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1.  Downregulated NM23-H1 expression is associated with intracranial invasion of nasopharyngeal carcinoma 
British Journal of Cancer  2008;98(2):363-369.
Because the focus of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is very close to intracranial organs, it often makes incursions into cranial cavity. Identification of intracranial invasion-associated indicators will provide potential therapeutic targets for NPC patients with intracranial invasion. In this regard, Human Xpro™ HC-plus cancer-related gene chip was utilised to screen intracranial invasion-associated genes for NPC from the biopsied primary focus tissue samples. In all, 8 upregulated and 23 downregulated genes were obtained. VEGF165 and MMP-9, the two upregulated genes, and NM23-H1, the downregulated one, were further confirmed by immunohistochemistry, quantitative real-time PCR and western blot. Invasion-associated cellular and nude mouse models were subsequently employed to study the biological properties of NM23-H1. NM23-H1 expression was significantly lower in 5-8F cells compared with that in 6-10B cells. Moreover, patch-clamp and transwell chamber were adopted to investigate the invading potential-associated biological dynamic mechanisms in the two cell lines, and Ca2+ current and motility were significantly elevated in 5-8F cells compared with that in 6-10B cells. Berberine, an inhibitor of Ca2+ current, could substantially increase the expression of NM23-H1 and decrease 5-8F cell motility. The specificity of berberine on NM23-H1 and cell motility was confirmed by RNAi assay.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6604167
PMCID: PMC2361469  PMID: 18219290
NPC; intracranial invasion; gene chip; NM23-H1; berberine
2.  Risperidone-induced topological alterations of anatomical brain network in first-episode drug-naive schizophrenia patients: a longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study 
Psychological medicine  2016;46(12):2549-2560.
Background
It remains unclear whether the topological deficits of the white matter network documented in cross-sectional studies of chronic schizophrenia patients are due to chronic illness or to other factors such as antipsychotic treatment effects. To answer this question, we evaluated the white matter network in medication-naive first-episode schizophrenia patients (FESP) before and after a course of treatment.
Method
We performed a longitudinal diffusion tensor imaging study in 42 drug-naive FESP at baseline and then after 8 weeks of risperidone monotherapy, and compared them with 38 healthy volunteers. Graph theory was utilized to calculate the topological characteristics of brain anatomical network. Patients’ clinical state was evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) before and after treatment.
Results
Pretreatment, patients had relatively intact overall topological organizations, and deficient nodal topological properties primarily in prefrontal gyrus and limbic system components such as the bilateral anterior and posterior cingulate. Treatment with risperidone normalized topological parameters in the limbic system, and the enhancement positively correlated with the reduction in PANSS-positive symptoms. Prefrontal topological impairments persisted following treatment and negative symptoms did not improve.
Conclusions
During the early phase of antipsychotic medication treatment there are region-specific alterations in white matter topological measures. Limbic white matter topological dysfunction improves with positive symptom reduction. Prefrontal deficits and negative symptoms are unresponsive to medication intervention, and prefrontal deficits are potential trait biomarkers and targets for negative symptom treatment development.
doi:10.1017/S0033291716001380
PMCID: PMC5242555  PMID: 27338296
First-episode schizophrenia; longitudinal studies; networks; schizophrenia; topology; white matter
3.  MUC13 protects colorectal cancer cells from death by activating the NF-κB pathway and is a potential therapeutic target 
Oncogene  2016;36(5):700-713.
MUC13 is a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein that is over produced by many cancers, although its functions are not fully understood. Nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a key transcription factor promoting cancer cell survival, but therapeutically targeting this pathway has proved difficult because NF-κB has pleiotropic functions. Here, we report that MUC13 prevents colorectal cancer cell death by promoting two distinct pathways of NF-kB activation, consequently upregulating BCL-XL. MUC13 promoted tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-induced NF-κB activation by interacting with TNFR1 and the E3 ligase, cIAP1, to increase ubiquitination of RIPK1. MUC13 also promoted genotoxin-induced NF-κB activation by increasing phosphorylation of ATM and SUMOylation of NF-κB essential modulator. Moreover, elevated expression of cytoplasmic MUC13 and NF-κB correlated with colorectal cancer progression and metastases. Our demonstration that MUC13 enhances NF-κB signaling in response to both TNF and DNA-damaging agents provides a new molecular target for specific inhibition of NF-κB activation. As proof of principle, silencing MUC13 sensitized colorectal cancer cells to killing by cytotoxic drugs and inflammatory signals and abolished chemotherapy-induced enrichment of CD133+ CD44+ cancer stem cells, slowed xenograft growth in mice, and synergized with 5-fluourouracil to induce tumor regression. Therefore, these data indicate that combining chemotherapy and MUC13 antagonism could improve the treatment of metastatic cancers.
doi:10.1038/onc.2016.241
PMCID: PMC5541270  PMID: 27399336
4.  Low dose arsenite confers resistance to UV induced apoptosis via p53-MDM2 pathway in ketatinocytes 
Zhou, Y | Zeng, W | Qi, M | Duan, Y | Su, J | Zhao, S | Zhong, W | Gao, M | Li, F | He, Y | Hu, X | Xu, X | Chen, X | Peng, C | Zhang, J
Oncogenesis  2017;6(8):e370-.
Chronic arsenite and ultraviolet (UV) exposure are associated with skin tumor. To investigate the details by low concentrations of arsenite and UV induced carcinogenesis in skin, hTERT-immortalized human keratinocytes were used as a cellular model with exposure to low concentrations of sodium arsenite and UV. The effect of NaAsO2 on UV treatment-induced apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry and Hoechst staining. We found that the cell apoptosis induced by UV exposure was significantly attenuated after exposure to low-dose arsenite, and knockdown of p53 could block UV-induced apoptosis indicating that this phenomenon depended on p53. Interestingly, the expression of murine double minute 2 (MDM2), including its protein and transcriptional levels, was remarkably high after exposure to low-dose arsenite. Moreover, low-dose arsenite treatment dramatically decreased the MDM2 gene promoter activity, suggesting that this effect has been mediated through transcription. In addition, treatment of PD98059 reversed low-dose arsenite-induced MDM2 expression, and the inhibition of ERK2 expression could significantly block MDM2 expression as a consequence, and p53 expression automatically was increased. To validate the role of p53 in exposure to low-dose arsenite, the expression of p53 was examined by immunohistochemistry in the skin of Sprague−Dawley rats model by chronic arsenite exposure for 6 months and in patients with arsenic keratosis, and the results showed that the expression of p53 was decreased in those samples. Taken together, our results demonstrated that low-dose arsenite-induced resistance to apoptosis through p53 mediated by MDM2 in keratinocytes.
doi:10.1038/oncsis.2017.67
PMCID: PMC5608918  PMID: 28785074
5.  Singularity in the matrix of the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations and the related state-transitions in three-species condensates 
Scientific Reports  2017;7:6585.
An approach is proposed to solve the coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations (CGP) of the 3-species BEC in an analytical way under the Thomas-Fermi approximation (TFA). It was found that, when the strength of a kind of interaction increases and crosses over a critical value, a specific type of state-transition will occur and will cause a jump in the total energy. Due to the jump, the energy of the lowest symmetric state becomes considerably higher. This leaves a particular opportunity for the lowest asymmetric state to replace the symmetric states as the ground state. It was further found that the critical values are related to the singularity of either the matrix or a sub-matrix of the CGP. These critical values are not arising from the TFA but inherent in the CGP, and they can be analytically expressed. Furthermore, a model (in which two kinds of atoms separated from each other asymmetrically) has been proposed for the evaluation of the energy of the lowest asymmetric state. With this model the emergence of the asymmetric ground state is numerically confirmed under the TFA. The theoretical formalism of this paper is quite general and can be generalized for BEC with more than three species.
doi:10.1038/s41598-017-06843-3
PMCID: PMC5529601  PMID: 28747708
6.  Prevalence and Molecular Characterization of Second-Line Drugs Resistance among Multidrug-Resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis Isolates in Southwest of China 
BioMed Research International  2017;2017:4563826.
This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) isolates resistant to the second-line antituberculosis drugs (SLDs) and its association with resistant-related gene mutations in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) isolates from Southwest of China. There were 81 isolates resistant to at least one of the SLDs among 156 MDR-TB isolates (81/156, 51.9%). The rates of general resistance to each of the drugs were as follows: OFX (66/156, 42.3%), KAN (26/156, 16.7%), CAP (13/156, 8.3%), PTO (11/156, 7.1%), PAS (22/156, 14.1%), and AMK (20/156, 12.8%). Therefore, the most predominant pattern was resistant to OFX compared with other SLDs (P < 0.001). The results of sequencing showed that 80.2% OFX-resistant MDR-TB isolates contained gyrA mutation and 88.5% KAN-resistant isolates had rrs mutations with the most frequent mutation being A1401G. These results suggest that improper use of SLDs especially OFX is a real threat to effective MDR-TB treatment not only in China but also in the whole world. Furthermore the tuberculosis control agencies should carry out SLDs susceptibility testing and rapid screening in a broader population of TB patients immediately and the SLDs should be strictly regulated by the administration in order to maintain their efficacy to treat MDR-TB.
doi:10.1155/2017/4563826
PMCID: PMC5536135
7.  World Congress Integrative Medicine & Health 2017: Part one 
Brinkhaus, Benno | Falkenberg, Torkel | Haramati, Aviad | Willich, Stefan N. | Briggs, Josephine P. | Willcox, Merlin | Linde, Klaus | Theorell, Töres | Wong, Lisa M. | Dusek, Jeffrey | Wu, Darong | Eisenberg, David | Haramati, Aviad | Berger, Bettina | Kemper, Kathi | Stock-Schröer, Beate | Sützl-Klein, Hedda | Ferreri, Rosaria | Kaplan, Gary | Matthes, Harald | Rotter, Gabriele | Schiff, Elad | Arnon, Zahi | Hahn, Eckhard | Luberto, Christina M. | Martin, David | Schwarz, Silke | Tauschel, Diethard | Flower, Andrew | Gramminger, Harsha | Gupta, Hedwig H. | Gupta, S. N. | Kerckhoff, Annette | Kessler, Christian S. | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian S. | Kim, Eun S. | Jang, Eun H. | Kim, Rana | Jan, Sae B. | Mittwede, Martin | Mohme, Wiebke | Ben-Arye, Eran | Bonucci, Massimo | Saad, Bashar | Breitkreuz, Thomas | Rossi, Elio | Kebudi, Rejin | Daher, Michel | Razaq, Samaher | Gafer, Nahla | Nimri, Omar | Hablas, Mohamed | Kienle, Gunver Sophia | Samuels, Noah | Silbermann, Michael | Bandelin, Lena | Lang, Anna-Lena | Wartner, Eva | Holtermann, Christoph | Binstock, Maxwell | Riebau, Robert | Mujkanovic, Edin | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Michalsen, Andres | Ward, Lesley | Cramer, Holger | Irnich, Dominik | Stör, Wolfram | Burnstock, Geoffrey | Schaible, Hans-Georg | Ots, Thomas | Langhorst, Jost | Lauche, Romy | Sundberg, Tobias | Falkenberg, Torkel | Amarell, Catherina | Amarell, Catherina | Anheyer, Melanie | Eckert, Marion | Eckert, Marion | Ogal, Mercedes | Eckert, Marion | Amarell, Catherina | Schönauer, Annette | Reisenberger, Birgit | Brand, Bernhard | Anheyer, Dennis | Dobos, Gustav | Kroez, Matthias | Martin, David | Matthes, Harald | Ammendola, Aldo | Mao, Jun J. | Witt, Claudia | Yang, Yufei | Dobos, Gustav | Oritz, Miriam | Horneber, Markus | Voiß, Petra | Reisenberger, Birgit | von Rosenstiel, Alexandra | Eckert, Marion | Ogal, Mercedes | Amarell, Catharina | Anheyer, Melanie | Schad, Friedemann | Schläppi, Marc | Kröz, Matthias | Büssing, Arndt | Bar-Sela, Gil | Matthes, Harald | Schiff, Elad | Ben-Arye, Eran | Arnon, Zahi | Avshalomov, David | Attias, Samuel | Schönauer, Annette | Haramati, Aviad | Witt, Claudia | Brinkhaus, Benno | Cotton, Sian | Jong, Miek | Jong, Mats | Scheffer, Christian | Haramati, Aviad | Tauschel, Diethard | Edelhäuser, Friedrich | AlBedah, Abdullah | Lee, Myeong Soo | Khalil, Mohamed | Ogawa, Keiko | Motoo, Yoshiharu | Arimitsu, Junsuke | Ogawa, Masao | Shimizu, Genki | Stange, Rainer | Kraft, Karin | Kuchta, Kenny | Watanabe, Kenji | Bonin, D | Büssing, Arndt | Gruber, Harald | Koch, Sabine | Gruber, Harald | Pohlmann, Urs | Caldwell, Christine | Krantz, Barbara | Kortum, Ria | Martin, Lily | Wieland, Lisa S. | Kligler, Ben | Gould-Fogerite, Susan | Zhang, Yuqing | Wieland, Lisa S. | Riva, John J. | Lumpkin, Michael | Ratner, Emily | Ping, Liu | Jian, Pei | Hamme, Gesa-Meyer | Mao, Xiaosong | Chouping, Han | Schröder, Sven | Hummelsberger, Josef | Wullinger, Michael | Brodzky, Marc | Zalpour, Christoff | Langley, Julia | Weber, Wendy | Mudd, Lanay M. | Wayne, Peter | Witt, Clauda | Weidenhammer, Wolfgang | Fønnebø, Vinjar | Boon, Heather | Steel, Amie | Bugarcic, Andrea | Rangitakatu, Melisa | Steel, Amie | Adams, Jon | Sibbritt, David | Wardle, Jon | Leach, Matthew | Schloss, Janet | Dieze, Helene | Boon, Heather | Ijaz, Nadine | Willcox, Merlin | Heinrich, Michael | Lewith, George | Flower, Andrew | Graz, Bertrand | Adam, Daniela | Grabenhenrich, Linus | Ortiz, Miriam | Binting, Sylvia | Reinhold, Thomas | Brinkhaus, Benno | Andermo, Susanne | Sundberg, Tobias | Falkenberg, Torkel | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Arman, Maria | Bhasin, Manoj | Fan, Xueyi | Libermann, Towia | Fricchione, Gregory | Denninger, John | Benson, Herbert | Berger, Bettina | Stange, Rainer | Michalsen, Andreas | Martin, David D. | Boers, Inge | Vlieger, Arine | Jong, Miek | Brinkhaus, Benno | Teut, Michael | Ullmann, Alexander | Ortiz, Miriam | Rotter, Gabriele | Binting, Sylvia | Lotz, Fabian | Roll, Stephanie | Canella, Claudia | Mikolasek, Michael | Rostock, Matthias | Beyer, Jörg | Guckenberger, Matthias | Jenewein, Josef | Linka, Esther | Six, Claudia | Stoll, Sarah | Stupp, Roger | Witt, Claudia M. | Chuang, Elisabeth | Kligler, Ben | McKee, Melissa D. | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Klose, Petra | Lange, Silke | Langhorst, Jost | Dobos, Gustav | Chung, Vincent C. H. | Wong, Hoi L. C. | Wu, Xin Y. | Wen, Grace Y. G. | Ho, Robin S. T. | Ching, Jessica Y. L. | Wu, Justin C. Y. | Coakley, Amanda | Flanagan, Jane | Annese, Christine | Empoliti, Joanne | Gao, Zishan | Liu, Xugang | Yu, Shuguang | Yan, Xianzhong | Liang, Fanrong | Hohmann, Christoph D. | Steckhan, Nico | Ostermann, Thomas | Paetow, Arion | Hoff, Evelyn | Michalsen, Andreas | Hu, Xiao-Yang | Wu, Ruo-Han | Logue, Martin | Blonde, Clara | Lai, Lily Y. | Stuart, Beth | Flower, Andrew | Fei, Yu-Tong | Moore, Michael | Liu, Jian-Ping | Lewith, George | Hu, Xiao-Yang | Wu, Ruo-Han | Logue, Martin | Blonde, Clara | Lai, Lily Y. | Stuart, Beth | Flower, Andrew | Fei, Yu-Tong | Moore, Michael | Liu, Jian-Ping | Lewith, George | Jeitler, Michael | Zillgen, Hannah | Högl, Manuel | Steckhan, Nico | Stöckigt, Barbara | Seifert, Georg | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian | Khadivzadeh, Talat | Bashtian, Maryam Hassanzadeh | Aval, Shapour Badiee | Esmaily, Habibollah | Kim, Jihye | Kim, Keun H. | Klocke, Carina | Joos, Stefanie | Koshak, Abdulrahman | Wie, Li | Koshak, Emad | Wali, Siraj | Alamoudi, Omer | Demerdash, Abdulrahman | Qutub, Majdy | Pushparaj, Peter | Heinrich, Michael | Kruse, Sigrid | Fischer, Isabell | Tremel, Nadine | Rosenecker, Joseph | Leung, Brenda | Takeda, Wendy | Liang, Ning | Feng, Xue | Liu, Jian-ping | Cao, Hui-juan | Luberto, Christina M. | Shinday, Nina | Philpotts, Lisa | Park, Elyse | Fricchione, Gregory L. | Yeh, Gloria | Munk, Niki | Zakeresfahani, Arash | Foote, Trevor R. | Ralston, Rick | Boulanger, Karen | Özbe, Dominik | Gräßel, Elmar | Luttenberger, Katharina | Pendergrass, Anna | Pach, Daniel | Bellmann-Strobl, Judit | Chang, Yinhui | Pasura, Laura | Liu, Bin | Jäger, Sven F. | Loerch, Ronny | Jin, Li | Brinkhaus, Benno | Ortiz, Miriam | Reinhold, Thomas | Roll, Stephanie | Binting, Sylvia | Icke, Katja | Shi, Xuemin | Paul, Friedemann | Witt, Claudia M. | Rütz, Michaela | Lynen, Andreas | Schömitz, Meike | Vahle, Maik | Salomon, Nir | Lang, Alon | Lahat, Adi | Kopylov, Uri | Ben-Horin, Shomron | Har-Noi, Ofir | Avidan, Benjamin | Elyakim, Rami | Gamus, Dorit | NG, Siew | Chang, Jessica | Wu, Justin | Kaimiklotis, John | Schumann, Dania | Buttó, Ludovica | Langhorst, Jost | Dobos, Gustav | Haller, Dirk | Cramer, Holger | Smith, Caroline | de Lacey, Sheryl | Chapman, Michael | Ratcliffe, Julie | Johnson, Neil | Lyttleton, Jane | Boothroyd, Clare | Fahey, Paul | Tjaden, Bram | van Vliet, Marja | van Wietmarschen, Herman | Jong, Miek | Tröger, Wilfried | Vuolanto, Pia | Aarva, Paulina | Sorsa, Minna | Helin, Kaija | Wenzel, Claudia | Zoderer, Iris | Pammer, Patricia | Simon, Patrick | Tucek, Gerhard | Wode, Kathrin | Henriksson, Roger | Sharp, Lena | Stoltenberg, Anna | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Xiao-ying, Yang | Wang, Li-qiong | Li, Jin-gen | Liang, Ning | Wang, Ying | Liu, Jian-ping | Balneaves, Lynda | Capler, Rielle | Bocci, Chiara | Guffi, Marta | Paolini, Marina | Meaglia, Ilaria | Porcu, Patrizia | Ivaldi, Giovanni B. | Dragan, Simona | Bucuras, Petru | Pah, Ana M. | Badalica-Petrescu, Marius | Buleu, Florina | Hogea-Stoichescu, Gheorghe | Christodorescu, Ruxandra | Kao, Lan | Cho, Yumin | Klafke, Nadja | Mahler, Cornelia | von Hagens, Cornelia | Uhlmann, Lorenz | Bentner, Martina | Schneeweiss, Andreas | Mueller, Andreas | Szecsenyi, Joachim | Joos, Stefanie | Neri, Isabella | Ortiz, Miriam | Schnabel, Katharina | Teut, Michael | Rotter, Gabriele | Binting, Sylvia | Cree, Margit | Lotz, Fabian | Suhr, Ralf | Brinkhaus, Benno | Rossi, Elio | Baccetti, Sonia | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Monechi, Maria V. | Di Stefano, Mariella | Amunni, Gianni | Wong, Wendy | Chen, Bingzhong | Wu, Justin | Amri, Hakima | Haramati, Aviad | Kotlyanskaya, Lucy | Anderson, Belinda | Evans, Roni | Kligler, Ben | Marantz, Paul | Bradley, Ryan | Booth-LaForce, Cathryn | Zwickey, Heather | Kligler, Benjamin | Brooks, Audrey | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Lebensohn, Patricia | Goldblatt, Elisabeth | Esmel-Esmel, Neus | Jiménez-Herrera, Maria | Ijaz, Nadine | Boon, Heather | Jocham, Alexandra | Stock-Schröer, Beate | Berberat, Pascal O. | Schneider, Antonius | Linde, Klaus | Masetti, Morgana | Murakozy, Henriette | Van Vliet, Marja | Jong, Mats | Jong, Miek | Agdal, Rita | Atarzadeh, Fatemeh | Jaladat, Amir M. | Hoseini, Leila | Amini, Fatemeh | Bai, Chen | Liu, Tiegang | Zheng, Zian | Wan, Yuxiang | Xu, Jingnan | Wang, Xuan | Yu, He | Gu, Xiaohong | Daneshfard, Babak | Nimrouzi, Majid | Tafazoli, Vahid | Alorizi, Seyed M. Emami | Saghebi, Seyed A. | Fattahi, Mohammad R. | Salehi, Alireza | Rezaeizadeh, Hossein | Zarshenas, Mohammad M. | Nimrouzi, Majid | Fox, Kealoha | Hughes, John | Kostanjsek, Nenad | Espinosa, Stéphane | Lewith, George | Fisher, Peter | Latif, Abdul | Lefeber, Donald | Paske, William | Öztürk, Ali Ö. | Öztürk, Gizemnur | Boers, Inge | Tissing, Wim | Naafs, Marianne | Busch, Martine | Jong, Miek | Daneshfard, Babak | Sanaye, Mohammad R. | Dräger, Kilian | Fisher, Peter | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Evans, Roni | Leininger, Brent | Shafto, Kate | Breen, Jenny | Sanaye, Mohammad R. | Daneshfard, Babak | Simões-Wüst, Ana P. | Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina | van Dongen, Martien | Dagnelie, Pieter | Thijs, Carel | White, Shelley | Wiesener, Solveig | Salamonsen, Anita | Stub, Trine | Fønnebø, Vinjar | Abanades, Sergio | Blanco, Mar | Masllorens, Laia | Sala, Roser | Al-Ahnoumy, Shafekah | Han, Dongwoon | He, Luzhu | Kim, Ha Yun | In Choi, Da | Alræk, Terje | Stub, Trine | Kristoffersen, Agnete | von Sceidt, Christel | Michalsen, Andreas | Bruset, Stig | Musial, Frauke | Anheyer, Dennis | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Saha, Felix J. | Dobos, Gustav | Anheyer, Dennis | Haller, Heidemarie | Lauche, Romy | Dobos, Gustav | Cramer, Holger | Azizi, Hoda | Khadem, Nayereh | Hassanzadeh, Malihe | Estiri, Nazanin | Azizi, Hamideh | Tavassoli, Fatemeh | Lotfalizadeh, Marzieh | Zabihi, Reza | Esmaily, Habibollah | Azizi, Hoda | Shabestari, Mahmoud Mohammadzadeh | Paeizi, Reza | Azari, Masoumeh Alvandi | Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza | Zabihi, Reza | Azizi, Hamideh | Esmaily, Habibollah | Baars, Erik | De Bruin, Anja | Ponstein, Anne | Baccetti, Sonia | Di Stefano, Mariella | Rossi, Elio | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Segantini, Sergio | Monechi, Maria Valeria | Voller, Fabio | Barth, Jürgen | Kern, Alexandra | Lüthi, Sebastian | Witt, Claudia | Barth, Jürgen | Zieger, Anja | Otto, Fabius | Witt, Claudia | Beccia, Ariel | Dunlap, Corina | Courneene, Brendan | Bedregal, Paula | Passi, Alvaro | Rodríguez, Alfredo | Chang, Mayling | Gutiérrez, Soledad | Beissner, Florian | Beissner, Florian | Preibisch, Christine | Schweizer-Arau, Annemarie | Popovici, Roxana | Meissner, Karin | Beljanski, Sylvie | Belland, Laura | Rivera-Reyes, Laura | Hwang, Ula | Berger, Bettina | Sethe, Dominik | Hilgard, Dörte | Heusser, Peter | Bishop, Felicity | Al-Abbadey, Miznah | Bradbury, Katherine | Carnes, Dawn | Dimitrov, Borislav | Fawkes, Carol | Foster, Jo | MacPherson, Hugh | Roberts, Lisa | Yardley, Lucy | Lewith, George | Bishop, Felicity | Al-Abbadey, Miznah | Bradbury, Katherine | Carnes, Dawn | Dimitrov, Borislav | Fawkes, Carol | Foster, Jo | MacPherson, Hugh | Roberts, Lisa | Yardley, Lucy | Lewith, George | Bishop, Felicity | Holmes, Michelle | Lewith, George | Yardley, Lucy | Little, Paul | Cooper, Cyrus | Bogani, Patrizia | Maggini, Valentina | Gallo, Eugenia | Miceli, Elisangela | Biffi, Sauro | Mengoni, Alessio | Fani, Renato | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Brands-Guendling, Nadine | Guendling, Peter W. | Bronfort, Gert | Evans, Roni | Haas, Mitch | Leininger, Brent | Schulz, Craig | Bu, Xiangwei | Wang, J. | Fang, T. | Shen, Z. | He, Y. | Zhang, X. | Zhang, Zhengju | Wang, Dali | Meng, Fengxian | Büssing, Arndt | Baumann, Klaus | Frick, Eckhard | Jacobs, Christoph | Büssing, Arndt | Grünther, Ralph-Achim | Lötzke, Désirée | Büssing, Arndt | Jung, Sonny | Lötzke, Désirée | Recchia, Daniela R. | Robens, Sibylle | Ostermann, Thomas | Berger, Bettina | Stankewitz, Josephin | Kröz, Matthias | Jeitler, Mika | Kessler, Christian | Michalsen, Andreas | Cheon, Chunhoo | Jang, Bo H. | Ko, Seong G. | Huang, Ching W. | Sasaki, Yui | Ko, Youme | Cheshire, Anna | Ridge, Damien | Hughes, John | Peters, David | Panagioti, Maria | Simon, Chantal | Lewith, George | Cho, Hyun J. | Han, Dongwoon | Choi, Soo J. | Jung, Young S. | Im, Hyea B | Cooley, Kieran | Tummon-Simmons, Laura | Cotton, Sian | Luberto, Christina M. | Wasson, Rachel | Kraemer, Kristen | Sears, Richard | Hueber, Carly | Derk, Gwendolyn | Lill, JR | An, Ruopeng | Steinberg, Lois | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | la Fuente, Francisca García-de | De la Vega, Miguel | Vargas-Román, Keyla | Fernández-Ruiz, Jonatan | Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | García-De la Fuente, Francisca | Jiménez-Guerrero, Fanny | Vargas-Román, Keyla | Fernández-Ruiz, Jonatan | Galiano-Castillo, Noelia | Diaz-Saez, Gualberto | Torres-Jimenez, José I. | Garcia-Gomez, Olga | Hortal-Muñoz, Luis | Diaz-Diez, Camino | Dicen, Demijon | Diezel, Helene | Adams, Jon | Steel, Amie | Wardle, Jon | Diezel, Helene | Steel, Amie | Frawley, Jane | Wardle, Jon | Broom, Alex | Adams, Jon | Dong, Fei | Yu, He | Liu, Tiegang | Ma, Xueyan | Yan, Liyi | Wan, Yuxiang | Zheng, Zian | Gu, Xiaohong | Dong, Fei | Yu, He | Wu, Liqun | Liu, Tiegang | Ma, Xueyan | Ma, Jiaju | Yan, Liyi | Wan, Yuxiang | Zheng, Zian | Zhen, Jianhua | Gu, Xiaohong | Dubois, Julie | Rodondi, Pierre-Yves | Edelhäuser, Friedrich | Schwartze, Sophia | Trapp, Barbara | Cysarz, Dirk
doi:10.1186/s12906-017-1782-4
PMCID: PMC5498855
8.  Specular Highlight Removal For Image-Based Dietary Assessment 
Traditional dietary assessment methods, consisting of written and orally reported methods, are not widely acceptable or feasible for everyday monitoring. The development of builtin cameras for mobile devices provides a new way of collecting dietary information by acquiring images of foods and beverages. The ability of image analysis techniques to automatically segment and identify food items from food images becomes imperative. Food images, usually consisting of plates, bowls and glasses, are often affected by lighting and specular highlights which present difficulties for image analysis. In this paper, we propose a novel single-image specular highlight removal method to detect and remove specular highlights in food images. We use independent components analysis (ICA) to separate the specular and diffuse components from the original image using only one image. This paper describes the details of the proposed model and also presents experimental results on food images to demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach.
doi:10.1109/ICMEW.2012.80
PMCID: PMC5448988
Dietary assessment; diet record method; image analysis; specular highlight removal; independent components analysis; specular reflection
9.  Image Segmentation for Image-Based Dietary Assessment: A Comparative Study 
There is a health crisis in the US related to diet that is further exacerbated by our aging population and sedentary lifestyles. Six of the ten leading causes of death in the United States can be directly linked to diet. Dietary assessment, the process of determining what someone eats during the course of a day, is essential for understanding the link between diet and health. We are developing imaging based tools to automatically obtain accurate estimates of what foods a user consumes. Accurate food segmentation is essential for identifying food items and estimating food portion sizes. In this paper, we present a quantitative evaluation of automatic image segmentation methods for food image analysis used for dietary assessment. The experiments indicate that local variation is more suitable for food image segmentation in general dietary assessment studies where the food images acquired have complex background.
PMCID: PMC5448989
Image Segmentation; Active Contours; Local Variation; Normalized Cuts; Dietary Assessment
10.  Liraglutide reduces body weight by upregulation of adenylate cyclase 3 
Li, Z | Liang, Y | Xia, N | Lai, Y | Pan, H | Zhou, S | Jiang, F | He, Y
Nutrition & Diabetes  2017;7(5):e265-.
Objective:
According to recent studies, adenylate cyclase 3 (AC3) is associated with obesity. Liraglutide reduces blood glucose levels and body weight (BW). We performed a 2 × 2 factorial experiment to study the relationships among AC3, liraglutide and obesity and to obtain a more comprehensive understanding of the mechanisms underlying the physiological effects of liraglutide on obesity.
Methods:
A high-fat diet was used to induce obesity in C57BL/6J mice. Both the normal and obese mice were treated with liraglutide (1 mg kg−1) or saline twice daily for 8 weeks. The hepatic levels of the AC3 and glucagon-like peptide receptor (GLP-1R) mRNAs and proteins were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The serum AC3 levels were detected using a rat/mouse AC3 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit.
Results:
The administration of liraglutide significantly decreased the BW in obese mice and normal control mice. The BW of obese mice exhibited a more obvious decrease. Hepatic AC3 mRNA and protein levels and serum AC3 levels were significantly reduced in obese mice compared with those in normal control mice. The administration of liraglutide significantly increased the hepatic expression of the AC3 and GLP-1R mRNAs and proteins and serum AC3 levels. The hepatic expression of the AC3 mRNA and protein and serum AC3 levels were negatively correlated with BW loss in the liraglutide-treated group. Pearson’s correlation coefficients for these comparisons are r=−0.448, P=0.048; r=−0.478, P=0.046; and r=−0.909, P=0.000, respectively.
Conclusions:
Based on our research, liraglutide reduces BW, possibly by increasing the expression of AC3.
doi:10.1038/nutd.2017.17
PMCID: PMC5518799  PMID: 28481334
11.  Confocal imaging of mouse mandibular condyle cartilage 
Scientific Reports  2017;7:43848.
Mice are commonly used to study the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) and to model human TMJ disease. However, evaluating TMJ pathology in mice using standard histologic methods is time consuming, labor intensive, and dependent upon investigators’ expertise at consistently orienting and sectioning across tiny specimens. We describe a method that uses confocal microscopy to rapidly and reliably assess indicators of mandibular condyle cartilage pathology in mice. We demonstrate the utility of this method for detecting abnormalities in chondrocyte distribution in mice lacking lubricin (Prg4), the major boundary lubricant of articular cartilage. We further show that the method can provide information about recombination sites and efficiency in mandibular cartilage for Cre-driver strains. Because specimen preparation and data acquisition with confocal microscopy are simple and fast, the method can serve as a primary screening tool for TMJ pathology, before proceeding to complicated, time consuming, secondary analyses.
doi:10.1038/srep43848
PMCID: PMC5339703  PMID: 28266618
12.  A multiplex method for detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) gene mutations 
SUMMARY
Introduction
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the most common human enzyme defect caused by G6PD gene mutations. This study aimed to develop a cost-effective, multiplex, genotyping method for detecting common mutations in the G6PD gene.
Methods
We used a SNaPshot approach to genotype multiple G6PD mutations that are common to human populations in Southeast Asia. This assay is based on multiplex PCR coupled with primer extension reactions. Different G6PD gene mutations were determined by peak retention time and colors of the primer extension products.
Results
We designed PCR primers for multiplex amplification of the G6PD gene fragments and for primer extension reactions to genotype 11 G6PD mutations. DNA samples from a total of 120 unrelated G6PD-deficient individuals from the China-Myanmar border area were used to establish and validate this method. Direct sequencing of the PCR products demonstrated 100% concordance between the SNaPshot and the sequencing results.
Conclusion
The SNaPshot method offers a specific and sensitive alternative for simultaneously interrogating multiple G6PD mutations.
doi:10.1111/ijlh.12405
PMCID: PMC4715770  PMID: 26190099
Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency; mutation detection; SNaPshot assay
13.  Site-specific function and regulation of Osterix in tooth root formation 
International endodontic journal  2016;49(12):1124-1131.
Congenital diseases of tooth roots, in terms of developmental abnormalities of short and thin root phenotypes, can lead to loss of teeth. A more complete understanding of the genetic molecular pathways and biological processes controlling tooth root formation is required. Recent studies have revealed that Osterix (Osx), a key mesenchymal transcriptional factor participating in both the processes of osteogenesis and odontogenesis, plays a vital role underlying the mechanisms of developmental differences between root and crown. During tooth development, Osx expression has been identified from late embryonic to postnatal stages when the tooth root develops, particularly in odontoblasts and cementoblasts to promote their differentiation and mineralization. Furthermore, the site-specific function of Osx in tooth root formation has been confirmed, because odontoblastic Osx-conditional knockout mice demonstrate primarily short and thin root phenotypes with no apparent abnormalities in the crown (Journal of Bone and Mineral Research 30, 2014 and 742, Journal of Dental Research 94, 2015 and 430). These findings suggest that Osx functions to promote odontoblast and cementoblast differentiation and root elongation only in root, but not in crown formation. Mechanistic research shows regulatory networks of Osx expression, which can be controlled through manipulating the epithelial BMP signalling, mesenchymal Runx2 expression and cellular phosphorylation levels, indicating feasible routes of promoting Osx expression postnatally (Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 114, 2013 and 975). In this regard, a promising approach might be available to regenerate the congenitally diseased root and that regenerative therapy would be the best choice for patients with developmental tooth diseases.
doi:10.1111/iej.12585
PMCID: PMC5005108  PMID: 26599722
dentinogenesis; odontoblast differentiation; Osterix; tooth root development
14.  Anxious and non-anxious major depressive disorder in the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys 
AIMS
To examine cross-national patterns and correlates of lifetime and 12-month comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with lifetime and 12-month DSM-IV major depressive disorder (MDD).
METHODS
Nationally or regionally representative epidemiological interviews were administered to 74,045 adults in 27 surveys across 24 countries in the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. DSM-IV MDD, a wide range of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders, and a number of correlates were assessed with the WHO Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI).
RESULTS
45.7% of respondents with lifetime MDD (32.0–46.5% inter-quartile range [IQR] across surveys) had one of more lifetime anxiety disorders. A slightly higher proportion of respondents with 12-month MDD had lifetime anxiety disorders (51.7%, 37.8–54.0% IQR) and only slightly lower proportions of respondents with 12-month MDD had 12-month anxiety disorders (41.6%, 29.9–47.2% IQR). Two-thirds (68%) of respondents with lifetime comorbid anxiety disorders and MDD reported an earlier age-of-onset of their first anxiety disorder than their MDD, while 13.5% reported an earlier age-of-onset of MDD and the remaining 18.5% reported the same age-of-onset of both disorders. Women and previously married people had consistently elevated rates of lifetime and 12-month MDD as well as comorbid anxiety disorders. Consistently higher proportions of respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD reported severe role impairment (64.4% vs. 46.0%; χ21=187.0, p<.001) and suicide ideation (19.5% vs. 8.9%; χ21=71.6, p<.001). Significantly more respondents with 12-month anxious than non-anxious MDD received treatment for their depression in the 12 months before interview, but this difference was more pronounced in high income countries (68.8% vs. 45.4%; χ21=108.8, p<.001) than low/middle income countries (30.3% vs. 20.6%; χ21=11.7, p<.001).
CONCLUSIONS
Patterns and correlates of comorbid DSM-IV anxiety disorders among people with DSM-IV MDD are similar across WMH countries. The narrow IQR of the proportion of respondents with temporally prior AOO of anxiety disorders than comorbid MDD (69.6–74.7%) is especially noteworthy. However, the fact that these proportions are not higher among respondents with 12-month than lifetime comorbidity means that temporal priority between lifetime anxiety disorders and MDD is not related to MDD persistence among people with anxious MDD. This, in turn, raises complex questions about the relative importance of temporally primary anxiety disorders as risk markers versus causal risk factors for subsequent MDD onset and persistence, including the possibility that anxiety disorders might primarily be risk markers for MDD onset and causal risk factors for MDD persistence.
doi:10.1017/S2045796015000189
PMCID: PMC5129607  PMID: 25720357
anxious depression; comorbidity; epidemiology
15.  Overexpression of angiopoietin 2 promotes the formation of oral squamous cell carcinoma by increasing epithelial–mesenchymal transition-induced angiogenesis 
Li, C | Li, Q | Cai, Y | He, Y | Lan, X | Wang, W | Liu, J | Wang, S | Zhu, G | Fan, J | Zhou, Y | Sun, R
Cancer Gene Therapy  2016;23(9):295-302.
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common cancer of the head and neck and is associated with a high rate of lymph node metastasis. The initial step in the metastasis and transition of tumors is epithelial–mesenchymal transition (EMT)-induced angiogenesis, which can be mediated by angiopoietin 2 (ANG2), a key regulatory factor in angiogenesis. In the present study, immunohistochemistry and real-time quantitative reverse transcriptase (qRT-PCR) were used to measure the expression of ANG2 in OSCC tissues. Plasmids encoding ANG2 mRNA were used for increased ANG2 expression in the OSCC cell line TCA8113. The short interfering RNA (siRNA)-targeting ANG2 mRNA sequences were used to inhibit ANG2 expression in TCA8113 cells. Subsequently, transwell assays were performed to examine the effects of ANG2 on TCA8113 cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, in vivo assays were performed to assess the effect of ANG2 on tumor growth. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) assays and immunohistochemistry were used to examine cell apoptosis and angiogenesis in tumor tissues, respectively. Finally, western blot analysis was performed to evaluate tumor formation-related proteins in OSCC tissues. We found that protein expression of ANG2 was remarkably upregulated in OSCC tissues. Overexpression of ANG2 increased the migration and invasion of TCA8113 cells by regulating EMT. Further investigations showed that overexpression of ANG2 increased tumor growth in nude mice, and angiogenesis of OSCC tissues increased in the presence of ANG2 overexpression. Overexpression of ANG2 also reduced cell apoptosis in tumor tissue cells. Finally, we found that overexpression of ANG2 resulted in changes in the expression of tumor formation-related proteins including vimentin, E-cadherin, Bim, PUMA, Bcl-2, Bax, Cyclin D1, PCNA and CD31. Our findings show that ANG2 has an important role in the migration and invasion of OSCC. More importantly, further investigations suggested that overexpression of ANG2 might increase OSCC metastasis by promoting angiogenesis in nude mice. This stimulatory effect could be achieved by inducing abnormal EMT and by reducing apoptosis and increasing proliferation of cells.
doi:10.1038/cgt.2016.30
PMCID: PMC5033983  PMID: 27492854
16.  The effects of microRNA on the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs 
British Journal of Pharmacology  2014;172(11):2733-2747.
The importance of genetic factors (e.g. sequence variation) in the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) and overall efficacy of therapeutic agents is well established. Our ability to identify, interpret and utilize these factors is the subject of much clinical investigation and therapeutic development. However, drug ADME and efficacy are also heavily influenced by epigenetic factors such as DNA/histone methylation and non-coding RNAs [especially microRNAs (miRNAs)]. Results from studies using tools, such as in silico miRNA target prediction, in vitro functional assays, nucleic acid profiling/sequencing and high-throughput proteomics, are rapidly expanding our knowledge of these factors and their effects on drug metabolism. Although these studies reveal a complex regulation of drug ADME, an increased understanding of the molecular interplay between the genome, epigenome and transcriptome has the potential to provide practically useful strategies to facilitate drug development, optimize therapeutic efficacy, circumvent adverse effects, yield novel diagnostics and ultimately become an integral component of personalized medicine.
doi:10.1111/bph.12968
PMCID: PMC4439871  PMID: 25296724
17.  CHCHD2 inhibits apoptosis by interacting with Bcl-x L to regulate Bax activation 
Cell Death and Differentiation  2014;22(6):1035-1046.
Mitochondrial outer membrane permeabilization (MOMP) is a critical control point during apoptosis that results in the release of pro-apoptotic mitochondrial contents such as cytochrome c. MOMP is largely controlled by Bcl-2 family proteins such as Bax, which under various apoptotic stresses becomes activated and oligomerizes on the outer mitochondrial membrane. Bax oligomerization helps promote the diffusion of the mitochondrial contents into the cytoplasm activating the caspase cascade. In turn, Bax is regulated primarily by anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 proteins including Bcl-xL, which was recently shown to prevent Bax from accumulating at the mitochondria. However, the exact mechanisms by which Bcl-xL regulates Bax and thereby MOMP remain partially understood. In this study, we show that the small CHCH-domain-containing protein CHCHD2 binds to Bcl-xL and inhibits the mitochondrial accumulation and oligomerization of Bax. Our data show that in response to apoptotic stimuli, mitochondrial CHCHD2 decreases prior to MOMP. Furthermore, when CHCHD2 is absent from the mitochondria, the ability of Bcl-xL to inhibit Bax activation and to prevent apoptosis is attenuated, which results in increases in Bax oligomerization, MOMP and apoptosis. Collectively, our findings establish CHCHD2, a previously uncharacterized small mitochondrial protein with no known homology to the Bcl-2 family, as one of the negative regulators of mitochondria-mediated apoptosis.
doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.194
PMCID: PMC4423185  PMID: 25476776
18.  3-T diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) of normal uterus in young and middle-aged females during the menstrual cycle: evaluation of the cyclic changes of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values 
He, Y | Ding, N | Li, Y | Li, Z | Xiang, Y | Jin, Z | Xue, H
The British Journal of Radiology  2015;88(1049):20150043.
Objective:
To evaluate cyclic changes of fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values of normal uterus in different age groups during the menstrual cycle, and the correlation with serum female hormone levels.
Methods:
29 normal volunteers accepted diffusion tensor imaging of the uterus on menstrual phase (MP), follicular phase (FP), ovulatory phase (OP) and luteal phase. FA and ADC values of different uterine layers on midsagittal images were measured. Differences between two age groups during the menstrual cycle were evaluated using liner mixed models and one-way analysis of variance. Pearson correlation analysis compared variation of FA and ADC values with serum female hormone levels measured in MP.
Results:
During menstrual cycle, endometrial FA values declined, whereas ADC values increased with significant differences (p < 0.05). Serum oestradiol (E) levels correlated moderately with variations of FA values between MP-FP (p = 0.045; r = 0.389) and MP-OP (p = 0.008; r = 0.511). FA and ADC values of junctional zones showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) as well as FA values of myometrium (p = 0.0961), while ADC values of myometrium showed significant increase from menstrual phase to luteal phase (p < 0.05). FA and ADC values of uterine three zonal structures showed significant differences (p < 0.05) at each phase during the menstrual cycle. No significant difference of FA and ADC values was found between age groups (p > 0.05).
Conclusion:
Dynamic changes of uterine FA and ADC values were observed during menstrual cycle. Variation of FA values between MP-FP, MP-OP correlated moderately with serum E levels.
Advances in knowledge:
No publications on the relationship between FA and ADC values and the female hormone levels were found; our study prospectively investigated the cyclic changes of FA and ADC values of the normal uterus and the correlation with the basic serum female hormone levels in MP.
doi:10.1259/bjr.20150043
PMCID: PMC4628488  PMID: 25785919
19.  Acute organ failure following the loss of anti-apoptotic cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein involves activation of innate immune receptors 
Cell Death and Differentiation  2014;22(5):826-837.
Apoptosis signaling is involved in both physiological tissue homeostasis and acute and chronic diseases. The role of regulatory apoptosis signaling molecules and their organ-specific functions are less defined. Therefore, we investigated the loss of the anti-apoptotic cellular FLICE-inhibitory protein (cFLIP) and the mechanisms of the resulting lethal organ failure in vivo using inducible knockout mice. These were generated by crossing floxed cFLIP mice to a tamoxifen inducible Rosa26-creERT2 mouse strain. Death following global loss of cFLIP resulted from liver failure, accumulation of M1-polarized macrophages and accompanying hepatic cell death and inflammation. Apoptosis was also prominent in immune cells, the kidney and intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) but not in cardiomyocytes. Cellular injury led to the release of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) and the induction of innate immune receptors including toll-like receptors (TLRs) 4 and 9, and stimulator of interferon genes (STING). Transplantation of bone marrow with intact cFLIP or depletion of macrophages prevented the phenotype of acute liver failure. Interestingly, compound deletion of cFLIP in bone marrow-derived cells and hepatocytes did not promote organ failure. Thus, cFLIP exerts a critical role in tissue homeostasis by preventing the activation of monocytic cells and innate immunity, which causes cell death and inflammation in susceptible tissues. These results encourage the development of organ-specific anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory therapies in acute organ failure.
doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.178
PMCID: PMC4392079  PMID: 25342470
20.  Wnt activation protects against neomycin-induced hair cell damage in the mouse cochlea 
Liu, L | Chen, Y | Qi, J | Zhang, Y | He, Y | Ni, W | Li, W | Zhang, S | Sun, S | Taketo, M M | Wang, L | Chai, R | Li, H
Cell Death & Disease  2016;7(3):e2136-.
Recent studies have reported the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in hair cell (HC) development, regeneration, and differentiation in the mouse cochlea; however, the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in HC protection remains unknown. In this study, we took advantage of transgenic mice to specifically knockout or overactivate the canonical Wnt signaling mediator β-catenin in HCs, which allowed us to investigate the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in protecting HCs against neomycin-induced damage. We first showed that loss of β-catenin in HCs made them more vulnerable to neomycin-induced injury, while constitutive activation of β-catenin in HCs reduced HC loss both in vivo and in vitro. We then showed that loss of β-catenin in HCs increased caspase-mediated apoptosis induced by neomycin injury, while β-catenin overexpression inhibited caspase-mediated apoptosis. Finally, we demonstrated that loss of β-catenin in HCs led to increased expression of forkhead box O3 transcription factor (Foxo3) and Bim along with decreased expression of antioxidant enzymes; thus, there were increased levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after neomycin treatment that might be responsible for the increased aminoglycoside sensitivity of HCs. In contrast, β-catenin overexpression reduced Foxo3 and Bim expression and ROS levels, suggesting that β-catenin is protective against neomycin-induced HC loss. Our findings demonstrate that Wnt/β-catenin signaling has an important role in protecting HCs against neomycin-induced HC loss and thus might be a new therapeutic target for the prevention of HC death.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2016.35
PMCID: PMC4823936  PMID: 26962686
21.  Fast quantifying collision strength index of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer coverings on the fields based on near infrared hyperspectral imaging techniques 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:20843.
A novel strategy based on the near infrared hyperspectral imaging techniques and chemometrics were explored for fast quantifying the collision strength index of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVAC) coverings on the fields. The reflectance spectral data of EVAC coverings was obtained by using the near infrared hyperspectral meter. The collision analysis equipment was employed to measure the collision intensity of EVAC materials. The preprocessing algorithms were firstly performed before the calibration. The algorithms of random frog and successive projection (SP) were applied to extracting the fingerprint wavebands. A correlation model between the significant spectral curves which reflected the cross-linking attributions of the inner organic molecules and the degree of collision strength was set up by taking advantage of the support vector machine regression (SVMR) approach. The SP-SVMR model attained the residual predictive deviation of 3.074, the square of percentage of correlation coefficient of 93.48% and 93.05% and the root mean square error of 1.963 and 2.091 for the calibration and validation sets, respectively, which exhibited the best forecast performance. The results indicated that the approaches of integrating the near infrared hyperspectral imaging techniques with the chemometrics could be utilized to rapidly determine the degree of collision strength of EVAC.
doi:10.1038/srep20843
PMCID: PMC4753500  PMID: 26875544
22.  Combination of the Manifold Dimensionality Reduction Methods with Least Squares Support vector machines for Classifying the Species of Sorghum Seeds 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:19917.
This study was carried out for rapid and noninvasive determination of the class of sorghum species by using the manifold dimensionality reduction (MDR) method and the nonlinear regression method of least squares support vector machines (LS-SVM) combing with the mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIRS) techniques. The methods of Durbin and Run test of augmented partial residual plot (APaRP) were performed to diagnose the nonlinearity of the raw spectral data. The nonlinear MDR methods of isometric feature mapping (ISOMAP), local linear embedding, laplacian eigenmaps and local tangent space alignment, as well as the linear MDR methods of principle component analysis and metric multidimensional scaling were employed to extract the feature variables. The extracted characteristic variables were utilized as the input of LS-SVM and established the relationship between the spectra and the target attributes. The mean average precision (MAP) scores and prediction accuracy were respectively used to evaluate the performance of models. The prediction results showed that the ISOMAP-LS-SVM model obtained the best classification performance, where the MAP scores and prediction accuracy were 0.947 and 92.86%, respectively. It can be concluded that the ISOMAP-LS-SVM model combined with the MIRS technique has the potential of classifying the species of sorghum in a reasonable accuracy.
doi:10.1038/srep19917
PMCID: PMC4730150  PMID: 26817580
23.  Raman and fluorescence characteristics of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering from doped superconducting cuprates 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:19657.
Measurements of spin excitations are essential for an understanding of spin-mediated pairing for superconductivity; and resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) provides a considerable opportunity to probe high-energy spin excitations. However, whether RIXS correctly measures the collective spin excitations of doped superconducting cuprates remains under debate. Here we demonstrate distinct Raman- and fluorescence-like RIXS excitations of Bi1.5Pb0.6Sr1.54CaCu2O8+δ. Combining photon-energy and momentum dependent RIXS measurements with theoretical calculations using exact diagonalization provides conclusive evidence that the Raman-like RIXS excitations correspond to collective spin excitations, which are magnons in the undoped Mott insulators and evolve into paramagnons in doped superconducting compounds. In contrast, the fluorescence-like shifts are due primarily to the continuum of particle-hole excitations in the charge channel. Our results show that under the proper experimental conditions RIXS indeed can be used to probe paramagnons in doped high-Tc cuprate superconductors.
doi:10.1038/srep19657
PMCID: PMC4726252  PMID: 26794437
24.  Socs1 and Socs3 degrades Traf6 via polyubiquitination in LPS-induced acute necrotizing pancreatitis 
Cell Death & Disease  2015;6(12):e2012-.
Mechanisms involved in inflammatory development during acute pancreatitis (AP) are largely vague, especially in the transformation of acute edematous pancreatitis (AEP) into acute necrotizing pancreatitis (ANP). This current study aims to investigate the functions of Traf6 in different AP models in vitro and in vivo, and to identify the possible regulatory mechanism in the progression of inflammation from mild to severe. Our data revealed that the level of Traf6 expression was significantly increased in the mild AP induced by caerulein, and the upregulation of Traf6 played a protective role in acinar cells against caerulein-induced apoptosis. In contrast, only Traf6 protein but not mRNA was downregulated in the severe ANP induced by combination treatment of caerulein and LPS. Mechanistic studies showed that LPS upregulated the levels of Socs1 and Socs3 expressions in acinar cells, Socs1 and Socs3 interacted Traf6 directly and degraded Traf6 protein via polyubiquitination, thereby counteracted the protective function of Traf6. In vivo study further showed that combination treatment of caerulein and LPS failed to induce an ANP model in the TLR4 knockout mice, and the level of Traf6 expression in the pancreatic tissues remained the same as that from the acute edematous pancreatitis (AEP) mouse. Taken together, our study reveals that Traf6 functioned as a protective factor in the progression of AP, and LPS-induced Socs1 and Socs3 exacerbate mild AP to severe AP, which provides evidence for developing a new therapeutic target to combat AP.
doi:10.1038/cddis.2015.342
PMCID: PMC4720878  PMID: 26633718
25.  Shed Syndecan-1 is involved in chemotherapy resistance via the EGFR pathway in colorectal cancer 
Wang, X | Zuo, D | Chen, Y | Li, W | Liu, R | He, Y | Ren, L | Zhou, L | Deng, T | Wang, X | Ying, G | Ba, Y
British Journal of Cancer  2014;111(10):1965-1976.
Background:
Syndecan-1 (Sdc-1) shedding induced by matrix metalloproteinase-7 (MMP-7) and additional proteases has an important role in cancer development. However, the impact of Sdc-1 shedding on chemotherapeutic resistance has not been reported.
Methods:
We examined Sdc-1 shedding in colorectal cancer by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), Dot blot, reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), immunohistochemistry and so on, its impact on chemotherapeutic sensitivity by collagen gel droplet embedded culture-drug sensitivity test (CD-DST) and MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide), and potential mechanisms of action by Dot blot, western blot and immunofluorescence.
Results:
Sdc-1 shedding was increased in colorectal cancer patients, Sdc-1 serum levels in postoperative patients were lower than in preoperative patients, but still higher than those observed in healthy adults. Patients with high preoperative Sdc-1 serum levels were less responsive to 5-Fluorouracil, Oxaliplatin, Irintecan, Cisplatin or Paclitaxel chemotherapy. Moreover, the disease-free survival of patients with high preoperative Sdc-1 serum levels was significantly poorer. The possible mechanism of chemotherapy resistance in colorectal cancer can be attributed to Sdc-1 shedding, which enhances EGFR phosphorylation and downstream signalling.
Conclusions:
Shed Sdc-1 is involved in chemotherapy resistance via the EGFR pathway in colorectal cancer, and Sdc-1 serum levels could be a new prognostic marker in colorectal cancer.
doi:10.1038/bjc.2014.493
PMCID: PMC4229635  PMID: 25321193
syndecan-1; HB-EGF; colorectal cancer; chemotherapy

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