincent C. H. | Wong, Hoi L. C. | Wu, Xin Y. | Wen, Grace Y. G. | Ho, Robin S. T. | Ching, Jessica Y. L. | Wu, Justin C. Y. | Coakley, Amanda | Flanagan, Jane | Annese, Christine | Empoliti, Joanne | Gao, Zishan | Liu, Xugang | Yu, Shuguang | Yan, Xianzhong | Liang, Fanrong | Hohmann, Christoph D. | Steckhan, Nico | Ostermann, Thomas | Paetow, Arion | Hoff, Evelyn | Michalsen, Andreas | Hu, Xiao-Yang | Wu, Ruo-Han | Logue, Martin | Blonde, Clara | Lai, Lily Y. | Stuart, Beth | Flower, Andrew | Fei, Yu-Tong | Moore, Michael | Liu, Jian-Ping | Lewith, George | Hu, Xiao-Yang | Wu, Ruo-Han | Logue, Martin | Blonde, Clara | Lai, Lily Y. | Stuart, Beth | Flower, Andrew | Fei, Yu-Tong | Moore, Michael | Liu, Jian-Ping | Lewith, George | Jeitler, Michael | Zillgen, Hannah | Högl, Manuel | Steckhan, Nico | Stöckigt, Barbara | Seifert, Georg | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian | Khadivzadeh, Talat | Bashtian, Maryam Hassanzadeh | Aval, Shapour Badiee | Esmaily, Habibollah | Kim, Jihye | Kim, Keun H. | Klocke, Carina | Joos, Stefanie | Koshak, Abdulrahman | Wie, Li | Koshak, Emad | Wali, Siraj | Alamoudi, Omer | Demerdash, Abdulrahman | Qutub, Majdy | Pushparaj, Peter | Heinrich, Michael | Kruse, Sigrid | Fischer, Isabell | Tremel, Nadine | Rosenecker, Joseph | Leung, Brenda | Takeda, Wendy | Liang, Ning | Feng, Xue | Liu, Jian-ping | Cao, Hui-juan | Luberto, Christina M. | Shinday, Nina | Philpotts, Lisa | Park, Elyse | Fricchione, Gregory L. | Yeh, Gloria | Munk, Niki | Zakeresfahani, Arash | Foote, Trevor R. | Ralston, Rick | Boulanger, Karen | Özbe, Dominik | Gräßel, Elmar | Luttenberger, Katharina | Pendergrass, Anna | Pach, Daniel | Bellmann-Strobl, Judit | Chang, Yinhui | Pasura, Laura | Liu, Bin | Jäger, Sven F. | Loerch, Ronny | Jin, Li | Brinkhaus, Benno | Ortiz, Miriam | Reinhold, Thomas | Roll, Stephanie | Binting, Sylvia | Icke, Katja | Shi, Xuemin | Paul, Friedemann | Witt, Claudia M. | Rütz, Michaela | Lynen, Andreas | Schömitz, Meike | Vahle, Maik | Salomon, Nir | Lang, Alon | Lahat, Adi | Kopylov, Uri | Ben-Horin, Shomron | Har-Noi, Ofir | Avidan, Benjamin | Elyakim, Rami | Gamus, Dorit | NG, Siew | Chang, Jessica | Wu, Justin | Kaimiklotis, John | Schumann, Dania | Buttó, Ludovica | Langhorst, Jost | Dobos, Gustav | Haller, Dirk | Cramer, Holger | Smith, Caroline | de Lacey, Sheryl | Chapman, Michael | Ratcliffe, Julie | Johnson, Neil | Lyttleton, Jane | Boothroyd, Clare | Fahey, Paul | Tjaden, Bram | van Vliet, Marja | van Wietmarschen, Herman | Jong, Miek | Tröger, Wilfried | Vuolanto, Pia | Aarva, Paulina | Sorsa, Minna | Helin, Kaija | Wenzel, Claudia | Zoderer, Iris | Pammer, Patricia | Simon, Patrick | Tucek, Gerhard | Wode, Kathrin | Henriksson, Roger | Sharp, Lena | Stoltenberg, Anna | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Xiao-ying, Yang | Wang, Li-qiong | Li, Jin-gen | Liang, Ning | Wang, Ying | Liu, Jian-ping | Balneaves, Lynda | Capler, Rielle | Bocci, Chiara | Guffi, Marta | Paolini, Marina | Meaglia, Ilaria | Porcu, Patrizia | Ivaldi, Giovanni B. | Dragan, Simona | Bucuras, Petru | Pah, Ana M. | Badalica-Petrescu, Marius | Buleu, Florina | Hogea-Stoichescu, Gheorghe | Christodorescu, Ruxandra | Kao, Lan | Cho, Yumin | Klafke, Nadja | Mahler, Cornelia | von Hagens, Cornelia | Uhlmann, Lorenz | Bentner, Martina | Schneeweiss, Andreas | Mueller, Andreas | Szecsenyi, Joachim | Joos, Stefanie | Neri, Isabella | Ortiz, Miriam | Schnabel, Katharina | Teut, Michael | Rotter, Gabriele | Binting, Sylvia | Cree, Margit | Lotz, Fabian | Suhr, Ralf | Brinkhaus, Benno | Rossi, Elio | Baccetti, Sonia | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Monechi, Maria V. | Di Stefano, Mariella | Amunni, Gianni | Wong, Wendy | Chen, Bingzhong | Wu, Justin | Amri, Hakima | Haramati, Aviad | Kotlyanskaya, Lucy | Anderson, Belinda | Evans, Roni | Kligler, Ben | Marantz, Paul | Bradley, Ryan | Booth-LaForce, Cathryn | Zwickey, Heather | Kligler, Benjamin | Brooks, Audrey | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Lebensohn, Patricia | Goldblatt, Elisabeth | Esmel-Esmel, Neus | Jiménez-Herrera, Maria | Ijaz, Nadine | Boon, Heather | Jocham, Alexandra | Stock-Schröer, Beate | Berberat, Pascal O. | Schneider, Antonius | Linde, Klaus | Masetti, Morgana | Murakozy, Henriette | Van Vliet, Marja | Jong, Mats | Jong, Miek | Agdal, Rita | Atarzadeh, Fatemeh | Jaladat, Amir M. | Hoseini, Leila | Amini, Fatemeh | Bai, Chen | Liu, Tiegang | Zheng, Zian | Wan, Yuxiang | Xu, Jingnan | Wang, Xuan | Yu, He | Gu, Xiaohong | Daneshfard, Babak | Nimrouzi, Majid | Tafazoli, Vahid | Alorizi, Seyed M. Emami | Saghebi, Seyed A. | Fattahi, Mohammad R. | Salehi, Alireza | Rezaeizadeh, Hossein | Zarshenas, Mohammad M. | Nimrouzi, Majid | Fox, Kealoha | Hughes, John | Kostanjsek, Nenad | Espinosa, Stéphane | Lewith, George | Fisher, Peter | Latif, Abdul | Lefeber, Donald | Paske, William | Öztürk, Ali Ö. | Öztürk, Gizemnur | Boers, Inge | Tissing, Wim | Naafs, Marianne | Busch, Martine | Jong, Miek | Daneshfard, Babak | Sanaye, Mohammad R. | Dräger, Kilian | Fisher, Peter | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Evans, Roni | Leininger, Brent | Shafto, Kate | Breen, Jenny | Sanaye, Mohammad R. | Daneshfard, Babak | Simões-Wüst, Ana P. | Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina | van Dongen, Martien | Dagnelie, Pieter | Thijs, Carel | White, Shelley | Wiesener, Solveig | Salamonsen, Anita | Stub, Trine | Fønnebø, Vinjar | Abanades, Sergio | Blanco, Mar | Masllorens, Laia | Sala, Roser | Al-Ahnoumy, Shafekah | Han, Dongwoon | He, Luzhu | Kim, Ha Yun | In Choi, Da | Alræk, Terje | Stub, Trine | Kristoffersen, Agnete | von Sceidt, Christel | Michalsen, Andreas | Bruset, Stig | Musial, Frauke | Anheyer, Dennis | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Saha, Felix J. | Dobos, Gustav | Anheyer, Dennis | Haller, Heidemarie | Lauche, Romy | Dobos, Gustav | Cramer, Holger | Azizi, Hoda | Khadem, Nayereh | Hassanzadeh, Malihe | Estiri, Nazanin | Azizi, Hamideh | Tavassoli, Fatemeh | Lotfalizadeh, Marzieh | Zabihi, Reza | Esmaily, Habibollah | Azizi, Hoda | Shabestari, Mahmoud Mohammadzadeh | Paeizi, Reza | Azari, Masoumeh Alvandi | Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza | Zabihi, Reza | Azizi, Hamideh | Esmaily, Habibollah | Baars, Erik | De Bruin, Anja | Ponstein, Anne | Baccetti, Sonia | Di Stefano, Mariella | Rossi, Elio | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Segantini, Sergio | Monechi, Maria Valeria | Voller, Fabio | Barth, Jürgen | Kern, Alexandra | Lüthi, Sebastian | Witt, Claudia | Barth, Jürgen | Zieger, Anja | Otto, Fabius | Witt, Claudia | Beccia, Ariel | Dunlap, Corina | Courneene, Brendan | Bedregal, Paula | Passi, Alvaro | Rodríguez, Alfredo | Chang, Mayling | Gutiérrez, Soledad | Beissner, Florian | Beissner, Florian | Preibisch, Christine | Schweizer-Arau, Annemarie | Popovici, Roxana | Meissner, Karin | Beljanski, Sylvie | Belland, Laura | Rivera-Reyes, Laura | Hwang, Ula | Berger, Bettina | Sethe, Dominik | Hilgard, Dörte | Heusser, Peter | Bishop, Felicity | Al-Abbadey, Miznah | Bradbury, Katherine | Carnes, Dawn | Dimitrov, Borislav | Fawkes, Carol | Foster, Jo | MacPherson, Hugh | Roberts, Lisa | Yardley, Lucy | Lewith, George | Bishop, Felicity | Al-Abbadey, Miznah | Bradbury, Katherine | Carnes, Dawn | Dimitrov, Borislav | Fawkes, Carol | Foster, Jo | MacPherson, Hugh | Roberts, Lisa | Yardley, Lucy | Lewith, George | Bishop, Felicity | Holmes, Michelle | Lewith, George | Yardley, Lucy | Little, Paul | Cooper, Cyrus | Bogani, Patrizia | Maggini, Valentina | Gallo, Eugenia | Miceli, Elisangela | Biffi, Sauro | Mengoni, Alessio | Fani, Renato | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Brands-Guendling, Nadine | Guendling, Peter W. | Bronfort, Gert | Evans, Roni | Haas, Mitch | Leininger, Brent | Schulz, Craig | Bu, Xiangwei | Wang, J. | Fang, T. | Shen, Z. | He, Y. | Zhang, X. | Zhang, Zhengju | Wang, Dali | Meng, Fengxian | Büssing, Arndt | Baumann, Klaus | Frick, Eckhard | Jacobs, Christoph | Büssing, Arndt | Grünther, Ralph-Achim | Lötzke, Désirée | Büssing, Arndt | Jung, Sonny | Lötzke, Désirée | Recchia, Daniela R. | Robens, Sibylle | Ostermann, Thomas | Berger, Bettina | Stankewitz, Josephin | Kröz, Matthias | Jeitler, Mika | Kessler, Christian | Michalsen, Andreas | Cheon, Chunhoo | Jang, Bo H. | Ko, Seong G. | Huang, Ching W. | Sasaki, Yui | Ko, Youme | Cheshire, Anna | Ridge, Damien | Hughes, John | Peters, David | Panagioti, Maria | Simon, Chantal | Lewith, George | Cho, Hyun J. | Han, Dongwoon | Choi, Soo J. | Jung, Young S. | Im, Hyea B | Cooley, Kieran | Tummon-Simmons, Laura | Cotton, Sian | Luberto, Christina M. | Wasson, Rachel | Kraemer, Kristen | Sears, Richard | Hueber, Carly | Derk, Gwendolyn | Lill, JR | An, Ruopeng | Steinberg, Lois | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | la Fuente, Francisca García-de | De la Vega, Miguel | Vargas-Román, Keyla | Fernández-Ruiz, Jonatan | Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | García-De la Fuente, Francisca | Jiménez-Guerrero, Fanny | Vargas-Román, Keyla | Fernández-Ruiz, Jonatan | Galiano-Castillo, Noelia | Diaz-Saez, Gualberto | Torres-Jimenez, José I. | Garcia-Gomez, Olga | Hortal-Muñoz, Luis | Diaz-Diez, Camino | Dicen, Demijon | Diezel, Helene | Adams, Jon | Steel, Amie | Wardle, Jon | Diezel, Helene | Steel, Amie | Frawley, Jane | Wardle, Jon | Broom, Alex | Adams, Jon | Dong, Fei | Yu, He | Liu, Tiegang | Ma, Xueyan | Yan, Liyi | Wan, Yuxiang | Zheng, Zian | Gu, Xiaohong | Dong, Fei | Yu, He | Wu, Liqun | Liu, Tiegang | Ma, Xueyan | Ma, Jiaju | Yan, Liyi | Wan, Yuxiang | Zheng, Zian | Zhen, Jianhua | Gu, Xiaohong | Dubois, Julie | Rodondi, Pierre-Yves | Edelhäuser, Friedrich | Schwartze, Sophia | Trapp, Barbara | Cysarz, Dirk
doi:10.1186/s12906-017-1782-4
PMCID: PMC5498855
2.  Usability Evaluation of a Clinical Decision Support System for Geriatric ED Pain Treatment 
Applied Clinical Informatics  2016;7(1):128-142.
Summary
Background
Older adults are at risk for inadequate emergency department (ED) pain care. Unrelieved acute pain is associated with poor outcomes. Clinical decision support systems (CDSS) hold promise to improve patient care, but CDSS quality varies widely, particularly when usability evaluation is not employed.
Objective
To conduct an iterative usability and redesign process of a novel geriatric abdominal pain care CDSS. We hypothesized this process would result in the creation of more usable and favorable pain care interventions.
Methods
Thirteen emergency physicians familiar with the Electronic Health Record (EHR) in use at the study site were recruited. Over a 10-week period, 17 1-hour usability test sessions were conducted across 3 rounds of testing. Participants were given 3 patient scenarios and provided simulated clinical care using the EHR, while interacting with the CDSS interventions. Quantitative System Usability Scores (SUS), favorability scores and qualitative narrative feedback were collected for each session. Using a multi-step review process by an interdisciplinary team, positive and negative usability issues in effectiveness, efficiency, and satisfaction were considered, prioritized and incorporated in the iterative redesign process of the CDSS. Video analysis was used to determine the appropriateness of the CDS appearances during simulated clinical care.
Results
Over the 3 rounds of usability evaluations and subsequent redesign processes, mean SUS progressively improved from 74.8 to 81.2 to 88.9; mean favorability scores improved from 3.23 to 4.29 (1 worst, 5 best). Video analysis revealed that, in the course of the iterative redesign processes, rates of physicians’ acknowledgment of CDS interventions increased, however most rates of desired actions by physicians (such as more frequent pain score updates) decreased.
Conclusion
The iterative usability redesign process was instrumental in improving the usability of the CDSS; if implemented in practice, it could improve geriatric pain care. The usability evaluation process led to improved acknowledgement and favorability. Incorporating usability testing when designing CDSS interventions for studies may be effective to enhance clinician use.
doi:10.4338/ACI-2015-08-RA-0108
PMCID: PMC4817340  PMID: 27081412
Clinical decision support systems; decision support techniques; aged; acute pain; medical record systems; computerized; man-machine systems
3.  Ultrasound Guided Nerve Blocks for Intracapsular and Extracapsular Hip Fractures 
doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2015.12.016
PMCID: PMC4799725  PMID: 26809928
hip fracture; femoral nerve block; ultrasound; hip fracture; intracapsular; extracapsular
4.  A multicenter evaluation of the impact of gender on abdominal and fracture pain care 
Medical care  2015;53(11):948-953.
Background
Previous studies examining gender-based disparities in Emergency Department (ED) pain-care have been limited to a single pain-condition, a single study-site, and lack rigorous control for confounders.
Objective
A multicenter evaluation of the effect of gender on abdominal pain (AP) and fracture (FP) pain-care outcomes.
Research Design
Retrospective cohort-review of ED visits at 5 US hospitals in January, April, July and October 2009.
Subjects
6,931 patients with a final ED diagnosis of FP (n=1682) or AP (n=5249).
Measures
The primary-predictor was gender. The primary outcome was time to analgesic-administration. Secondary outcomes included time to medication-order, and the likelihood the receiving an analgesic and change in pain scores 360 minutes after triage: Multivariable models, clustered by study site, were conducted to adjust for race, age, comorbidities, initial pain-score, ED crowding and triage acuity.
Results
On adjusted analyses, compared with men, women with AP waited longer for analgesic administration [AP Women: 112 (65–187) min, Men: 96 (52–167) min, p<0.001] and ordering Women: [84 (41–160) min, Men: 71 (32–137) min, p<0.001], whereas women with FP did not (Administration: p=0.360; Order: p=0.133). Compared with men, women with AP were less likely to receive analgesics in the first 90 minutes (OR: 0.766, 95% CI: 0.670 – 0.875, p<0.001), whereas women with FP were not (p=0.357).
Discussion
In this multicenter study, we found that women experienced delays in analgesic administration for AP, but not for FP. Future research and interventions to decrease gender-disparities in pain-care should take type of pain into account.
doi:10.1097/MLR.0000000000000430
PMCID: PMC4610254  PMID: 26465122
Gender; Pain Care; Health Policy
5.  Implementing the EQUiPPED Medication Management Program at 5 VA Emergency Departments 
The Enhancing Quality of Prescribing Practices for Older Veterans Discharged From the Emergency Department (EQUiPPED) program aimed to reduce potentially inappropriate medication prescribing to older adults at 5 VAMCs.
PMCID: PMC5070380  PMID: 27773986
6.  Is all pain is treated equally? A multicenter evaluation of acute pain care by age 
Pain  2014;155(12):2568-2574.
Pain is highly prevalent in healthcare settings, however disparities continue to exist in pain care treatment. Few studies have investigated if differences exist based on patient related characteristics associated with aging. The objective of this study was to determine if there are differences in acute pain care for older versus younger patients. This was a multicenter, retrospective, cross-sectional observation study of 5 emergency departments across the US evaluating the 2 most commonly presenting pain conditions for older adults - abdominal and fracture pain. Multivariable adjusted hierarchical modeling was completed. A total of 6,948 visits were reviewed. Older (≥65 years) and oldest (≥85 years) were less likely to receive analgesics when compared to younger patients (<65 years), yet older patients had greater reductions in final pain scores. When evaluating pain treatment and final pain scores, differences appeared to be based on type of pain. Older abdominal pain patients were less likely to receive pain medications, while older fracture patients were more likely to receive analgesics and opioids when compared to younger patients. Differences in pain care for older patients appear to be driven by type of presenting pain.
doi:10.1016/j.pain.2014.09.017
PMCID: PMC4250377  PMID: 25244947
acute pain care; emergency department; geriatrics
7.  Transforming emergency care for older adults 
Health affairs (Project Hope)  2013;32(12):2116-2121.
Already crowded and stressful, US emergency departments are facing the challenge of serving an aging population that requires complex and lengthy evaluations. Creative solutions are necessary to improve the value and ensure the quality of emergency care delivered to older adults while more fully addressing their complex underlying physical, social, cognitive, and situational needs. Developing models of geriatric emergency care, including some that are already in use at dedicated geriatric emergency departments, incorporate a variety of physical, procedural, and staffing changes. Among the options for “geriatricizing” emergency care are approaches that may eliminate the need for an emergency department visit, such as telemedicine; for initial hospitalization, such as patient observation units; and for rehospitalization, such as comprehensive discharge planning. By transforming its current safety-net role to becoming a partner in care coordination, emergency departments have the opportunity to better integrate into the broader health care system, improve patient health outcomes, contribute to optimizing the health care system, and reduce overall costs of care—keys to improving emergency care for patients of all ages.
doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2013.0670
PMCID: PMC4070367  PMID: 24301394
8.  Enhancing a Geriatric Emergency Department Care Coordination Intervention Using Automated Health Information Exchange-Based Clinical Event Notifications 
EGEMS  2014;2(3):1095.
Purpose:
In a health care system where patients often have numerous providers and multiple chronic medical conditions, interoperability of health information technology (HIT) is of paramount importance. Regional health information organizations (RHIO) often provide a health information exchange (HIE) as a solution, which gives stakeholders access to clinical data that they otherwise would not otherwise have. A secondary use of preexisting HIE infrastructure is clinical event notification (CEN) services, which send automated notifications to stakeholders. This paper describes the development and implementation of a CEN service enabled by a RHIO in the New York metropolitan area to improve care coordination for patients enrolled in a geriatric emergency department care coordination program.
Innovation:
This operational CEN system incorporates several innovations that to our knowledge have not been implemented previously. They include the near real-time notifications and the delivery of notifications via multiple pathways: electronic health record (EHR) “in-baskets,” email, text message to internet protocol-based “zone” phones, and automated encounter entry into the EHR. Based on these alerts the geriatric care coordination team contacts the facility where the patient is being seen and offers additional information or assistance with disposition planning with the goal of decreasing potentially avoidable admissions and duplicate testing.
Findings:
During the nearly one-year study period, the CEN program enrolled 5722 patients and sent 497 unique notifications regarding 206 patients. Of these notifications, 219 (44%) were for emergency department (ED) visits; 121 (55%) of those notifications were received during normal business hours when the care coordination team was available to contact the ED where the patient was receiving care. Hospital admissions resulted from 45% of ED visits 17.8% of these admissions lasted 48 hours or less, suggesting some might potentially be avoidable.
Conclusions and Discussion:
This study demonstrates the potential of CEN systems to improve care coordination by notifying providers of the occurrence of specific events. Although it could not directly be demonstrated here, we believe that widespread use of CEN systems have potential to reduce potentially avoidable admissions and duplicate testing, likely leading to decreased costs.
doi:10.13063/2327-9214.1095
PMCID: PMC4371432  PMID: 25848622
care coordination; health information exchange; notifications
9.  Characteristics of Emergency Department Patients Who Receive a Palliative Care Consultation 
Journal of Palliative Medicine  2012;15(4):396-399.
Abstract
Background
A large gap exists between the practice of emergency medicine and palliative care. Although hospice and palliative medicine has recently been recognized as a subspecialty of emergency medicine, few palliative care teams routinely interact with emergency providers, and primary palliative care skills among emergency providers are lacking.
Objective
To identify the proportion and characteristics of patients who receive a palliative care consultation and arrive via the emergency department (ED).
Methods
A descriptive study of adult ED patients from an urban, academic tertiary care hospital who received a palliative care consultation in January 2005 or January 2009.
Results
In January 2005, 100 of the 161 consults (62%) arrived via the ED versus 63 of 124 consults (51%) in January 2009 (p=0.06). Mean days from admission to consultation in January 2005 were six days (standard deviation 11), versus nine days (SD 26) in January 2009 (p=0.35). Three of the 100 consultations (3%) in January 2005 were initiated in the ED, versus 4 of the 64 (6%) in January 2009.
Conclusions
At an urban academic medical center with a well-developed palliative care service, the majority of palliative care consultations were for patients who arrive via the ED. Despite this, only a small minority of consultations originated from emergency providers and consultation was on average initiated days into a patient's hospital stay.
doi:10.1089/jpm.2011.0376
PMCID: PMC3391705  PMID: 22468771
10.  A Research Agenda to Assure Equity During Periods of Emergency Department Crowding 
The effect of emergency department (ED) crowding on equitable care is the least studied of the domains of quality as defined by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). Inequities in access and treatment throughout the health care system are well documented in all fields of medicine. While there is little evidence demonstrating that inequity is worsened by crowding, theory and evidence from social science disciplines, as well as known barriers to care for vulnerable populations, would suggest that crowding will worsen inequities.
To design successful interventions, however, it is important to first understand how crowding can result in disparities and base interventions on these mechanisms. A research agenda is proposed to understand mechanisms that may threaten equity during periods of crowding and design and test potential interventions that may ensure the equitable aspect of quality of care.
doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2011.01233.x
PMCID: PMC3368012  PMID: 22168197
12.  Research Priorities for Palliative and End-of-life Care in the Emergency Setting 
Academic Emergency Medicine  2011;18(6):e70-e76.
Palliative care focuses on the physical, spiritual, psychological, and social care from diagnosis to cure or death of a potentially life-threatening illness. When cure is not attainable and end of life approaches, the intensity of palliative care is enhanced to deliver the highest quality care experience. The emergency department (ED) frequently cares for patients and families during the end-of-life phase of the palliative care continuum. The intersection between palliative care and emergency care continues to be more clearly defined. Currently, there is a mounting body of evidence to guide the most effective strategies for improving palliative and end-of-life care in the ED. In a workgroup session at the 2009 Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ)/American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP) conference “Improving the Quality and Efficiency of Emergency Care Across the Continuum: A Systems Approach,” four key research questions arose: 1) which patients are in greatest need of palliative care services in the ED, 2) what is the optimal role of emergency clinicians in caring for patients along a chronic trajectory of illness, 3) how does the integration and initiation of palliative care training and services in the ED setting affect health care utilization, and 4) what are the educational priorities for emergency clinical providers in the domain of palliative care? Workgroup leaders suggest that these four key questions may be answered by strengthening the evidence using six categories of inquiry: descriptive, attitudinal, screening, outcomes, resource allocation, and education of clinicians.
doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2011.01088.x
PMCID: PMC3368013  PMID: 21676052
13.  Resident Perceptions of Palliative Care Training in the Emergency Department 
Journal of Palliative Medicine  2011;14(5):548-555.
Abstract
Objectives
To characterize the level of formal training and perceived educational needs in palliative care of emergency medicine (EM) residents.
Methods
This descriptive study used a 16-question survey administered at weekly resident didactic sessions in 2008 to EM residency programs in New York City. Survey items asked residents to: (1) respond to Likert-scaled statements about the role of palliative care in the emergency department (ED); (2) quantify their level of formal training and personal comfort in symptom management, discussion of bad news and prognosis, legal issues, and withdrawing/withholding therapy; and (3) express their interest in future palliative care training.
Results
Of 228 total residents, 159 (70%) completed the survey. Of those surveyed, 50% completed some palliative care training before residency; 71.1% agreed or strongly agreed that palliative care was an important competence for an EM physician. However, only 24.3% reported having a “clear idea of the role of palliative care in EM.” The highest self-reported level of formal training was in the area of advanced directives or legal issues at the end of life; the lowest levels were in areas of patient management at the end of life. The highest level of self-reported comfort was in giving bad news and the lowest was in withholding/withdrawing therapy. A slight majority of residents (54%) showed positive interest in receiving future training in palliative care.
Conclusions
New York City EM residents reported palliative care as an important competency for emergency medicine physicians, yet also reported low levels of formal training in palliative care. The majority of residents surveyed favored additional training.
doi:10.1089/jpm.2010.0343
PMCID: PMC3089743  PMID: 21291326
14.  The Quality of Emergency Department Pain Care for Older Adult Patients 
OBJECTIVES
To evaluate if there are differences in emergency department (ED) pain assessment and treatment in older versus younger adults.
DESIGN
Retrospective observational cohort.
SETTING
Urban, academic tertiary care ED during July and December 2005.
PARTICIPANTS
Adult patients with conditions warranting ED pain care.
MEASUREMENTS
Age, Charlson comorbidity score, number of prior medications, gender, race/ethnicity, triage severity, degree of pain, treating clinician, and final ED diagnosis. Pain care process measures were pain assessment and treatment, and time of activities.
RESULTS
A total of 1,031 ED visits met inclusion criteria. Ninety-two percent of these had a documented pain assessment. Of those reporting pain, 41% had follow-up pain assessments and 59% received analgesic medication (58% of these as opioid, 24% as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)). In adjusted analyses, there were no differences by age in pain assessment and receiving any analgesic. Older patients (65–84 years) were less likely than younger patients (18–64 years) to receive opioid analgesics for moderate to severe (OR=0.44, 95% CI (0.22, 0.88)) and had a trend to more likely to receive NSAIDs for mild pain (OR=3.72, 95% CI (0.97, 14.24)). Older adults had a lower reduction of initial to final recorded pain scores (p<0.01).
CONCLUSION
There appear to be differences in acute ED pain care for older adults. Both lower overall reduction of pain scores and decreased opioid use for the treatment of painful conditions in older patients highlight disparities of concern. Future studies should determine if these differences represent inadequate ED pain care.
doi:10.1111/j.1532-5415.2010.03152.x
PMCID: PMC3058876  PMID: 21054293
emergency department; pain; quality of care; geriatrics
15.  Emergency Department Crowding and Decreased Quality of Pain Care 
Objectives
The objective of this study was to evaluate the association of emergency department (ED) crowding factors with the quality of pain care.
Methods
This was a retrospective observational study of all adult patients (≥18 years) with conditions warranting pain care seen at an academic, urban tertiary care ED from July 1 to July 31, 2005, and December 1 to December 31, 2005. Patients were included if they presented with a chief complaint of pain and a final ED diagnosis of a painful condition. Predictor ED crowding variables studied were: 1) census, 2) number of admitted patients waiting for inpatient beds (boarders), and 3) number of boarders divided by ED census (boarding burden). The outcomes of interest were process of pain care measures: documentation of clinician pain assessment, medications ordered, and times of activities (e.g., arrival, assessment, ordering of medications).
Results
A total of 1,068 patient visits were reviewed. Fewer patients received analgesic medication during periods of high census (>50th percentile) (Parameter estimate = −0.47 [95% CI = −0.80 to −0.07]). There was a direct correlation with total ED census and increased: time to pain assessment (Spearman r = 0.33, p < 0.0001), time to analgesic medication ordering (r = 0.22, p < 0.0001), and time to analgesic medication administration (r = 0.25, p < 0.0001). There were significant delays (>1-hour) for pain assessment and the ordering and administration of analgesic medication during periods of high ED census and number of boarders, but not with boarding burden.
Conclusions
ED crowding as measured by patient volume negatively impacts patient care. Greater numbers of patients in the ED, whether as total census or number of boarders, were associated with worse pain care.
doi:10.1111/j.1553-2712.2008.00267.x
PMCID: PMC2729811  PMID: 18945239
emergency department; quality of care; pain
16.  Disparities in use of computed tomography for patients presenting with headache☆ 
Objective
Headache is a common presenting complaint in the emergency department (ED). Physicians may choose to screen for causes of headache using computed tomography (CT). It is not known whether patient characteristics influence this decision. This study sought to identify patient demographic factors associated with CT evaluation for adult patients with headache.
Methods
This study used a retrospective cohort review at an academic, urban ED. Study eligibility was based on chief complaint of headache and final diagnosis of the same. Detailed demographic (age, sex, race/ethnicity, insurance) and clinical (Emergency Severity Index [ESI], Charlson comorbidity score, pain score) data were abstracted from the ED medical record. The main outcome studied was whether a head CT was part of clinical evaluation.
Results
One hundred fifty-five patients were reviewed. Mean age was 42 years (SD, ±18 years); 75% female, 17% white, 41% black, and 33% Hispanic; 73% were insured; mean ESI was 3.06 (SD, ±0.64); and Charlson score was 0.60 (SD, ±1.55). Thirty-seven percent of patients underwent head CT. In multivariable analyses, patients were more likely to undergo head CT if they had greater acuity (ESI ≤ 3; odds ratio [OR], 5.11; P <.01) but were less likely to undergo head CT if they were black (OR, 0.21; P <.01) when adjusting for each other as well as older age, sex, comorbidity, insurance status, and history of migraine.
Conclusion
In this study, patients who were black were significantly less likely to undergo head CT during their ED evaluation for headache, independent of clinical and demographic factors.
doi:10.1016/j.ajem.2008.03.041
PMCID: PMC2757437  PMID: 19328379

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