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1.  Observational study of the development and evaluation of a fertility preservation patient decision aid for teenage and adult women diagnosed with cancer: the Cancer, Fertility and Me research protocol 
BMJ Open  2017;7(3):e013219.
Introduction
Women diagnosed with cancer and facing potentially sterilising cancer treatment have to make time-pressured decisions regarding fertility preservation with specialist fertility services while undergoing treatment of their cancer with oncology services. Oncologists identify a need for resources enabling them to support women's fertility preservation decisions more effectively; women report wanting more specialist information to make these decisions. The overall aim of the ‘Cancer, Fertility and Me’ study is to develop and evaluate a new evidence-based patient decision aid (PtDA) for women with any cancer considering fertility preservation to address this unmet need.
Methods and analysis
This is a prospective mixed-method observational study including women of reproductive age (16 years +) with a new diagnosis of any cancer across two regional cancer and fertility centres in Yorkshire, UK. The research involves three stages. In stage 1, the aim is to develop the PtDA using a systematic method of evidence synthesis and multidisciplinary expert review of current clinical practice and patient information. In stage 2, the aim is to assess the face validity of the PtDA. Feedback on its content and format will be ascertained using questionnaires and interviews with patients, user groups and key stakeholders. Finally, in stage 3 the acceptability of using this resource when integrated into usual cancer care pathways at the point of cancer diagnosis and treatment planning will be evaluated. This will involve a quantitative and qualitative evaluation of the PtDA in clinical practice. Measures chosen include using count data of the PtDAs administered in clinics and accessed online, decisional and patient-reported outcome measures and qualitative feedback. Quantitative data will be analysed using descriptive statistics, paired sample t-tests and CIs; interviews will be analysed using thematic analysis.
Ethics and dissemination
Research Ethics Committee approval (Ref: 16/EM/0122) and Health Research Authority approval (Ref: 194751) has been granted. Findings will be published in open access peer-reviewed journals, presented at conferences for academic and health professional audiences, with feedback to health professionals and program managers. The Cancer, Fertility and Me patient decision aid (PtDA) will be disseminated via a diverse range of open-access media, study and charity websites, professional organisations and academic sources. External endorsement will be sought from the International Patient Decision Aid Standards (IPDAS) Collaboration inventory of PtDAs and other relevant professional organisations, for example, the British Fertility Society.
Trial registration number
NCT02753296; pre-results.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2016-013219
PMCID: PMC5353284  PMID: 28289046
Fertility preservation; Cancer; Decision-making; Decision aid; Protocol
2.  Evaluation of baseline structural factors for predicting glaucomatous visual-field progression using optical coherence tomography, scanning laser polarimetry and confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy 
Eye  2012;26(12):1527-1535.
Purpose
The objective of this study is to assess whether baseline optic nerve head (ONH) topography and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) are predictive of glaucomatous visual-field progression in glaucoma suspect (GS) and glaucomatous eyes, and to calculate the level of risk associated with each of these parameters.
Methods
Participants with ≥28 months of follow-up were recruited from the longitudinal Advanced Imaging for Glaucoma Study. All eyes underwent standard automated perimetry (SAP), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (CSLO), time-domain optical coherence tomography (TDOCT), and scanning laser polarimetry using enhanced corneal compensation (SLPECC) every 6 months. Visual-field progression was assessed using pointwise linear-regression analysis of SAP sensitivity values (progressor) and defined as significant sensitivity loss of >1 dB/year at ≥2 adjacent test locations in the same hemifield at P<0.01. Cox proportional hazard ratios (HR) were calculated to determine the predictive ability of baseline ONH and RNFL parameters for SAP progression using univariate and multivariate models.
Results
Seventy-three eyes of 73 patients (43 GS and 30 glaucoma, mean age 63.2±9.5 years) were enrolled (mean follow-up 51.5±11.3 months). Four of 43 GS (9.3%) and 6 of 30 (20%) glaucomatous eyes demonstrated progression. Mean time to progression was 50.8±11.4 months. Using multivariate models, abnormal CSLO temporal-inferior Moorfields classification (HR=3.76, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02–6.80, P=0.04), SLPECC inferior RNFLT (per −1 μm, HR=1.38, 95% CI: 1.02–2.2, P=0.02), and TDOCT inferior RNFLT (per −1 μm, HR=1.11, 95% CI: 1.04–1.2, P=0.001) had significant HRs for SAP progression.
Conclusion
Abnormal baseline ONH topography and reduced inferior RNFL are predictive of SAP progression in GS and glaucomatous eyes.
doi:10.1038/eye.2012.203
PMCID: PMC3522838  PMID: 23060026
glaucoma; field of vision; imaging; optic nerve
3.  Detection of progressive macular thickness loss using optical coherence tomography in glaucoma suspect and glaucomatous eyes 
Eye  2012;26(7):983-991.
Aims
To examine the rate of macular thickness loss using time-domain optical coherence tomography (OCT) in functionally progressing versus non-progressing eyes, determined by standard automated perimetry (SAP).
Methods
Glaucoma suspects (GS) and glaucomatous (G) eyes underwent SAP and OCT imaging every 6 months. Functional progression was determined using pointwise linear regression, defined as 2 contiguous locations losing ≥1.0 dB/year at P<1.0% in the same hemifield. The annual rate of macular thickness loss was calculated from inner and outer regions of the macular map.
Results
72 eyes (43 GS and 29G) with ≥30 months of follow-up were enroled. Fourteen eyes demonstrated SAP progression. The annual rate of macular thickness loss (μm/year) in progressing eyes was faster (all P<0.05) than non-progressing eyes in temporal outer (−1.90±2.97 vs 0.33±2.77), nasal inner (−1.70±2.66 vs 0.14±2.76), superior inner (−2.15±4.57 vs 0.51±2.99), temporal inner quadrants (−2.58±5.05 vs −0.38±2.34), and the average of inner macular quadrants (−1.84±2.90 vs 0.03±2.10). The rate of loss in the nasal inner (P=0.02) and temporal outer (P=0.02) macular regions was associated with optic disc haemorrhage.
Conclusions
Eyes with SAP progression have significantly greater rates of macular thickness loss consistent with glaucomatous retinal ganglion cell atrophy, as compared with non-progressing eyes.
doi:10.1038/eye.2012.76
PMCID: PMC3396176  PMID: 22576828
glaucoma; macular thickness; imaging; progression
4.  Search for lepton flavour violation in the eμ continuum with the ATLAS detector in \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\sqrt{s} = 7~\mbox{TeV}$\end{document}pp collisions at the LHC 
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This paper presents a search for the t-channel exchange of an R-parity violating scalar top quark (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\tilde{t}$\end{document}) in the e±μ∓ continuum using 2.1 fb−1 of data collected by the ATLAS detector in \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\sqrt{s}=7~\mbox{TeV}$\end{document}pp collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Data are found to be consistent with the expectation from the Standard Model backgrounds. Limits on R-parity-violating couplings at 95 % C.L. are calculated as a function of the scalar top mass (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}$\end{document}). The upper limits on the production cross section for pp→eμX, through the t-channel exchange of a scalar top quark, ranges from 170 fb for \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}=95~\mbox{GeV}$\end{document} to 30 fb for \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}=1000~\mbox{GeV}$\end{document}.
doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-012-2040-z
PMCID: PMC4370899  PMID: 25814838
5.  Follow-up care for cancer survivors: the views of clinicians 
British Journal of Cancer  2009;101(4):568-574.
Background:
Evidence for the efficacy of late effects surveillance in adult cancer survivors is lacking and there is little agreement among clinicians on appropriate follow-up care.
Methods:
We report the views of both cancer experts and general practitioners (GPs) on long-term follow-up provision for cancer survivors, focussing on the 18–45 years age group. A total of 421 cancer experts (36% haematologists, 33% oncologists, 18% surgeons, 10% nurses, 2% other) and 54 GPs responded to a structured online survey. Reasons for follow-up care (clinical or supportive); advantages and disadvantages of follow-up in primary care; current practice; and resources required for a quality follow-up service were assessed.
Results:
Clinicians valued clinical reasons for follow-up more highly than supportive reasons (P<0.001). Learning more about late effects and checking for cancer recurrence were rated as the most important reasons for follow-up by cancer experts and GPs. A total of 85% of cancer specialists hold follow-up consultations alongside patients on active treatment. Cancer experts agreed that primary care follow-up would increase their availability for acute oncological care, but reduce information on late effects. The most important resource to provide a quality follow-up service was specialist nursing support (91%).
Conclusions:
Follow-up guidelines that include late effects surveillance are needed. Where and who should deliver this care requires further debate.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605160
PMCID: PMC2736807  PMID: 19638984
cancer survivors; follow-up care; specialist care; primary care
6.  Follow-up care for cancer survivors: views of the younger adult 
British Journal of Cancer  2009;101(4):561-567.
Background:
Since the launch of the National Cancer Survivorship Initiative, there has been a surge of interest surrounding the value and organisation of long-term follow-up care after cancer treatment. We report the views of 309 adult cancer survivors (aged 18–45 years) on provision of follow-up and preferences for care.
Methods:
A total of 207 survivors completed questionnaires before and after routine consultant-led follow-up appointments and 102 were recruited by post. Measures of health status (including late effects, perceived vulnerability to late effects and quality of life), reasons for attending follow-up (clinical and supportive), issues to be discussed at follow-up and preferences for different models of care were assessed.
Results:
In all, 59% of the survivors reported experiencing one or more cancer-related health problems. Survivors rated clinical reasons for attending follow-up more highly than supportive reasons (P<0.001), although nutritional advice and counselling were considered useful (60 and 47%, respectively). Those still receiving scheduled follow-up appointments did not discuss the range of issues intended with ‘late effects' and ‘fertility', which were particularly under-discussed. Hospital rather than GP follow-up was more highly rated.
Conclusion:
Survivors value the clinical reassurance currently provided by consultant-led care. However, supportive needs are not systematically addressed. Multi-disciplinary services are recommended to meet supportive needs in addition to clinical care.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6605213
PMCID: PMC2736810  PMID: 19638979
cancer survivors; follow-up; models of care; younger adults
7.  An enhancement module to improve the atypical birefringence pattern using scanning laser polarimetry with variable corneal compensation 
Aim
To examine the repeatability and effect of an enhancement module on the severity of atypical birefringence patterns (ABP) using scanning laser polarimetery (SLP) with variable corneal compensation (VCC).
Methods
16 patients with perimetric glaucoma (PG), 24 glaucoma suspect and pre‐perimetric glaucoma (GSPPG), and 12 normal volunteers (N) were included. One randomly selected eye of each volunteer was scanned three times using VCC and enhanced corneal compensation (ECC) at the same session by the same examiner. Typical scan scores (TSS) were calculated to evaluate the ABP. Coefficients of variability (CoV), coefficients of repeatability (CoR), and intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) were calculated.
Results
The mean TSS using ECC (n = 97.3 (5.5), GSPPG = 98.3 (3.5), PG = 99.2 (2.3)) was significantly higher (p = 0.02, 0.01, and 0.006, respectively) compared with VCC (86.5 (14.4), 88.2 (18.2), and 83.4 (2.2), respectively). VCC parameters had a CoR of 1.2–6.5, CoV of 1.9%–8.6%, and ICC of 0.8–0.9. ECC parameters had a CoR of 0.5–4.0, CoV of 0.3%–5.1%, and ICC of 0.2–0.9. TSNIT average was the overall best performing parameter with the highest repeatability and least variability using both techniques (CoR<2.1, CoV<2%).
Conclusion
The enhancement module significantly reduced the severity of ABP and maintained a high level of repeatability of retardation measurements.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2005.086447
PMCID: PMC1860201  PMID: 16481378
scanning laser polarimetry; enhanced corneal compensation; atypical birefringence pattern
8.  High incidence of late effects found in Hodgkin's lymphoma survivors, following recall for breast cancer screening 
British Journal of Cancer  2006;94(4):469-472.
Assessment of late effects in a cohort of female Hodgkin's lymphoma patients treated with mantle radiotherapy, identified from the DoH breast cancer screening recall showed high mortality and frequent undiagnosed abnormalities in tissues affected by radiotherapy. With increasing age, this patient group may suffer premature cardiac and respiratory morbidity.
doi:10.1038/sj.bjc.6602974
PMCID: PMC2361189  PMID: 16465193
breast cancer; Hodgkin's lymphoma; late effects; mantle radiotherapy
9.  Recurrent bleb infections 
AIM—To report the patient characteristics, causative organisms, and clinical outcomes in patients with recurrent bleb related ocular infections.
METHODS—The medical records of all patients diagnosed with bleb related ocular infection at the New York Eye and Ear Infirmary over a 10 year period were reviewed. Recurrent bleb infection was defined as at least two episodes of bleb purulence with or without associated intraocular inflammation separated by a quiescent period of at least 3 months.
RESULTS—Recurrent bleb infections developed in 12 eyes of 12 patients (10 men, two women) a mean of 16.3 (SD 17.9) months (range 3-51 months) after the initial infection. Two patients developed a third episode 3 and 20 months, respectively, after the second infection, yielding a total of 14 recurrent infection episodes. Recurrent infection developed after trabeculectomy in 11 eyes (adjunctive 5-fluorouracil, nine eyes; mitomycin C, one eye; no antifibrosis agent, one eye) and following cataract extraction with inadvertent bleb formation in one eye. Four (36.4%) of the filtered eyes had undergone trabeculectomy at the inferior limbus. The mean follow up time from filtering surgery to the first bleb related infection was 28 months for the nine patients treated with 5-fluorouracil and 14 months for the single patient treated with mitomycin C. 11 (78.6%) cases had a documented bleb leak in the 4 week period before or at the time of recurrent infection. Topical, prophylactic antibiotics had been used in 7/14 (50%) cases. The same organism was cultured from the initial and recurrent infections in 2/14 (14.3%) cases.
CONCLUSION—Eyes that have been successfully treated for bleb related infection remain at risk for recurrent infection. No apparent correlation exists between organisms responsible for the initial and recurrent infections. The increased rate of recurrent bleb related infection in patients receiving adjunctive 5-fluorouracil compared to mitomycin C may have been related to the longer follow up of the 5-fluorouracil eyes.

 Keywords: blebs; ocular infections; 5-fluorouracil; mitomycin C
PMCID: PMC1722708  PMID: 9828779
12.  The Work of Medical Boards 
British Medical Journal  1940;1(4129):311-312.
PMCID: PMC2176384
13.  A NOTE ON SKIN GRAFTING 
British Medical Journal  1917;1(2937):482.
PMCID: PMC2348084  PMID: 20768546
14.  Congenital Eye and Heart Defects 
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine  1913;6(Sect Study Dis Child):210.
PMCID: PMC2007032  PMID: 19977392
15.  Hydatid Cysts of the Liver 
Proceedings of the Royal Society of Medicine  1913;6(Sect Study Dis Child):210.
PMCID: PMC2007089  PMID: 19977393

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