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1.  Proceedings of the International Cancer Imaging Society (ICIS) 16th Annual Teaching Course 
Koh, Dow-Mu | Kaste, Sue Creviston | Vinnicombe, Sarah J. | Morana, Giovanni | Rossi, Andrea | Herold, Christian J. | McLoud, Theresa C. | Frey, Kirk A. | Gebauer, Bernhard | Roebuck, Derek | Fütterer, Jurgen J. | Towbin, Alexander J. | Huisman, Thierry A. G. | Smets, Anne M. J. B. | Morana, Giovanni | Lee, Jeong Min | Chandarana, Hersh | Mayerhoefer, Marius E. | Raderer, Markus | Haug, Alexander | Eiber, Matthias | Gebauer, Bernhard | Rockall, Andrea | Sohaib, Aslam | Warbey, Victoria S | Vargas, Hebert Alberto | Koh, Dow-Mu | Heiken, Jay P. | Francis, Isaac R. | Al-Hawary, Mahmoud M. | Kaza, Ravi K. | Morana, Giovanni | D’Onofrio, Mirko | Thoeny, Harriet C. | King, Ann D. | Morana, Giovanni | Piccardo, Arnoldo | Garrè, Maria Luisa | Rossi, Andrea | Vargas, Hebert Alberto | McLoud, Theresa C. | Reed, Nick | Rodriguez-Galindo, Carlos | Chandarana, Hersh | Vargas, Hebert Alberto | Francis, Isaac R. | Wasnik, Ashish P. | Diederich, Stefan | Fütterer, Jurgen J. | Oyen, Wim J. G. | Chaw, Cheng Lee | van As, Nicholas | Vieira, Igor | De Keyzer, Frederik | Dresen, Elleke | Han, Sileny | Vergote, Ignace | Moerman, Philippe | Amant, Frederic | Koole, Michel | Vandecaveye, Vincent | Dresen, R. | De Vuysere, S. | De Keyzer, F. | Van Cutsem, E. | D’Hoore, A. | Wolthuis, A. | Vandecaveye, V. | Pricolo, P. | Alessi, S. | Summers, P. | Tagliabue, E. | Petralia, G. | Pfannenberg, C. | Gückel, B. | Schüle, S. C. | Müller, A. C. | Kaufmann, S. | Schwenzer, N. | Reimold, M. | la Fougere, C. | Nikolaou, K. | Martus, P. | Cook, G. J. | Azad, G. K. | Taylor, B. P. | Siddique, M. | John, J. | Mansi, J. | Harries, M. | Goh, V. | Seth, S. | Burgul, R. | Seth, A. | Waugh, S. | Gowdh, N. Muhammad | Purdie, C. | Evans, A. | Crowe, E. | Thompson, A. | Vinnicombe, S. | Arfeen, F. | Campion, T. | Goldstraw, E. | D’Onofrio, M. | Ciaravino, V. | Crosara, S. | De Robertis, R. | Mucelli, R. Pozzi | Uhrig, M. | Simons, D. | Schlemmer, H. | Downey, Kate | Murdoch, S. | Al-adhami, A. S. | Viswanathan, S. | Smith, S. | Jennings, P. | Bowers, D. | Soomal, R. | Smith, S. | Jennings, P. | Bowers, D. | Soomal, R. | Mutala, T. M. | Odhiambo, A. O. | Harish, N. | Pricolo, P. | Alessi, S. | Summers, P. | Tagliabue, E. | Petralia, G. | Hall, M. | Sproule, M. | Sheridan, S. | Thein, K. Y. | Tan, C. H. | Thian, Y. L. | Ho, C. M. | De Luca, S. | Carrera, C. | Blanchet, V. | Alarcón, L. | Eyheremnedy, E. | Choudhury, B. K. | Bujarbarua, K. | Barman, G. | Cook, G. J. | Lovat, E. | Siddique, M. | Goh, V. | Ferner, R. | Warbey, V. S. | Potti, L. | Kaye, B. | Beattie, A. | Dutton, K. | Seth, A. A. | Constantinidis, F. | Dobson, H. | Seth, A. A. | Constantinidis, F. | Dobson, H. | Bradley, R. | Bozas, G. | Avery, G. | Stephens, A. | Maraveyas, A. | Bhuva, S. | Johnson, C. A. | Subesinghe, M. | Taylor, N. | Quint, L. E. | Reddy, R. M. | Kalemkerian, G. P. | Zapico, G. González | Jauregui, E. Gainza | Francisco, R. Álvarez | Alonso, S. Ibáñez | Bahillo, I. Tavera | Álvarez, L. Múgica | Francies, O. | Wheeler, R. | Childs, L. | Adams, A. | Sahdev, A. | De Luca, S. E. | Vañek, M. E. Casalini | Pascuzzi, M. D. | Gillanders, T. | Ramos, P. M. | Eyheremendy, E. P. | Stove, C. | Digby, M. | Nazar, M. | Wirtz, M. | Pascuzzi, M. D. | Troncoso, F. | Saguier, F. | Eyheremendy, E. P. | Quint, D. J. | Dang, L. | Carlson, M. | Leber, S. | Silverstein, F. | Rueben, R. | Viswanathan, S. | Nazir, B. | Teo, T. H. | Khoo, J. B. | Sharma, K. | Gupta, N. | Mathew, B. | Jeyakumar, T. | Harkins, K. | Sharma, K. | Mathew, B. | Gupta, N. | Jeyakumar, T. | Joshua, S. | Christodoulou, D. | Gourtsoyianni, S. | Jacques, A. | Griffin, N. | Goh, V. | Johnson, C. A. | Lee, J. | Goodfellow, J. A. | Al-adhami, A. S. | Viswanathan, S. | Bradley, R. | Bradley, R. | Yong, A. | Jenkins, S. | Joseph, G. | Bhuva, S. | Partington, K. | Johnson, C. A. | Bhuva, S. | Subesinghe, M. | Taylor, N. | Carrera, C. | Zanfardini, A. | De Luca, S. | Alarcón, L. | Blanchet, V. | Eyheremendy, E. P. | Cavanagh, K. | Lau, E.
Cancer Imaging  2016;16(Suppl 1):28.
Table of contents
O1 Tumour heterogeneity: what does it mean?
Dow-Mu Koh
O2 Skeletal sequelae in adult survivors of childhood cancer
Sue Creviston Kaste
O3 Locoregional effects of breast cancer treatment
Sarah J Vinnicombe
O4 Imaging of cancer therapy-induced CNS toxicity
Giovanni Morana, Andrea Rossi
O5 Screening for lung cancer
Christian J. Herold
O6Risk stratification of lung nodules
Theresa C. McLoud
O7 PET imaging of pulmonary nodules
Kirk A Frey
O8 Transarterial tumour therapy
Bernhard Gebauer
O9 Interventional radiology in paediatric oncology
Derek Roebuck
O10 Image guided prostate interventions
Jurgen J. Fütterer
O11 Imaging cancer predisposition syndromes
Alexander J. Towbin
O12Chest and chest wall masses
Thierry AG Huisman
O13 Abdominal masses: good or bad?
Anne MJB Smets
O14 Hepatobiliary MR contrast: enhanced liver MRI for HCC diagnosis and management
Giovanni Morana
O15 Role of US elastography and multimodality fusion for managing patients with chronic liver disease and HCC
Jeong Min Lee
O16 Opportunities and challenges in imaging metastatic disease
Hersh Chandarana
O17 Diagnosis, treatment monitoring, and follow-up of lymphoma
Marius E. Mayerhoefer, Markus Raderer, Alexander Haug
O18 Managing high-risk and advanced prostate cancer
Matthias Eiber
O19 Immunotherapy: imaging challenges
Bernhard Gebauer
Andrea Rockall
O21 Challenges of RECIST in oncology imaging basics for the trainee and novice
Aslam Sohaib
O22 Lymphoma: PET for interim and end of treatment response assessment: a users’ guide to the Deauville Score
Victoria S Warbey
O23 Available resources
Hebert Alberto Vargas
O24 ICIS e-portal and the online learning community
Dow-Mu Koh
O25 Benign lesions that mimic pancreatic cancer
Jay P Heiken
O26 Staging and reporting pancreatic malignancies
Isaac R Francis, Mahmoud, M Al-Hawary, Ravi K Kaza
O27 Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm
Giovanni Morana
O28 Cystic pancreatic tumours
Mirko D’Onofrio
O29 Diffusion-weighted imaging of head and neck tumours
Harriet C. Thoeny
O30 Radiation injury in the head and neck
Ann D King
O31 PET/MR of paediatric brain tumours
Giovanni Morana, Arnoldo Piccardo, Maria Luisa Garrè, Andrea Rossi
O32 Structured reporting and beyond
Hebert Alberto Vargas
O33 Massachusetts General Hospital experience with structured reporting
Theresa C. McLoud
O34 The oncologist’s perspective: what the oncologist needs to know
Nick Reed
O35 Towards the cure of all children with cancer: global initiatives in pediatric oncology
Carlos Rodriguez-Galindo
O36 Multiparametric imaging of renal cancers
Hersh Chandarana
O37 Linking imaging features of renal disease and their impact on management strategies
Hebert Alberto Vargas
O38 Adrenals, retroperitoneum and peritoneum
Isaac R Francis, Ashish P Wasnik
O39 Lung and pleura
Stefan Diederich
O40 Advances in MRI
Jurgen J. Fütterer
O41 Advances in molecular imaging
Wim J.G. Oyen
O42 Incorporating advanced imaging, impact on treatment selection and patient outcome
Cheng Lee Chaw, Nicholas van As
S1 Combining ADC-histogram features improves performance of MR diffusion-weighted imaging for Lymph node characterisation in cervical cancer
Igor Vieira, Frederik De Keyzer, Elleke Dresen, Sileny Han, Ignace Vergote, Philippe Moerman, Frederic Amant, Michel Koole, Vincent Vandecaveye
S2 Whole-body diffusion-weighted MRI for surgical planning in patients with colorectal cancer and peritoneal metastases
R Dresen, S De Vuysere, F De Keyzer, E Van Cutsem, A D’Hoore, A Wolthuis, V Vandecaveye
S3 Role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) diffusion-weighted MRI for predicting extra capsular extension of prostate cancer.
P. Pricolo (, S. Alessi, P. Summers, E. Tagliabue, G. Petralia
S4 Generating evidence for clinical benefit of PET/CT – are management studies sufficient as surrogate for patient outcome?
C. Pfannenberg, B. Gückel, SC Schüle, AC Müller, S. Kaufmann, N. Schwenzer, M. Reimold,C. la Fougere, K. Nikolaou, P. Martus
S5 Heterogeneity of treatment response in skeletal metastases from breast cancer with 18F-fluoride and 18F-FDG PET
GJ Cook, GK Azad, BP Taylor, M Siddique, J John, J Mansi, M Harries, V Goh
S6 Accuracy of suspicious breast imaging—can we tell the patient?
S Seth, R Burgul, A Seth
S7 Measurement method of tumour volume changes during neoadjuvant chemotherapy affects ability to predict pathological response
S Waugh, N Muhammad Gowdh, C Purdie, A Evans, E Crowe, A Thompson, S Vinnicombe
S8 Diagnostic yield of CT IVU in haematuria screening
F. Arfeen, T. Campion, E. Goldstraw
S9 Percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of unresectable locally advanced pancreatic cancer: preliminary results
D’Onofrio M, Ciaravino V, Crosara S, De Robertis R, Pozzi Mucelli R
S10 Iodine maps from dual energy CT improve detection of metastases in staging examinations of melanoma patients
M. Uhrig, D. Simons, H. Schlemmer
S11Can contrast enhanced CT predict pelvic nodal status in malignant melanoma of the lower limb?
Kate Downey
S12 Current practice in the investigation for suspected Paraneoplastic Neurological Syndromes (PNS) and positive malignancy yield.
S Murdoch, AS Al-adhami, S Viswanathan
P1 Technical success and efficacy of Pulmonary Radiofrequency ablation: an analysis of 207 ablations
S Smith, P Jennings, D Bowers, R Soomal
P2 Lesion control and patient outcome: prospective analysis of radiofrequency abaltion in pulmonary colorectal cancer metastatic disease
S Smith, P Jennings, D Bowers, R Soomal
P3 Hepatocellular carcinoma in a post-TB patient: case of tropical infections and oncologic imaging challenges
TM Mutala, AO Odhiambo, N Harish
P4 Role of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) diffusion-weighted MRI for predicting extracapsular extension of prostate cancer
P. Pricolo, S. Alessi, P. Summers, E. Tagliabue, G. Petralia
P5 What a difference a decade makes; comparison of lung biopsies in Glasgow 2005 and 2015
M. Hall, M. Sproule, S. Sheridan
P6 Solid pseudopapillary tumour of pancreas: imaging features of a rare neoplasm
KY Thein, CH Tan, YL Thian, CM Ho
P7 MDCT - pathological correlation in colon adenocarcinoma staging: preliminary experience
S De Luca, C Carrera, V Blanchet, L Alarcón, E Eyheremnedy
P8 Image guided biopsy of thoracic masses and reduction of pneumothorax risk: 25 years experience
B K Choudhury, K Bujarbarua, G Barman
P9 Tumour heterogeneity analysis of 18F-FDG-PET for characterisation of malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumours in neurofibromatosis-1
GJ Cook, E Lovat, M Siddique, V Goh, R Ferner, VS Warbey
P10 Impact of introduction of vacuum assisted excision (VAE) on screen detected high risk breast lesions
L Potti, B Kaye, A Beattie, K Dutton
P11 Can we reduce prevalent recall rate in breast screening?
AA Seth, F Constantinidis, H Dobson
P12 How to reduce prevalent recall rate? Identifying mammographic lesions with low Positive Predictive Value (PPV)
AA Seth (, F Constantinidis, H Dobson
P13 Behaviour of untreated pulmonary thrombus in oncology patients diagnosed with incidental pulmonary embolism on CT
R. Bradley, G. Bozas, G. Avery, A. Stephens, A. Maraveyas
P14 A one-stop lymphoma biopsy service – is it possible?
S Bhuva, CA Johnson, M Subesinghe, N Taylor
P15 Changes in the new TNM classification for lung cancer (8th edition, effective January 2017)
LE Quint, RM Reddy, GP Kalemkerian
P16 Cancer immunotherapy: a review of adequate imaging assessment
G González Zapico, E Gainza Jauregui, R Álvarez Francisco, S Ibáñez Alonso, I Tavera Bahillo, L Múgica Álvarez
P17 Succinate dehydrogenase mutations and their associated tumours
O Francies, R Wheeler, L Childs, A Adams, A Sahdev
P18 Initial experience in the usefulness of dual energy technique in the abdomen
SE De Luca, ME Casalini Vañek, MD Pascuzzi, T Gillanders, PM Ramos, EP Eyheremendy
P19 Recognising the serious complication of Richter’s transformation in CLL patients
C Stove, M Digby
P20 Body diffusion-weighted MRI in oncologic practice: truths, tricks and tips
M. Nazar, M. Wirtz, MD. Pascuzzi, F. Troncoso, F. Saguier, EP. Eyheremendy
P21 Methotrexate-induced leukoencephalopathy in paediatric ALL Patients
D.J. Quint, L. Dang, M. Carlson, S. Leber, F. Silverstein
P22 Pitfalls in oncology CT reporting. A pictorial review
R Rueben, S Viswanathan
P23 Imaging of perineural extension in head and neck tumours
B Nazir, TH Teo, JB Khoo
P24 MRI findings of molecular subtypes of breast cancer: a pictorial primer
K Sharma, N Gupta, B Mathew, T Jeyakumar, K Harkins
P25 When cancer can’t wait! A pictorial review of oncological emergencies
K Sharma, B Mathew, N Gupta, T Jeyakumar, S Joshua
P26 MRI of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours: an approach to interpretation
D Christodoulou, S Gourtsoyianni, A Jacques, N Griffin, V Goh
P27 Gynaecological cancers in pregnancy: a review of imaging
CA Johnson, J Lee
P28 Suspected paraneoplastic neurological syndromes - review of published recommendations to date, with proposed guideline/flowchart
JA Goodfellow, AS Al-adhami, S Viswanathan
P29 Multi-parametric MRI of the pelvis for suspected local recurrence of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy
R Bradley
P30 Utilisation of PI-RADS version 2 in multi-parametric MRI of the prostate; 12-months experience
R Bradley
P31 Radiological assessment of the post-chemotherapy liver
A Yong, S Jenkins, G Joseph
P32 Skeletal staging with MRI in breast cancer – what the radiologist needs to know
S Bhuva, K Partington
P33 Perineural spread of lympoma: an educational review of an unusual distribution of disease
CA Johnson, S Bhuva, M Subesinghe, N Taylor
P34 Visually isoattenuating pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Diagnostic imaging tools.
C Carrera, A Zanfardini, S De Luca, L Alarcón, V Blanchet, EP Eyheremendy
P35 Imaging of larynx cancer: when is CT, MRI or FDG PET/CT the best test?
K Cavanagh, E Lau
PMCID: PMC5056490
2.  Supra-aural gossypiboma: case report of a retained textile surgical sponge in an unusual location 
Gossypiboma or retained surgical sponge is an infrequently encountered surgical complication, more so in the head and neck region. A literature search did not reveal a previously reported case of retained or concealed surgical sponge after microscopic ear surgery. We present a unique and previously unreported case of a 25-year-old male who presented with a cystic swelling in the right supra-aural region 5 months post-modified radical mastoidectomy of the right ear. Surgical excision of the swelling revealed a retained surgical sponge. We emphasise the importance of counting surgical sponges after every surgical step to minimise the incidence of such retained surgical items.
PMCID: PMC5392885  PMID: 27502345
Gossypiboma; Supra-aural; Surgical sponge; Retained surgical item
3.  Osteoporosis and Periodontitis in Postmenopausal Women: A Systematic Review 
Journal of Mid-Life Health  2017;8(4):151-158.
This systematic review was done to assess the strength of association between osteoporosis and chronic periodontitis in postmenopausal women, assessed by bone mineral density (BMD) and clinical attachment loss, respectively. The Pubmed, Cochrane central, EMBASE, and Google Scholar were searched from year 1990 to 2015 for studies on association between chronic periodontitis and osteoporosis. Studies measuring osteoporosis in terms of central BMD and periodontitis in terms of clinical attachment level were studied. Data were extracted and descriptive analysis was performed. Screening of 1188 articles resulted in 24 articles for review after reading the titles and abstracts. Fifteen studies were shortlisted for inclusion in systematic review. Ten of these studies showed an association between periodontitis and osteoporosis. It implies that patients with severe periodontitis should also be evaluated for systemic bone health and vice versa.
PMCID: PMC5753494
Bone mineral density; chronic disease; inflammation; tooth loss
4.  World Congress Integrative Medicine & Health 2017: Part one 
Brinkhaus, Benno | Falkenberg, Torkel | Haramati, Aviad | Willich, Stefan N. | Briggs, Josephine P. | Willcox, Merlin | Linde, Klaus | Theorell, Töres | Wong, Lisa M. | Dusek, Jeffrey | Wu, Darong | Eisenberg, David | Haramati, Aviad | Berger, Bettina | Kemper, Kathi | Stock-Schröer, Beate | Sützl-Klein, Hedda | Ferreri, Rosaria | Kaplan, Gary | Matthes, Harald | Rotter, Gabriele | Schiff, Elad | Arnon, Zahi | Hahn, Eckhard | Luberto, Christina M. | Martin, David | Schwarz, Silke | Tauschel, Diethard | Flower, Andrew | Gramminger, Harsha | Gupta, Hedwig H. | Gupta, S. N. | Kerckhoff, Annette | Kessler, Christian S. | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian S. | Kim, Eun S. | Jang, Eun H. | Kim, Rana | Jan, Sae B. | Mittwede, Martin | Mohme, Wiebke | Ben-Arye, Eran | Bonucci, Massimo | Saad, Bashar | Breitkreuz, Thomas | Rossi, Elio | Kebudi, Rejin | Daher, Michel | Razaq, Samaher | Gafer, Nahla | Nimri, Omar | Hablas, Mohamed | Kienle, Gunver Sophia | Samuels, Noah | Silbermann, Michael | Bandelin, Lena | Lang, Anna-Lena | Wartner, Eva | Holtermann, Christoph | Binstock, Maxwell | Riebau, Robert | Mujkanovic, Edin | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Michalsen, Andres | Ward, Lesley | Cramer, Holger | Irnich, Dominik | Stör, Wolfram | Burnstock, Geoffrey | Schaible, Hans-Georg | Ots, Thomas | Langhorst, Jost | Lauche, Romy | Sundberg, Tobias | Falkenberg, Torkel | Amarell, Catherina | Amarell, Catherina | Anheyer, Melanie | Eckert, Marion | Eckert, Marion | Ogal, Mercedes | Eckert, Marion | Amarell, Catherina | Schönauer, Annette | Reisenberger, Birgit | Brand, Bernhard | Anheyer, Dennis | Dobos, Gustav | Kroez, Matthias | Martin, David | Matthes, Harald | Ammendola, Aldo | Mao, Jun J. | Witt, Claudia | Yang, Yufei | Dobos, Gustav | Oritz, Miriam | Horneber, Markus | Voiß, Petra | Reisenberger, Birgit | von Rosenstiel, Alexandra | Eckert, Marion | Ogal, Mercedes | Amarell, Catharina | Anheyer, Melanie | Schad, Friedemann | Schläppi, Marc | Kröz, Matthias | Büssing, Arndt | Bar-Sela, Gil | Matthes, Harald | Schiff, Elad | Ben-Arye, Eran | Arnon, Zahi | Avshalomov, David | Attias, Samuel | Schönauer, Annette | Haramati, Aviad | Witt, Claudia | Brinkhaus, Benno | Cotton, Sian | Jong, Miek | Jong, Mats | Scheffer, Christian | Haramati, Aviad | Tauschel, Diethard | Edelhäuser, Friedrich | AlBedah, Abdullah | Lee, Myeong Soo | Khalil, Mohamed | Ogawa, Keiko | Motoo, Yoshiharu | Arimitsu, Junsuke | Ogawa, Masao | Shimizu, Genki | Stange, Rainer | Kraft, Karin | Kuchta, Kenny | Watanabe, Kenji | Bonin, D | Büssing, Arndt | Gruber, Harald | Koch, Sabine | Gruber, Harald | Pohlmann, Urs | Caldwell, Christine | Krantz, Barbara | Kortum, Ria | Martin, Lily | Wieland, Lisa S. | Kligler, Ben | Gould-Fogerite, Susan | Zhang, Yuqing | Wieland, Lisa S. | Riva, John J. | Lumpkin, Michael | Ratner, Emily | Ping, Liu | Jian, Pei | Hamme, Gesa-Meyer | Mao, Xiaosong | Chouping, Han | Schröder, Sven | Hummelsberger, Josef | Wullinger, Michael | Brodzky, Marc | Zalpour, Christoff | Langley, Julia | Weber, Wendy | Mudd, Lanay M. | Wayne, Peter | Witt, Clauda | Weidenhammer, Wolfgang | Fønnebø, Vinjar | Boon, Heather | Steel, Amie | Bugarcic, Andrea | Rangitakatu, Melisa | Steel, Amie | Adams, Jon | Sibbritt, David | Wardle, Jon | Leach, Matthew | Schloss, Janet | Dieze, Helene | Boon, Heather | Ijaz, Nadine | Willcox, Merlin | Heinrich, Michael | Lewith, George | Flower, Andrew | Graz, Bertrand | Adam, Daniela | Grabenhenrich, Linus | Ortiz, Miriam | Binting, Sylvia | Reinhold, Thomas | Brinkhaus, Benno | Andermo, Susanne | Sundberg, Tobias | Falkenberg, Torkel | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Arman, Maria | Bhasin, Manoj | Fan, Xueyi | Libermann, Towia | Fricchione, Gregory | Denninger, John | Benson, Herbert | Berger, Bettina | Stange, Rainer | Michalsen, Andreas | Martin, David D. | Boers, Inge | Vlieger, Arine | Jong, Miek | Brinkhaus, Benno | Teut, Michael | Ullmann, Alexander | Ortiz, Miriam | Rotter, Gabriele | Binting, Sylvia | Lotz, Fabian | Roll, Stephanie | Canella, Claudia | Mikolasek, Michael | Rostock, Matthias | Beyer, Jörg | Guckenberger, Matthias | Jenewein, Josef | Linka, Esther | Six, Claudia | Stoll, Sarah | Stupp, Roger | Witt, Claudia M. | Chuang, Elisabeth | Kligler, Ben | McKee, Melissa D. | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Klose, Petra | Lange, Silke | Langhorst, Jost | Dobos, Gustav | Chung, Vincent C. H. | Wong, Hoi L. C. | Wu, Xin Y. | Wen, Grace Y. G. | Ho, Robin S. T. | Ching, Jessica Y. L. | Wu, Justin C. Y. | Coakley, Amanda | Flanagan, Jane | Annese, Christine | Empoliti, Joanne | Gao, Zishan | Liu, Xugang | Yu, Shuguang | Yan, Xianzhong | Liang, Fanrong | Hohmann, Christoph D. | Steckhan, Nico | Ostermann, Thomas | Paetow, Arion | Hoff, Evelyn | Michalsen, Andreas | Hu, Xiao-Yang | Wu, Ruo-Han | Logue, Martin | Blonde, Clara | Lai, Lily Y. | Stuart, Beth | Flower, Andrew | Fei, Yu-Tong | Moore, Michael | Liu, Jian-Ping | Lewith, George | Hu, Xiao-Yang | Wu, Ruo-Han | Logue, Martin | Blonde, Clara | Lai, Lily Y. | Stuart, Beth | Flower, Andrew | Fei, Yu-Tong | Moore, Michael | Liu, Jian-Ping | Lewith, George | Jeitler, Michael | Zillgen, Hannah | Högl, Manuel | Steckhan, Nico | Stöckigt, Barbara | Seifert, Georg | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian | Khadivzadeh, Talat | Bashtian, Maryam Hassanzadeh | Aval, Shapour Badiee | Esmaily, Habibollah | Kim, Jihye | Kim, Keun H. | Klocke, Carina | Joos, Stefanie | Koshak, Abdulrahman | Wie, Li | Koshak, Emad | Wali, Siraj | Alamoudi, Omer | Demerdash, Abdulrahman | Qutub, Majdy | Pushparaj, Peter | Heinrich, Michael | Kruse, Sigrid | Fischer, Isabell | Tremel, Nadine | Rosenecker, Joseph | Leung, Brenda | Takeda, Wendy | Liang, Ning | Feng, Xue | Liu, Jian-ping | Cao, Hui-juan | Luberto, Christina M. | Shinday, Nina | Philpotts, Lisa | Park, Elyse | Fricchione, Gregory L. | Yeh, Gloria | Munk, Niki | Zakeresfahani, Arash | Foote, Trevor R. | Ralston, Rick | Boulanger, Karen | Özbe, Dominik | Gräßel, Elmar | Luttenberger, Katharina | Pendergrass, Anna | Pach, Daniel | Bellmann-Strobl, Judit | Chang, Yinhui | Pasura, Laura | Liu, Bin | Jäger, Sven F. | Loerch, Ronny | Jin, Li | Brinkhaus, Benno | Ortiz, Miriam | Reinhold, Thomas | Roll, Stephanie | Binting, Sylvia | Icke, Katja | Shi, Xuemin | Paul, Friedemann | Witt, Claudia M. | Rütz, Michaela | Lynen, Andreas | Schömitz, Meike | Vahle, Maik | Salomon, Nir | Lang, Alon | Lahat, Adi | Kopylov, Uri | Ben-Horin, Shomron | Har-Noi, Ofir | Avidan, Benjamin | Elyakim, Rami | Gamus, Dorit | NG, Siew | Chang, Jessica | Wu, Justin | Kaimiklotis, John | Schumann, Dania | Buttó, Ludovica | Langhorst, Jost | Dobos, Gustav | Haller, Dirk | Cramer, Holger | Smith, Caroline | de Lacey, Sheryl | Chapman, Michael | Ratcliffe, Julie | Johnson, Neil | Lyttleton, Jane | Boothroyd, Clare | Fahey, Paul | Tjaden, Bram | van Vliet, Marja | van Wietmarschen, Herman | Jong, Miek | Tröger, Wilfried | Vuolanto, Pia | Aarva, Paulina | Sorsa, Minna | Helin, Kaija | Wenzel, Claudia | Zoderer, Iris | Pammer, Patricia | Simon, Patrick | Tucek, Gerhard | Wode, Kathrin | Henriksson, Roger | Sharp, Lena | Stoltenberg, Anna | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Xiao-ying, Yang | Wang, Li-qiong | Li, Jin-gen | Liang, Ning | Wang, Ying | Liu, Jian-ping | Balneaves, Lynda | Capler, Rielle | Bocci, Chiara | Guffi, Marta | Paolini, Marina | Meaglia, Ilaria | Porcu, Patrizia | Ivaldi, Giovanni B. | Dragan, Simona | Bucuras, Petru | Pah, Ana M. | Badalica-Petrescu, Marius | Buleu, Florina | Hogea-Stoichescu, Gheorghe | Christodorescu, Ruxandra | Kao, Lan | Cho, Yumin | Klafke, Nadja | Mahler, Cornelia | von Hagens, Cornelia | Uhlmann, Lorenz | Bentner, Martina | Schneeweiss, Andreas | Mueller, Andreas | Szecsenyi, Joachim | Joos, Stefanie | Neri, Isabella | Ortiz, Miriam | Schnabel, Katharina | Teut, Michael | Rotter, Gabriele | Binting, Sylvia | Cree, Margit | Lotz, Fabian | Suhr, Ralf | Brinkhaus, Benno | Rossi, Elio | Baccetti, Sonia | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Monechi, Maria V. | Di Stefano, Mariella | Amunni, Gianni | Wong, Wendy | Chen, Bingzhong | Wu, Justin | Amri, Hakima | Haramati, Aviad | Kotlyanskaya, Lucy | Anderson, Belinda | Evans, Roni | Kligler, Ben | Marantz, Paul | Bradley, Ryan | Booth-LaForce, Cathryn | Zwickey, Heather | Kligler, Benjamin | Brooks, Audrey | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Lebensohn, Patricia | Goldblatt, Elisabeth | Esmel-Esmel, Neus | Jiménez-Herrera, Maria | Ijaz, Nadine | Boon, Heather | Jocham, Alexandra | Stock-Schröer, Beate | Berberat, Pascal O. | Schneider, Antonius | Linde, Klaus | Masetti, Morgana | Murakozy, Henriette | Van Vliet, Marja | Jong, Mats | Jong, Miek | Agdal, Rita | Atarzadeh, Fatemeh | Jaladat, Amir M. | Hoseini, Leila | Amini, Fatemeh | Bai, Chen | Liu, Tiegang | Zheng, Zian | Wan, Yuxiang | Xu, Jingnan | Wang, Xuan | Yu, He | Gu, Xiaohong | Daneshfard, Babak | Nimrouzi, Majid | Tafazoli, Vahid | Alorizi, Seyed M. Emami | Saghebi, Seyed A. | Fattahi, Mohammad R. | Salehi, Alireza | Rezaeizadeh, Hossein | Zarshenas, Mohammad M. | Nimrouzi, Majid | Fox, Kealoha | Hughes, John | Kostanjsek, Nenad | Espinosa, Stéphane | Lewith, George | Fisher, Peter | Latif, Abdul | Lefeber, Donald | Paske, William | Öztürk, Ali Ö. | Öztürk, Gizemnur | Boers, Inge | Tissing, Wim | Naafs, Marianne | Busch, Martine | Jong, Miek | Daneshfard, Babak | Sanaye, Mohammad R. | Dräger, Kilian | Fisher, Peter | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Evans, Roni | Leininger, Brent | Shafto, Kate | Breen, Jenny | Sanaye, Mohammad R. | Daneshfard, Babak | Simões-Wüst, Ana P. | Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina | van Dongen, Martien | Dagnelie, Pieter | Thijs, Carel | White, Shelley | Wiesener, Solveig | Salamonsen, Anita | Stub, Trine | Fønnebø, Vinjar | Abanades, Sergio | Blanco, Mar | Masllorens, Laia | Sala, Roser | Al-Ahnoumy, Shafekah | Han, Dongwoon | He, Luzhu | Kim, Ha Yun | In Choi, Da | Alræk, Terje | Stub, Trine | Kristoffersen, Agnete | von Sceidt, Christel | Michalsen, Andreas | Bruset, Stig | Musial, Frauke | Anheyer, Dennis | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Saha, Felix J. | Dobos, Gustav | Anheyer, Dennis | Haller, Heidemarie | Lauche, Romy | Dobos, Gustav | Cramer, Holger | Azizi, Hoda | Khadem, Nayereh | Hassanzadeh, Malihe | Estiri, Nazanin | Azizi, Hamideh | Tavassoli, Fatemeh | Lotfalizadeh, Marzieh | Zabihi, Reza | Esmaily, Habibollah | Azizi, Hoda | Shabestari, Mahmoud Mohammadzadeh | Paeizi, Reza | Azari, Masoumeh Alvandi | Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza | Zabihi, Reza | Azizi, Hamideh | Esmaily, Habibollah | Baars, Erik | De Bruin, Anja | Ponstein, Anne | Baccetti, Sonia | Di Stefano, Mariella | Rossi, Elio | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Segantini, Sergio | Monechi, Maria Valeria | Voller, Fabio | Barth, Jürgen | Kern, Alexandra | Lüthi, Sebastian | Witt, Claudia | Barth, Jürgen | Zieger, Anja | Otto, Fabius | Witt, Claudia | Beccia, Ariel | Dunlap, Corina | Courneene, Brendan | Bedregal, Paula | Passi, Alvaro | Rodríguez, Alfredo | Chang, Mayling | Gutiérrez, Soledad | Beissner, Florian | Beissner, Florian | Preibisch, Christine | Schweizer-Arau, Annemarie | Popovici, Roxana | Meissner, Karin | Beljanski, Sylvie | Belland, Laura | Rivera-Reyes, Laura | Hwang, Ula | Berger, Bettina | Sethe, Dominik | Hilgard, Dörte | Heusser, Peter | Bishop, Felicity | Al-Abbadey, Miznah | Bradbury, Katherine | Carnes, Dawn | Dimitrov, Borislav | Fawkes, Carol | Foster, Jo | MacPherson, Hugh | Roberts, Lisa | Yardley, Lucy | Lewith, George | Bishop, Felicity | Al-Abbadey, Miznah | Bradbury, Katherine | Carnes, Dawn | Dimitrov, Borislav | Fawkes, Carol | Foster, Jo | MacPherson, Hugh | Roberts, Lisa | Yardley, Lucy | Lewith, George | Bishop, Felicity | Holmes, Michelle | Lewith, George | Yardley, Lucy | Little, Paul | Cooper, Cyrus | Bogani, Patrizia | Maggini, Valentina | Gallo, Eugenia | Miceli, Elisangela | Biffi, Sauro | Mengoni, Alessio | Fani, Renato | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Brands-Guendling, Nadine | Guendling, Peter W. | Bronfort, Gert | Evans, Roni | Haas, Mitch | Leininger, Brent | Schulz, Craig | Bu, Xiangwei | Wang, J. | Fang, T. | Shen, Z. | He, Y. | Zhang, X. | Zhang, Zhengju | Wang, Dali | Meng, Fengxian | Büssing, Arndt | Baumann, Klaus | Frick, Eckhard | Jacobs, Christoph | Büssing, Arndt | Grünther, Ralph-Achim | Lötzke, Désirée | Büssing, Arndt | Jung, Sonny | Lötzke, Désirée | Recchia, Daniela R. | Robens, Sibylle | Ostermann, Thomas | Berger, Bettina | Stankewitz, Josephin | Kröz, Matthias | Jeitler, Mika | Kessler, Christian | Michalsen, Andreas | Cheon, Chunhoo | Jang, Bo H. | Ko, Seong G. | Huang, Ching W. | Sasaki, Yui | Ko, Youme | Cheshire, Anna | Ridge, Damien | Hughes, John | Peters, David | Panagioti, Maria | Simon, Chantal | Lewith, George | Cho, Hyun J. | Han, Dongwoon | Choi, Soo J. | Jung, Young S. | Im, Hyea B | Cooley, Kieran | Tummon-Simmons, Laura | Cotton, Sian | Luberto, Christina M. | Wasson, Rachel | Kraemer, Kristen | Sears, Richard | Hueber, Carly | Derk, Gwendolyn | Lill, JR | An, Ruopeng | Steinberg, Lois | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | la Fuente, Francisca García-de | De la Vega, Miguel | Vargas-Román, Keyla | Fernández-Ruiz, Jonatan | Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | García-De la Fuente, Francisca | Jiménez-Guerrero, Fanny | Vargas-Román, Keyla | Fernández-Ruiz, Jonatan | Galiano-Castillo, Noelia | Diaz-Saez, Gualberto | Torres-Jimenez, José I. | Garcia-Gomez, Olga | Hortal-Muñoz, Luis | Diaz-Diez, Camino | Dicen, Demijon | Diezel, Helene | Adams, Jon | Steel, Amie | Wardle, Jon | Diezel, Helene | Steel, Amie | Frawley, Jane | Wardle, Jon | Broom, Alex | Adams, Jon | Dong, Fei | Yu, He | Liu, Tiegang | Ma, Xueyan | Yan, Liyi | Wan, Yuxiang | Zheng, Zian | Gu, Xiaohong | Dong, Fei | Yu, He | Wu, Liqun | Liu, Tiegang | Ma, Xueyan | Ma, Jiaju | Yan, Liyi | Wan, Yuxiang | Zheng, Zian | Zhen, Jianhua | Gu, Xiaohong | Dubois, Julie | Rodondi, Pierre-Yves | Edelhäuser, Friedrich | Schwartze, Sophia | Trapp, Barbara | Cysarz, Dirk
PMCID: PMC5498855
6.  Associations of FPG, A1C and disease duration with protein markers of oxidative damage and antioxidative defense in type 2 diabetes and diabetic retinopathy 
Eye  2015;29(12):1585-1593.
To investigate the role of protein oxidative damage and antioxidant defense in relationship to hyperglycemia measured as fasting plasma glucose (FPG), glycated hemoglobin (A1C), and duration of disease in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and diabetic retinopathy (DR).
This study recruited 23 non-diabetic subjects, 16 DM patients without any complications and 18 DR patients. The serum ischemia modified albumin (IMA) and glutathione (GSH) levels were measured. The IMA results were corrected for serum albumin. Between-group differences were studied by analysis of variance and between-variable associations were studied by Spearman's and partial correlations.
IMA and cIMA values were elevated, whereas GSH was decreased in both patient groups vs controls (P<0.05), and the increase in IMA formation is not related to serum albumin changes. DR patients have much severe oxidative stress (OS) status with high IMA and cIMA, and low GSH than in the DM group (P<0.05). Both FPG and A1C levels were positively associated with IMA in DM group, while in the DR group, duration of disease too had a positive association with IMA. The antioxidant GSH had negative correlations with FPG (r=−0.52, P=0.02) and IMA (r=−0.49, P=0.03) in the DR group. Partial correlation analyses predicted mutual or independent associations among parameters.
Severe OS in DR has been associated with increased FPG, A1C, and disease duration. Both hyperglycemia and elevated oxidative damage detected as IMA are collectively associated with depleted GSH status. Our study unravels the need for monitoring of OS in addition to standard glycemic management in DR.
PMCID: PMC5129785  PMID: 26381098
7.  Probiotic – An emerging therapy in recolonizing periodontal pocket 
One of the etiological factors in the pathogenesis of periodontitis is reduction or the absence of the so-called “beneficial bacteria”. Most of the globally applied treatment approach is based on subgingival bacterial elimination but recolonization with less pathogenic bacteria is seen within weeks. Therefore, researchers have started focusing on shifting the current treatment approach from specific bacterial elimination to restoring periodontal pocket with beneficial bacteria. This alteration in the ecology of niches from the one with the pathological plaque to the one with the biofilm of commensals can be achieved via subgingival application of probiotics. This article suggests the important prospects of subgingival delivery of probiotics in guiding periodontal recolonization with beneficial bacteria and emphasizes research in this study field.
PMCID: PMC5343150
Probiotics; Local delivery; Recolonization; Periodontal pocket
8.  Peripheral and Central Nervous System Involvement in Recently Diagnosed Cases of Hypothyroidism: An Electrophysiological Study 
Hypothyroidism, one of the most common endocrine disorders, may induce neurological abnormalities at an early stage of the disease.
The study was designed to assess the electrophysiological alterations of some selected variables of nerve conduction, brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) in hypothyroid patients.
Subjects and Methods:
Sixty patients of newly diagnosed hypothyroidism and an equal number of age-matched controls were selected for the study. Nerve conduction studies that included parameters as latencies, conduction velocities, and amplitude of motor nerves, i.e., median, ulnar, common peroneal, tibial nerve, and sensory nerves, i.e., median and sural nerves was performed in both hypothyroid patients and controls. Further, BAEPs and VEPs of all the patients were done. The data were compiled and statistically analyzed using Student's unpaired t-test to observe any electrophysiological alterations in hypothyroid patients as compared to healthy controls.
On comparative evaluation, statistically significant increase in latency of median, ulnar, tibial, and sural nerves; decrease in conduction velocities of all the tested nerves and decrease in amplitude of median, tibial, and sural nerves was observed in hypothyroid patients. Statistically significant increase in latencies, interpeak latencies, and decrease in amplitudes of BAEP waves and statistically significant increase in P100 latency of VEP was seen in hypothyroid patients.
The results of our study suggest that peripheral and central neuropathy develops in patients of hypothyroidism at an early stage of disease and the electrophysiological investigations of such patients can help in timely detection and treatment of neurological disorders that occur due to thyroid hormone deficiency.
PMCID: PMC5414436
Brainstem auditory evoked potentials; hypothyroidism; nerve conduction; visual evoked potentials
9.  Spinal Myxopapillary Ependymomas Demonstrate a Warburg Phenotype 
Myxopapillary ependymoma (MPE) is a distinct histological variant of ependymoma arising commonly in the spinal cord. Despite an overall favorable prognosis, distant metastases, subarachnoid dissemination, and late recurrences have been reported. Currently the only effective treatment for MPE is gross-total resection. We characterized the genomic and transcriptional landscape of spinal ependymomas in an effort to delineate the genetic basis of this disease and identify new leads for therapy.
Experimental Design
Gene expression profiling was performed on 35 spinal ependymomas, and copy number profiling on an overlapping cohort of 46 spinal ependymomas. Functional validation experiments were performed on tumour lysates consisting of assays measuring Pyruvate Kinase M activity (PKM), Hexokinase activity (HK), and lactate production.
At a gene expression level, we demonstrate that spinal Grade II and MPE are molecularly and biologically distinct. These findings are supported by specific copy number alterations occurring in each histological variant. Pathway analysis revealed that MPE are characterized by increased cellular metabolism, associated with up-regulation of HIF-1α. These findings were validated by western blot analysis demonstrating increased protein expression of HIF-1α, HK2, PDK1, and phosphorylation of PDHE1A. Functional assays were performed on MPE lysates, which demonstrated decreased PKM activity, increased HK activity, and elevated lactate production.
Our findings suggest that MPE may be driven by a Warburg metabolic phenotype. The key enzymes promoting the Warburg phenotype: HK2, PKM2, and PDK are targetable by small molecule inhibitors/activators, and should be considered for evaluation in future clinical trials for MPE.
PMCID: PMC4537825  PMID: 25957288
Ependymoma; CNS; Myxopapillary; Cancer; Metabolism
10.  Multiple pterygium syndrome: Challenge for anesthesiologist 
Saudi Journal of Anaesthesia  2016;10(3):350-352.
Multiple pterygium syndrome (MPS) is a very rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by flexion of joint and digit contractures, skin webbing, cleft palate, deformity of the spine, and cervical spine fusion. Difficult airway is associated mainly due to micrognathia, retrognathia, webbing of the neck, and limitation of the mouth opening and neck extension. We are reporting a case of a 5-year-old female diagnosed with MPS and exhibiting a bilateral club foot and congenital vertical talus. The patient was posted for manipulation and above the knee casting under general anesthesia.
PMCID: PMC4916826  PMID: 27375397
Anesthesia; challenges; multiple pterygium syndrome
11.  Distribution trends & antibiogram pattern of Salmonella enterica serovar Newport in India 
Background & objectives:
Salmonellosis is a major public health concern worldwide. Besides typhoidal salmonellae, infections due to non-typhoidal serovars of Salmonella are also associated with high morbidity and mortality leading to huge economic losses. Among non-typhoidal serovars, Salmonella Newport has been reported as a major cause of foodborne infections resulting in outbreaks due to consumption of contaminated food items. Little data related to this serovar are available from India leading to the scarcity of information on the distribution trends of this important serovar in the country. Therefore, an effort was made in the present study to generate data on distribution trends and antibiogram of S. Newport in the country.
S. Newport isolates received at the National Salmonella and Escherichia Centre at Kasauli, India, during January 2010 to December 2013 were analysed for their distribution trends and antibiogram data were also generated using standard methods.
In the present study, S. Newport isolates were received from eight States and one union territory of the country and highest proportion of S. Newport isolates were found to be from humans (53.61%) followed by animals (27.84%) and food (18.56%). S. Newport isolates exhibited resistance to all drugs used in the present study except chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin and cefuroxime.
Interpretation & conclusions:
Considering distribution of this important serovar of Salmonalla and its wide range of reservoirs, steps towards formulation and execution of efficient surveillance programmes should be taken.
PMCID: PMC5116903  PMID: 27834330
Antibiogram; distribution; foodborne; outbreaks; Salmonella Newport
12.  Skeletal Integrity and Visceral Transplantation 
Despite continuous improvement in long-term survival, there is no knowledge about risk of bone health impairment and management strategies before and after intestinal transplantation. Therefore, 147 adults were retrospectively studied via chart review; 70 long-term survivors, 53 candidates and 24 recipients with longitudinal follow-up. Evaluation process included measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) and allied biochemical markers. Both long-term survivors and candidates showed low bone mass with lower (p < 0.05) z-scores at hip, femoral neck and spine. Vitamin D deficiency and secondary hyperparathyroidism were observed in both groups. Prevalence of osteoporosis was 44% among long-term survivors and 36% in candidates with age, BMD, duration of parenteral nutrition, type of immunosuppression and rejection being significant risk factors. Fragility fractures occurred at a higher (p = 0.02) rate among long-term survivors (20%) compared to candidates (6%). The longitudinal study documented acceleration (p = 0.025) of bone loss after transplantation with a decline of 13.4% (femoral neck), 12.7% (hip) and 2.1% (spine). Alendronate reduced (p < 0.05) but did not prevent bone loss. In conclusion, intestinal transplant recipients are at risk of osteoporosis secondary to bone loss before and after transplantation. Accordingly, current management includes comprehensive preventive measures with prompt therapeutic intervention utilizing intravenous bisphosphonates or subcutaneous human PTH 1–34.
PMCID: PMC4869861  PMID: 20825384
Bone mineral density; immunosuppression; intestinal failure; multivisceral transplant; osteoporosis; parenteral nutrition (PN); small bowel transplant
13.  Efficacy and safety of surfactant replacement therapy for preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome in low- and middle-income countries: a systematic review 
Journal of Perinatology  2016;36(Suppl 1):S36-S48.
Surfactant replacement therapy (SRT) has been shown to reduce mortality and air leaks in preterm neonates from high-income countries (HICs). The safety and efficacy of SRT in low- and middle- income countries (LMICs) have not been systematically evaluated. The major objectives of this review were to assess the (1) efficacy and safety, and (2) feasibility and cost effectiveness of SRT in LMIC settings. We searched the following databases—MEDLINE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, EMBASE and WHOLIS using the search terms 'surfactant' OR 'pulmonary surfactant'. Both experimental and observational studies that enrolled preterm neonates with or at-risk of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) and required surfactant (animal-derived or synthetic) were included. A total of 38 relevant studies were found; almost all were from level-3 neonatal units. Pooled analysis of two randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and 22 observational studies showed a significant reduction in mortality at the last available time point in neonates who received SRT (relative risk (RR) 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.57 to 0.79). There was also a significant reduction in the risk of air leaks (five studies; RR 0.51; 0.29 to 0.90). One RCT and twelve observational studies reported the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) with contrasting results; while the RCT and most before-after/cohort studies showed a significant reduction or no effect, the majority of the case-control studies demonstrated significantly higher odds of receiving SRT in neonates who developed BPD. Two studies—one RCT and one observational—found no difference in the proportion of neonates developing pulmonary hemorrhage, while another observational study reported a higher incidence in those receiving SRT. The failure rate of the intubate-surfactant-extubate (InSurE) technique requiring mechanical ventilation or referral varied from 34 to 45% in four case-series. No study reported on the cost effectiveness of SRT. Available evidence suggests that SRT is effective, safe and feasible in level-3 neonatal units and has the potential to reduce neonatal mortality and air leaks in low-resource settings as well. However, there is a need to generate more evidence on the cost effectiveness of SRT and its effect on BPD in LMIC settings.
PMCID: PMC4848743  PMID: 27109091
16.  Responsive population dynamics and wide seeding into the duodenal lamina propria of transglutaminase-2-specific plasma cells in celiac disease 
Mucosal Immunology  2015;9(1):254-264.
A hallmark of celiac disease is autoantibodies to transglutaminase 2 (TG2). By visualizing TG2-specific antibodies by antigen staining of affected gut tissue, we identified TG2-specific plasma cells in the lamina propria as well as antibodies in the subepithelial layer, inside the epithelium, and at the brush border. The frequency of TG2-specific plasma cells were found not to correlate with serum antibody titers, suggesting that antibody production at other sites may contribute to serum antibody levels. Upon commencement of a gluten-free diet, the frequency of TG2-specific plasma cells in the lesion dropped dramatically within 6 months, yet some cells remained. The frequency of TG2-specific plasma cells in the celiac lesion is thus dynamically regulated in response to gluten exposure. Laser microdissection of plasma cell patches, followed by antibody gene sequencing, demonstrated that clonal cells were seeded in distinct areas of the mucosa. This was confirmed by immunoglobulin heavy chain repertoire analysis of plasma cells isolated from individual biopsies of two untreated patients, both for TG2-specific and non-TG2-specific cells. Our results shed new light on the processes underlying the B-cell response in celiac disease, and the approach of staining for antigen-specific antibodies should be applicable to other antibody-mediated diseases.
PMCID: PMC4703456  PMID: 26153762
17.  Persistence of Corynebacterium diphtheriae in Delhi & National Capital Region (NCR) 
Despite the introduction of mass immunization, diphtheria continues to play a major role as a potentially lethal infectious disease in many countries. Delay in the specific therapy of diphtheria may result in death and, therefore, accurate diagnosis of diphtheria is imperative. This study was carried out at National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Delhi, India, on samples of suspected diphtheria cases referred from various government hospitals of Delhi and neighbouring areas during 2012-2014. Primary identification of Corynebacterium diphtheriae was done by standard culture, staining and biochemical tests followed by toxigenicity testing by Elek's test on samples positive for C. diphtheriae. The results showed persistence of toxigenic C. diphtheriae in our community indicating the possibility of inadequate immunization coverage.
PMCID: PMC4683831  PMID: 26609038
Corynebacterium diphtheriae; diphtheria toxin; Elek's test
18.  Awareness, Practices and Treatment Seeking Behavior of Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients in Delhi 
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a multisystem disorder that is associated with number of complications. Patient's awareness and practices are crucial components in reducing the burden of diseases and its complications.
To assess patient's knowledge about their disease and its complications, practices, treatment seeking behavior and average expenditure incurred by its management.
Subjects and Methods:
A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in rural and urban slum areas of Delhi selecting a total of 98 diabetic patients diagnosed during the two community surveys and interviewed using pretested and predesigned questionnaire. Data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 17 (Chicago II, USA). Chi-square, fisher or Mann–Whitney tests were used for test of significance and considered statistically significant at P < 0.05.
Of 98 participants, 31.6% (31/98) were from urban slum area, and 68.4% (67/98) were from the rural area. In both urban and rural areas, majority were Hindu, married, literate and unemployed. Significantly less subjects (61.3%, 19/31) of urban slum area than of rural area (85.1%, 57/67) could name at least one complication of DM (P < 0.01, odds ratio [OR] =3.6, 95% confidence interval [CI] =1.3–9.6). Majority of participants in both urban slum and rural area have knowledge about at least one component of management but significantly lesser in urban (83.9%, 26/31) than rural area (97.0%, 65/67) were reported (P = 0.02, OR = 6.2, 95% CI = 1.1–34.2). Significantly more subjects (29.0%, 9/31) in urban slum area than rural areas (7.5%, 5/67) reported that they were not taking any treatment for DM (P < 0.01, OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1–0.6). In urban area, 32.2% (10/31) patients told that it is a burden on their family while in rural area 44.7% (30/67) of the patients told that they have to squeeze money from the family expenditure to afford drugs.
Patients need to be made aware of the asymptomatic phase of DM and its long term complications. At the same time, efforts should be made to sensitize them about the importance of taking regular treatment and management.
PMCID: PMC4512119  PMID: 26229715
Diabetic mellitus type 2; Economic impact; Knowledge; Practicse
19.  A typical case of myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF) and the lessons learned 
Journal of Postgraduate Medicine  2015;61(3):200-202.
Mitochondrial diseases have a special predilection to involve the brain in view of its high metabolic demand and the tendency for the formation of excitatory neurotransmitters when there is deficiency of intracellular ATP. These diseases have a great phenotypic variation and need a high degree of suspicion. However, some specific syndromes are well defined, both genotypically and phenotypically. Some of the drugs are potentially fatal mitochondrial poisons and an insight into that may be lifesaving as well as prevent serious morbidities. We report a typical case of myoclonic epilepsy with ragged red fibers (MERRF) with classical phenotype and genotype. There was rapid multiaxial deterioration with the introduction of sodium valproate which partly reversed on introducing mitochondrial cocktail and withdrawal of the offending drug. Sodium valproate, phenobarbitone, chloramphenicol and many anti-viral agents are mitochondrial poisons that increase the morbidity and mortality in patients with mitochondrial disease. More harm to the patient can be avoided with insight into this information.
PMCID: PMC4943405  PMID: 26119441
Midline lipoma; mitochondrial disease; sodium valproate
21.  Combination of bone allograft, barrier membrane and doxycycline in the treatment of infrabony periodontal defects: A comparative trial 
The Saudi Dental Journal  2015;27(3):155-160.
The purpose of the present study was to compare the regenerative potential of noncontained periodontal infrabony defects treated with decalcified freeze-dried bone allograft (DFDBA) and barrier membrane with or without local doxycycline.
This study included 48 one- or two-wall infrabony defects from 24 patients (age: 30–65 years) seeking treatment for chronic periodontitis. Defects were randomly divided into two groups and were treated with a combination of DFDBA and barrier membrane, either alone (combined treatment group) or with local doxycycline (combined treatment + doxycycline group). At baseline (before surgery) and 3 and 6 months after surgery, the pocket probing depth (PPD), clinical attachment level (CAL), radiological bone fill (RBF), and alveolar height reduction (AHR) were recorded. Analysis of variance and the Newman–Keuls post hoc test were used for statistical analysis. A two-tailed p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant.
In the combined treatment group, the PPD reduction was 2.00 ± 0.38 mm (32%), CAL gain was 1.25 ± 0.31 mm (17.9%), and RBF was 0.75 ± 0.31 mm (20.7%) after 6 months. In the combined treatment + doxycycline group, these values were 2.75 ± 0.37 mm (44%), 1.5 ± 0.27 mm (21.1%), and 1.13 ± 0.23 mm (28.1%), respectively. AHR values for the groups without and with doxycycline were 12.5% and 9.4%, respectively.
There was no significant difference in the regeneration of noncontained periodontal infrabony defects between groups treated with DFDBA and barrier membrane with or without doxycycline.
PMCID: PMC4501465  PMID: 26236130
Bone grafting; Doxycycline; Guided tissue regeneration
22.  Ethics, Risk and Benefits Associated with Different Applications of Nanotechnology: a Comparison of Expert and Consumer Perceptions of Drivers of Societal Acceptance 
Nanoethics  2015;9(2):93-108.
Examining those risk and benefit perceptions utilised in the formation of attitudes and opinions about emerging technologies such as nanotechnology can be useful for both industry and policy makers involved in their development, implementation and regulation. A broad range of different socio-psychological and affective factors may influence consumer responses to different applications of nanotechnology, including ethical concerns. A useful approach to identifying relevant consumer concerns and innovation priorities is to develop predictive constructs which can be used to differentiate applications of nanotechnology in a way which is meaningful to consumers. This requires elicitation of attitudinal constructs from consumers, rather than measuring attitudes assumed to be important by the researcher. Psychological factors influencing societal responses to 15 applications of nanotechnology drawn from different application areas (e.g. medicine, agriculture and environment, food, military, sports, and cosmetics) were identified using repertory grid method in conjunction with generalised Procrustes analysis. The results suggested that people differentiate nanotechnology applications based on the extent to which they perceive them to be beneficial, useful, necessary and important. The benefits may be offset by perceived risks focusing on fear and ethical concerns. Compared to an earlier expert study on societal acceptance of nanotechnology, consumers emphasised ethical issues compared to experts but had less concern regarding potential physical contact with the product and time to market introduction. Consumers envisaged fewer issues with several applications compared to experts, in particular food applications.
PMCID: PMC4536280  PMID: 26300995
Ethical concern; Expert-lay comparison; Nanotechnology; Consumer perception; Repertory grid method; Societal acceptance
23.  Authors’ reply 
PMCID: PMC4943420  PMID: 25924241
24.  Pediatric liver transplantation for acute liver failure at a single center: A 10 year experience 
Pediatric transplantation  2009;14(2):228-232.
Children transplanted for acute liver failure (ALF) urgently require an optimal graft. Lower post-transplant survival compared to children transplanted for chronic liver disease. Over 10 years, 33 consecutive children transplanted for ALF were followed. Demographics, encephalopathy, intubation, dialysis, laboratory values, graft type (ABO incompatible grafts (ABOI), Large for size grafts(XL)(GRWR>5%),deceased donor segmental liver transplantation(DDSLT), living donor liver transplantation (LDLT) and whole liver transplant (WLT) were evaluated. Complications and survival were determined. ALF accounted for 33/201 (16.4%) of transplants during this period. 12/33 received ABOI, 5 XL grafts, 18 DDSLT, and 3 LDLT. Waiting time pre-transplant was 2.1 days. 1 and 3 year patient survival ALF group was 93% and 93% and graft survivals were 93 and 78.6%. Median follow-up was 1452 days. ABOI one and three year patient and graft survival in the ALF was 92 and 75%. No difference in graft or patient survival was noted in the ALF and chronic liver disease group nor the ABOI and the ABO compatible group. A combination of ABO incompatible donor livers, large for size grafts, DDSLT, LDLT and WLT led to a short wait time and subsequent graft and patient survival not significantly different than that for non-acute liver disease.
PMCID: PMC4380080  PMID: 19519799
liver transplantation; pediatric liver transplantation; acute liver failure; fulminant liver failure; ABO incompatible
25.  Effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin kinetics and cardiovascular risk factors in polycystic ovarian syndrome: a pilot study 
Endocrine Connections  2015;4(2):108-116.
To assess the effect of vitamin D supplementation on parameters of insulin sensitivity/resistance (IS/IR) and insulin secretion in subjects with polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). A prospective double-blind randomized control trial was conducted to assess the effect of vitamin D on insulin kinetics in women with PCOS. The trial was conducted in a tertiary care research hospital. A total of 36 subjects with PCOS, aged 18–35 years, were included in this study. Vitamin D3 4000 IU/day versus placebo was given once a month for 6 months and both groups received metformin. IS (by whole-body IS index or Matsuda index), IR (by homeostasis model assessment IR (HOMA-IR)), and insulin secretion (by insulinogenic index; II30) were the main outcome measures. Secondary outcome included blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, disposition index (DI), and vascular stiffness. Out of 36 subjects who consented, 32 completed the study. Subjects were randomized into two groups: group A (n=15; metformin and vitamin D 4000 IU/day) or group B (n=17; metformin and placebo). Oral glucose tolerance tests with 75 g glucose were carried out at baseline and 6 months after supplementation. Hypovitaminosis D was observed in 93.8% of all subjects with mean serum 25 hydroxy vitamin D level of 7.30±4.45 ng/ml. After 6 months of vitamin D supplementation, there was no significant difference in any of the parameters of IS/IR (area under curve (AUC)–glucose, AUC–insulin, insulin:glucose ratio, HOMA-IR, Matsuda index, insulinogenic index, and DI), II30, and cardiovascular risk factors between the two groups. Supplementation of vitamin D, at a dose of 4000 IU/day for 6 months, did not have any significant effect on parameters of IS/IR and insulin secretion in subjects with PCOS.
PMCID: PMC4422012  PMID: 25921345
PCOS; insulin resistance; insulin secretion; vitamin D supplementation

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