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1.  Search for lepton flavour violation in the eμ continuum with the ATLAS detector in \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\sqrt{s} = 7~\mbox{TeV}$\end{document}pp collisions at the LHC 
Aad, G. | Abbott, B. | Abdallah, J. | Abdelalim, A. A. | Abdesselam, A. | Abdinov, O. | Abi, B. | Abolins, M. | Abramowicz, H. | Abreu, H. | Acerbi, E. | Acharya, B. S. | Adams, D. L. | Addy, T. N. | Adelman, J. | Adomeit, S. | Adragna, P. | Adye, T. | Aefsky, S. | Aguilar-Saavedra, J. A. | Aharrouche, M. | Ahlen, S. P. | Ahles, F. | Ahmad, A. | Ahsan, M. | Aielli, G. | Akdogan, T. | Åkesson, T. P. A. | Akimoto, G. | Akimov, A. V. | Akiyama, A. | Aktas, A. | Alam, M. S. | Alam, M. A. | Albrand, S. | Aleksa, M. | Aleksandrov, I. N. | Aleppo, M. | Alessandria, F. | Alexa, C. | Alexander, G. | Alexandre, G. | Alexopoulos, T. | Alhroob, M. | Aliev, M. | Alimonti, G. | Alison, J. | Aliyev, M. | Allport, P. P. | Allwood-Spiers, S. E. | Almond, J. | Aloisio, A. | Alon, R. | Alonso, A. | Alviggi, M. G. | Amako, K. | Amelung, C. | Ammosov, V. V. | Amorim, A. | Amorós, G. | Amram, N. | Anastopoulos, C. | Andeen, T. | Anders, C. F. | Anderson, K. J. | Andreazza, A. | Andrei, V. | Anduaga, X. S. | Angerami, A. | Anghinolfi, F. | Anjos, N. | Annovi, A. | Antonaki, A. | Antonelli, M. | Antonelli, S. | Antonov, A. | Antos, J. | Anulli, F. | Aoun, S. | Aperio Bella, L. | Apolle, R. | Arabidze, G. | Aracena, I. | Arai, Y. | Arce, A. T. H. | Archambault, J. P. | Arfaoui, S. | Arguin, J-F. | Arik, E. | Arik, M. | Armbruster, A. J. | Arnaez, O. | Arnault, C. | Artamonov, A. | Artoni, G. | Arutinov, D. | Asai, M. | Asai, S. | Asfandiyarov, R. | Ask, S. | Åsman, B. | Asner, D. | Asquith, L. | Assamagan, K. | Astbury, A. | Astvatsatourov, A. | Atoian, G. | Aubert, B. | Auge, E. | Augsten, K. | Aurousseau, M. | Austin, N. | Avolio, G. | Avramidou, R. | Axen, D. | Azuelos, G. | Azuma, Y. | Baak, M. A. | Baccaglioni, G. | Bacci, C. | Bach, A. M. | Bachacou, H. | Bachas, K. | Bachy, G. | Backes, M. | Backhaus, M. | Badescu, E. | Bagnaia, P. | Bahinipati, S. | Bai, Y. | Bailey, D. C. | Bain, T. | Baines, J. T. | Baker, O. K. | Baker, M. D. | Baker, S. | Baltasar Dos Santos Pedrosa, F. | Banas, E. | Banerjee, P. | Banerjee, Sw. | Banfi, D. | Bangert, A. | Bansal, V. | Bansil, H. S. | Barak, L. | Baranov, S. P. | Barbaro Galtieri, A. | Barber, T. | Barberio, E. L. | Barberis, D. | Barbero, M. | Bardin, D. Y. | Barillari, T. | Barisonzi, M. | Barklow, T. | Barlow, N. | Barnett, B. M. | Barnett, R. M. | Baroncelli, A. | Barr, A. J. | Barreiro, F. | Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J. | Barrillon, P. | Bartoldus, R. | Barton, A. E. | Bartsch, D. | Bartsch, V. | Bates, R. L. | Batkova, L. | Batley, J. R. | Battaglia, A. | Battistin, M. | Battistoni, G. | Bauer, F. | Bawa, H. S. | Beare, B. | Beau, T. | Beauchemin, P. H. | Beccherle, R. | Bechtle, P. | Beck, G. A. | Beck, H. P. | Beckingham, M. | Becks, K. H. | Beddall, A. J. | Beddall, A. | Bedikian, S. | Bednyakov, V. A. | Bee, C. P. | Begel, M. | Behar Harpaz, S. | Behera, P. K. | Beimforde, M. | Belanger-Champagne, C. | Bell, P. J. | Bell, W. H. | Bella, G. | Bellagamba, L. | Bellina, F. | Bellomo, G. | Bellomo, M. | Belloni, A. | Beloborodova, O. | Belotskiy, K. | Beltramello, O. | Ben Ami, S. | Benary, O. | Benchekroun, D. | Benchouk, C. | Bendel, M. | Benedict, B. H. | Benekos, N. | Benhammou, Y. | Benjamin, D. P. | Benoit, M. | Bensinger, J. R. | Benslama, K. | Bentvelsen, S. | Beretta, M. | Berge, D. | Bergeaas Kuutmann, E. | Berger, N. | Berghaus, F. | Berglund, E. | Beringer, J. | Bernardet, K. | Bernat, P. | Bernhard, R. | Bernius, C. | Berry, T. | Bertin, A. | Bertolucci, F. | Besana, M. I. | Besson, N. | Bethke, S. | Bhimji, W. | Bianchi, R. M. | Bianco, M. | Biebel, O. | Bieniek, S. P. | Biesiada, J. | Biglietti, M. | Bilokon, H. | Bindi, M. | Binet, S. | Bingul, A. | Bini, C. | Biscarat, C. | Bitenc, U. | Black, K. M. | Blair, R. E. | Blanchard, J.-B. | Blanchot, G. | Blocker, C. | Blocki, J. | Blondel, A. | Blum, W. | Blumenschein, U. | Bobbink, G. J. | Bobrovnikov, V. B. | Bocchetta, S. S. | Bocci, A. | Boddy, C. R. | Boehler, M. | Boek, J. | Boelaert, N. | Böser, S. | Bogaerts, J. A. | Bogdanchikov, A. | Bogouch, A. | Bohm, C. | Boisvert, V. | Bold, T. | Boldea, V. | Bona, M. | Bondioli, M. | Boonekamp, M. | Boorman, G. | Booth, C. N. | Booth, P. | Bordoni, S. | Borer, C. | Borisov, A. | Borissov, G. | Borjanovic, I. | Borroni, S. | Bos, K. | Boscherini, D. | Bosman, M. | Boterenbrood, H. | Botterill, D. | Bouchami, J. | Boudreau, J. | Bouhova-Thacker, E. V. | Boulahouache, C. | Bourdarios, C. | Bousson, N. | Boveia, A. | Boyd, J. | Boyko, I. R. | Bozhko, N. I. | Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I. | Bracinik, J. | Braem, A. | Brambilla, E. | Branchini, P. | Brandt, A. | Brandt, G. | Brandt, O. | Bratzler, U. | Brau, B. | Brau, J. E. | Braun, H. M. | Brelier, B. | Bremer, J. | Brenner, R. | Bressler, S. | Breton, D. | Brett, N. D. | Bright-Thomas, P. G. | Britton, D. | Brochu, F. M. | Brock, I. | Brock, R. | Brodet, E. | Broggi, F. | Bromberg, C. | Brooijmans, G. | Brooks, W. K. | Brown, G. | Brubaker, E. | Bruckman de Renstrom, P. A. | Bruncko, D. | Bruneliere, R. | Brunet, S. | Bruni, A. | Bruni, G. | Bruschi, M. | Buanes, T. | Bucci, F. | Buchanan, J. | Buchanan, N. J. | Buchholz, P. | Buckingham, R. M. | Buckley, A. G. | Buda, S. I. | Budagov, I. A. | Budick, B. | Büscher, V. | Bugge, L. | Buira-Clark, D. | Buis, E. J. | Bulekov, O. | Bunse, M. | Buran, T. | Burckhart, H. | Burdin, S. | Burgess, T. | Burke, S. | Busato, E. | Bussey, P. | Buszello, C. P. | Butler, B. | Butler, J. M. | Buttar, C. M. | Butterworth, J. M. | Buttinger, W. | Byatt, T. | Caballero, J. | Cabrera Urbán, S. | Caccia, M. | Caforio, D. | Cakir, O. | Calafiura, P. | Calderini, G. | Calfayan, P. | Calkins, R. | Caloba, L. P. | Caloi, R. | Calvet, D. | Calvet, S. | Camacho Toro, R. | Camard, A. | Camarri, P. | Cameron, D. | Cammin, J. | Campana, S. | Campanelli, M. | Canale, V. | Canelli, F. | Canepa, A. | Cantero, J. | Capasso, L. | Capeans Garrido, M. D. M. | Caprini, I. | Caprini, M. | Capriotti, D. | Capua, M. | Caputo, R. | Caramarcu, C. | Cardarelli, R. | Carli, T. | Carlino, G. | Carminati, L. | Caron, B. | Caron, S. | Carpentieri, C. | Carrillo Montoya, G. D. | Carter, A. A. | Carter, J. R. | Carvalho, J. | Casadei, D. | Casado, M. P. | Cascella, M. | Caso, C. | Castaneda Hernandez, A. M. | Castaneda-Miranda, E. | Castillo Gimenez, V. | Castro, N. F. | Cataldi, G. | Cataneo, F. | Catinaccio, A. | Catmore, J. R. | Cattai, A. | Cattani, G. | Caughron, S. | Cavallari, A. | Cavalleri, P. | Cavalli, D. | Cavalli-Sforza, M. | Cavasinni, V. | Cazzato, A. | Ceradini, F. | Cerqueira, A. S. | Cerri, A. | Cerrito, L. | Cerutti, F. | Cetin, S. A. | Chafaq, A. | Chakraborty, D. | Chan, K. | Chapleau, B. | Chapman, J. D. | Chapman, J. W. | Chareyre, E. | Charlton, D. G. | Chavda, V. | Cheatham, S. | Chekanov, S. | Chekulaev, S. V. | Chelkov, G. A. | Chelstowska, M. A. | Chen, C. | Chen, H. | Chen, L. | Chen, S. | Chen, X. | Cheplakov, A. | Cherkaoui El Moursli, R. | Chernyatin, V. | Cheu, E. | Cheung, S. L. | Chevalier, L. | Chiefari, G. | Chikovani, L. | Childers, J. T. | Chilingarov, A. | Chiodini, G. | Chizhov, M. V. | Choudalakis, G. | Chouridou, S. | Christidi, I. A. | Christov, A. | Chromek-Burckhart, D. | Chu, M. L. | Chudoba, J. | Ciapetti, G. | Ciba, K. | Ciftci, A. K. | Ciftci, R. | Cinca, D. | Cindro, V. | Ciobotaru, M. D. | Ciocca, C. | Ciocio, A. | Cirilli, M. | Citterio, M. | Ciubancan, M. | Clark, A. | Clark, P. J. | Cleland, W. | Clemens, J. C. | Clement, B. | Clement, C. | Clifft, R. W. | Coadou, Y. | Cobal, M. | Coccaro, A. | Cochran, J. | Coe, P. | Coelli, S. | Cogan, J. G. | Coggeshall, J. | Cogneras, E. | Cojocaru, C. D. | Colas, J. | Colijn, A. P. | Collard, C. | Collins, N. J. | Collins-Tooth, C. | Collot, J. | Colon, G. | Coluccia, R. | Comune, G. | Conde Muiño, P. | Coniavitis, E. | Conidi, M. C. | Consonni, M. | Constantinescu, S. | Conta, C. | Conventi, F. | Cooke, M. | Cooper, B. D. | Cooper-Sarkar, A. M. | Copic, K. | Cornelissen, T. | Corradi, M. | Corriveau, F. | Corso-Radu, A. | Cortes-Gonzalez, A. | Cortiana, G. | Costa, G. | Costa, M. J. | Costanzo, D. | Costin, T. | Côté, D. | Coura Torres, R. | Courneyea, L. | Cowan, G. | Cowden, C. | Cox, B. E. | Cranmer, K. | Cranshaw, J. | Crescioli, F. | Cristinziani, M. | Crosetti, G. | Crupi, R. | Crépé-Renaudin, S. | Cuenca Almenar, C. | Cuhadar Donszelmann, T. | Cuneo, S. | Curatolo, M. | Curtis, C. J. | Cwetanski, P. | Czirr, H. | Czyczula, Z. | D’Auria, S. | D’Onofrio, M. | D’Orazio, A. | Da Rocha Gesualdi Mello, A. | Da Via, C. | Dabrowski, W. | Dahlhoff, A. | Dai, T. | Dallapiccola, C. | Daly, C. H. | Dam, M. | Dameri, M. | Damiani, D. S. | Danielsson, H. O. | Dankers, R. | Dannheim, D. | Dao, V. | Darbo, G. | Darlea, G. L. | Daum, C. | Dauvergne, J. P. | Davey, W. | Davidek, T. | Davidson, N. | Davidson, R. | Davies, M. | Davison, A. R. | Dawe, E. | Dawson, I. | Daya-Ishmukhametova, R. K. | De, K. | de Asmundis, R. | De Castro, S. | De Castro Faria Salgado, P. E. | De Cecco, S. | de Graat, J. | De Groot, N. | de Jong, P. | De La Taille, C. | De la Torre, H. | de Mora, L. | De Nooij, L. | De Oliveira Branco, M. | De Pedis, D. | de Saintignon, P. | De Salvo, A. | De Sanctis, U. | De Santo, A. | De Vivie De Regie, J. B. | Dean, S. | Dedovich, D. V. | Degenhardt, J. | Dehchar, M. | Deile, M. | Del Papa, C. | Del Peso, J. | Del Prete, T. | Dell’Acqua, A. | Dell’Asta, L. | Della Pietra, M. | della Volpe, D. | Delmastro, M. | Delpierre, P. | Delsart, P. A. | Deluca, C. | Demers, S. | Demichev, M. | Demirkoz, B. | Deng, J. | Deng, W. | Denisov, S. P. | Derendarz, D. | Derkaoui, J. E. | Derue, F. | Dervan, P. | Desch, K. | Devetak, E. | Deviveiros, P. O. | Dewhurst, A. | DeWilde, B. | Dhaliwal, S. | Dhullipudi, R. | Di Ciaccio, A. | Di Ciaccio, L. | Di Girolamo, A. | Di Girolamo, B. | Di Luise, S. | Di Mattia, A. | Di Micco, B. | Di Nardo, R. | Di Simone, A. | Di Sipio, R. | Diaz, M. A. | Diblen, F. | Diehl, E. B. | Dietl, H. | Dietrich, J. | Dietzsch, T. A. | Diglio, S. | Dindar Yagci, K. | Dingfelder, J. | Dionisi, C. | Dita, P. | Dita, S. | Dittus, F. | Djama, F. | Djilkibaev, R. | Djobava, T. | do Vale, M. A. B. | Do Valle Wemans, A. | Doan, T. K. O. | Dobbs, M. | Dobinson, R. | Dobos, D. | Dobson, E. | Dobson, M. | Dodd, J. | Dogan, O. B. | Doglioni, C. | Doherty, T. | Doi, Y. | Dolejsi, J. | Dolenc, I. | Dolezal, Z. | Dolgoshein, B. A. | Dohmae, T. | Donadelli, M. | Donega, M. | Donini, J. | Dopke, J. | Doria, A. | Dos Anjos, A. | Dotti, A. | Dova, M. T. | Dowell, J. D. | Doxiadis, A. D. | Doyle, A. T. | Drasal, Z. | Drees, J. | Drevermann, H. | Dris, M. | Drohan, J. G. | Dubbert, J. | Dubbs, T. | Dube, S. | Duchovni, E. | Duckeck, G. | Dudarev, A. | Dudziak, F. | Dührssen, M. | Duerdoth, I. P. | Duflot, L. | Dufour, M-A. | Dunford, M. | Duran Yildiz, H. | Duxfield, R. | Dwuznik, M. | Dydak, F. | Dzahini, D. | Düren, M. | Ebke, J. | Eckert, S. | Eckweiler, S. | Edmonds, K. | Edwards, C. A. | Efthymiopoulos, I. | Egorov, K. | Ehrenfeld, W. | Ehrich, T. | Eifert, T. | Eigen, G. | Einsweiler, K. | Eisenhandler, E. | Ekelof, T. | El Kacimi, M. | Ellert, M. | Elles, S. | Ellinghaus, F. | Ellis, K. | Ellis, N. | Elmsheuser, J. | Elsing, M. | Ely, R. | Emeliyanov, D. | Engelmann, R. | Engl, A. | Epp, B. | Eppig, A. | Erdmann, J. | Ereditato, A. | Eriksson, D. | Ernst, J. | Ernst, M. | Ernwein, J. | Errede, D. | Errede, S. | Ertel, E. | Escalier, M. | Escobar, C. | Espinal Curull, X. | Esposito, B. | Etienne, F. | Etienvre, A. I. | Etzion, E. | Evangelakou, D. | Evans, H. | Fabbri, L. | Fabre, C. | Facius, K. | Fakhrutdinov, R. M. | Falciano, S. | Falou, A. C. | Fang, Y. | Fanti, M. | Farbin, A. | Farilla, A. | Farley, J. | Farooque, T. | Farrington, S. M. | Farthouat, P. | Fasching, D. | Fassnacht, P. | Fassouliotis, D. | Fatholahzadeh, B. | Favareto, A. | Fayard, L. | Fazio, S. | Febbraro, R. | Federic, P. | Fedin, O. L. | Fedorko, I. | Fedorko, W. | Fehling-Kaschek, M. | Feligioni, L. | Fellmann, D. | Felzmann, C. U. | Feng, C. | Feng, E. J. | Fenyuk, A. B. | Ferencei, J. | Fernandes, B. | Fernando, W. | Ferrag, S. | Ferrando, J. | Ferrara, V. | Ferrari, A. | Ferrari, P. | Ferrari, R. | Ferrer, A. | Ferrer, M. L. | Ferrere, D. | Ferretti, C. | Ferretto Parodi, A. | Fiascaris, M. | Fiedler, F. | Filipčič, A. | Filippas, A. | Filthaut, F. | Fincke-Keeler, M. | Fiolhais, M. C. N. | Fiorini, L. | Firan, A. | Fischer, G. | Fischer, P. | Fisher, M. J. | Fisher, S. M. | Flammer, J. | Flechl, M. | Fleck, I. | Fleckner, J. | Fleischmann, P. | Fleischmann, S. | Flick, T. | Flores Castillo, L. R. | Flowerdew, M. 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This paper presents a search for the t-channel exchange of an R-parity violating scalar top quark (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\tilde{t}$\end{document}) in the e±μ∓ continuum using 2.1 fb−1 of data collected by the ATLAS detector in \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\sqrt{s}=7~\mbox{TeV}$\end{document}pp collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Data are found to be consistent with the expectation from the Standard Model backgrounds. Limits on R-parity-violating couplings at 95 % C.L. are calculated as a function of the scalar top mass (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}$\end{document}). The upper limits on the production cross section for pp→eμX, through the t-channel exchange of a scalar top quark, ranges from 170 fb for \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}=95~\mbox{GeV}$\end{document} to 30 fb for \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}=1000~\mbox{GeV}$\end{document}.
doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-012-2040-z
PMCID: PMC4370899  PMID: 25814838
2.  Ginkgo biloba: An adjuvant therapy for progressive normal and high tension glaucoma 
Molecular Vision  2012;18:390-402.
Gingko biloba has been used for hundreds of years to treat various disorders such as asthma, vertigo, fatigue and, tinnitus or circulatory problems. Two of the main extracts are EGb761 and LI 1370. Most pharmacological, toxicological and clinical studies have focused on the neuroprotective value of these two main extracts. Neuroprotection is a rapidly expanding area of research. This area is of particular interest due to the fact that it represents a new avenue of therapy for a frustrating disease that may progress despite optimal treatment. One such disease is glaucoma.
Glaucoma leads to the loss of retinal ganglion cells and their axons but also to tissue remodelling which involves both the optic nerve head and the retina. In the retina the astrocytes get activated. In addition, the optic nerve gets thinner and the cells of the lateral geniculate ganglion disappear partially. On average, ocular blood flow (OBF) is reduced in glaucoma patients in various tissues of the eye. Increased intraocular pressure (IOP) is a major risk factor for glaucomatous damage. Nevertheless, there is little doubt that other risk factors besides IOP are involved. One such risk factor is a primary vascular dysregulation (PVD) occurring in patients with a disturbed autoregulation, another risk factor is oxidative stress.
PMCID: PMC3283204  PMID: 22355250
3.  The potential role of testosterone in central serous chorioretinopathy 
doi:10.1136/bjo.2006.098277
PMCID: PMC1857578  PMID: 17179128
4.  Retrobulbar blood flow in patients with cataract 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2006;90(12):1512-1515.
Objective
To investigate retrobulbar haemodynamics in patients with cataract.
Subjects and methods
Colour Doppler imaging of the ophthalmic artery was carried out on the eye scheduled for surgery in 30 patients with cataract and in one randomly selected eye of 100 healthy controls. The peak systolic velocity, mean velocity, end diastolic velocity and resistivity index in the ophthalmic artery were computed and adjusted for the influence of age and mean arterial pressure. Cataract type was recorded and lens opacity was measured with an opacity lensmeter. Odds ratio (OR) for cataract was analysed in a logistic regression model, depending on the adjusted blood‐flow parameters, age and smoking status.
Results
The mean (SD) age was 45.5 (17.7) and 67.6 (5.8) years in controls and patients with cataract, respectively (p<0.001). The female to male ratio was 54:46 and 13:17, respectively (p = 0.41). Significant predictors of cataract in a forward stepwise logistic regression analysis were age (OR = 1.194; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.103 to 1.292; p<0.001), smoking status (OR = 14.119; 95% CI = 2.753 to 72.398; p = 0.002) and mean blood‐flow velocity in the ophthalmic artery (OR = 0.731; 95% CI = 0.607 to 0.881; p = 0.001). Adjusted mean velocity was significantly lower in patients with cataract, even when only age‐matched (age >55 years) non‐smokers (31 controls, 19 patients with cataract) were considered (p = 0.003). Lens opacity and the type of cataract had no influence on the present findings.
Conclusion
High mean velocity in the ophthalmic artery may be associated with a reduced risk of cataract.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2006.101261
PMCID: PMC1857537  PMID: 16885186
5.  Influence of change in body position on choroidal blood flow in normal subjects 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2005;89(10):1302-1305.
Aim: To compare subfoveal choroidal blood flow (ChBF) in sitting and supine positions in normal volunteers.
Methods: ChBF was measured with laser Doppler flowmetry in 22 healthy volunteers of mean (SD) age 24 (5) years. Six independent measurements of ChBF were obtained in one randomly selected eye of each subject while seated. The subjects then assumed a supine position for 30 minutes and a new series of six measurements was obtained. The mean values of the two series were calculated. Systemic brachial artery blood pressure and intraocular pressure were measured in the sitting and supine positions. Ocular perfusion pressure (OPP) was calculated based on formulae derived from ophthalmodynamometric studies. The influence of changing OPP during change in body posture on the change in ChBF was assessed by linear regression analysis.
Results: ChBF decreased by 6.6% (p = 0.0017) in the supine position. The estimated ophthalmic blood pressure in the supine position was adjusted to obtain a result of no change in OPP for no change in ChBF, yielding a mean decrease in the estimate of OPP of 6.7% (p = 0.0002). The necessary adjustment for the estimate of OPP in the supine position suggested a marked buffering of the change in perfusion pressure by the carotid system. The relative decrease in OPP correlated significantly with the relative decrease in ChBF (R2  =  0.20; p = 0.036) with a slope for the regression line of 1.04.
Conclusions: The comparable degree of change in ChBF and OPP and the linear relationship between the two parameters suggest a passive response of the choroidal circulation to a change in posture. In contrast, the carotid system seems to control the gradient in perfusion pressure closely between the heart and its branches.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2005.067884
PMCID: PMC1772871  PMID: 16170121
autoregulation; choroidol blood flow; perfusion pressure
6.  Intraocular pressure changes in the contralateral eye after trabeculectomy with mitomycin C 
Aim: To assess intraocular pressure (IOP) changes of the contralateral eyes of eyes undergoing trabeculectomy with mitomycin C (MMC).
Methods: Non-comparative retrospective study of 24 consecutive patients who underwent trabeculectomy with MMC that led to more than 45% reduction in IOP. In the contralateral eyes, IOP before surgery was compared with IOP 1 day and 1 month after surgery. 11 fellow eyes were under topical hypotensive therapy while 13 contralateral eyes were not (12 contralateral eyes had previous filtering surgery and one had normal tension glaucoma). No patients had systemic ocular hypotensive therapy.
Results: Mean IOP in all contralateral eyes decreased from 15.5 (SD 5.5) mm Hg to 12.5 (3.8) mm Hg (p<0.01), and 13.0 (4.7) mm Hg (p<0.001) 1 day and 1 month after surgery, respectively. In the 11 fellow eyes under topical ocular hypotensive therapy mean IOP was reduced from 19.5 (4.0) mm Hg to 13.5 (2.2) mm Hg (p<0.01), and 16.5 (2.8) mm Hg (p<0.05) 1 day and 1 month after surgery, respectively. In the 13 fellow eyes not under topical ocular hypotensive therapy mean IOP was reduced from 12.1 (4.2) mm Hg to 11.6 (4.7) mm Hg (p not significant) and 9.8 (3.8) mm Hg (p0.01) 1 day and 1 month after surgery, respectively.
Conclusions: In the present population, a month after trabeculectomy, mean IOP in the contralateral eyes decreased independently of whether these contralateral eyes were undergoing topical ocular hypotensive therapy or not.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2004.050294
PMCID: PMC1772747  PMID: 15965155
intraocular pressure; mitomycin C; trabeculectomy
7.  Increased plasma endothelin-1 levels in patients with progressive open angle glaucoma 
Aim: To compare the plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) between patients with primary open angle glaucoma with visual field progression despite normal or normalised intraocular pressure and patients with stabile visual fields in a retrospective study.
Methods: The progressive group consisted of 16 primary open angle glaucoma patients and the group with stable visual field consisted of 15 patients. After a 30 minute rest in a supine position, venous blood was obtained for ET-1 dosing. Difference in the plasma level of ET-1 between two groups was compared by means of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), including age, sex, and mean arterial blood pressure as covariates.
Results: ET-1 plasma levels were found to be significantly increased in patients with deteriorating (3.47 (SD 0.75) pg/ml) glaucoma when compared to those with stable (2.59 (SD 0.54) pg/ml) visual fields (p = 0.0007).
Conclusions: Glaucoma patients with visual field progression in spite of normal or normalised intraocular pressure have been found to have increased plasma endothelin-1 levels. It remains to be determined if this is a secondary phenomenon or whether it may have a role in the progression of glaucomatous damage.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2004.046755
PMCID: PMC1772488  PMID: 15615748
endothelin-1; glaucoma; progressive damage; visual field
8.  Comet assay analysis of single–stranded DNA breaks in circulating leukocytes of glaucoma patients 
Molecular Vision  2008;14:1584-1588.
Purpose
To investigate the amount of single-stranded DNA breaks in circulating leukocytes of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) patients.
Methods
A comparative quantification of DNA breaks was performed in circulating leukocytes of POAG patients and healthy controls. The following groups of subjects were compared: (1) POAG patients having primary vascular dysregulation (PVD), (2) POAG patients without PVD, (3) healthy controls with PVD, and (4) healthy controls without PVD. The damage to DNA resulting in single-stranded breaks was assessed by means of the alkaline comet assay in which the damaged DNA migrates out of the nucleus forming a tail, which can be quantified using image analysis. Damage was quantified as the comet tail moment, which represents the extent of DNA damage in individual cells.
Results
Leukocytes of POAG patients exerted a significantly higher amount of comet tails, which are indicative of DNA damage, in comparison to control leukocytes (p<0.001). DNA breaks occurred particularly in the subgroup of POAG patients with PVD in comparison to glaucoma patients without PVD (p=0.002). In the control group, there was no significant difference between controls with PVD and controls without PVD (p=0.86).
Conclusions
POAG patients with PVD have a significantly higher rate of DNA breaks than both POAG patients without PVD and healthy controls with and without PVD.
PMCID: PMC2526097  PMID: 18769648
9.  Influence of non-penetrating glaucoma surgery on aqueous outflow facility in isolated porcine eyes 
Purpose: To investigate, in vitro, the influence of non-penetrating glaucoma surgery (NPGS) and the influence of tightly suturing the superficial scleral flap on the aqueous outflow facility of isolated porcine eyes.
Materials and methods: The anterior chambers of 12 enucleated porcine cadaver eyes were cannulated and perfused. NPGS was performed by the same surgeon. The overall ocular aqueous outflow facilities were assessed before and after the surgical interventions of NPGS, as well as after scleral flap closure.
Results: The mean (SD) aqueous outflow facility, which was 0.164 (0.014) μl/min/mm Hg before surgery, increased significantly after NPGS to 1.584 (0.217) μl/min/mm Hg, p<0.001. When the superficial flap was closed, the aqueous outflow facility significantly decreased (0.754 (0.107) μl/min/mm Hg, p<0.001) but remained significantly higher than preoperatively (p<0.01). After suturing the superficial flap, the overall resistance increased to 1.625 (0.210) μl/min/mm Hg. The difference in the resistance to outflow before and after flap closure was 0.848 (0.169) μl/min/mm Hg.
Conclusion: After NPGS suturing the scleral flap can modulate aqueous outflow resistance. The experimental set up described might provide an efficient model for the technical training of glaucoma surgeries.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2003.035535
PMCID: PMC1772209  PMID: 15205245
aqueous; deep sclerectomy; glaucoma surgery; non-penetrating; viscocanalostomy
10.  Low first postoperative day intraocular pressure as a positive prognostic indicator in deep sclerectomy 
Aim: To study the possibility of using intraocular pressure (IOP) in the first postoperative day after sclerectomy as a prognostic indicator.
Methods: Non-randomised prospective trial involving 105 eyes of 105 patients with medically uncontrolled primary and secondary open angle glaucoma. Visual acuity, IOP, and slit lamp examinations were performed before and after surgery at 1 and 7 days, and 1, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30, 36, 48, 54, 60, and 66 months. Visual field examinations were repeated every 6 months. A split point on day 1 IOP of less than or equal to 5 mm Hg (61%) versus more than 5 mm Hg (39%) was used. The first postoperative day IOP was examined in relation to the need for subsequent Nd:YAG goniopuncture, the subsequent use of postoperative antiglaucoma medications, and as a stratification variable in the Kaplan-Meier analyses.
Results: The mean follow up was 43.2 (SD 14.3) months. The mean preoperative IOP was 26.8 (SD 7.7) mm Hg; the mean postoperative IOP was 5.1 (3.3) mm Hg at day 1 and 11.8 (3.1) mm Hg at month 60. Patients with IOP ⩽5 mm Hg had significantly fewer Nd:YAG goniopunctures (p = 0.0478). A significant (log rank test 0.0122) improvement for those with IOP ⩽5 mm Hg in terms of survival was detected using the most stringent criterion (IOP ⩽15 mm Hg with no medications). For patients with first postoperative day IOP ⩽5 mm Hg, the median time to failure was 24 months (95% CI: 12 to 30), but for those with an IOP >5 mm Hg, the median time to failure was only 6 months (CI 2 to 9). No significant difference in postoperative antiglaucoma medications was observed.
Conclusion: First postoperative day IOP can be considered to be a significant prognostic indicator in deep sclerectomy.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2003.029926
PMCID: PMC1772153  PMID: 15090419
deep sclerectomy; viscocanalostomy; non-penetrating; glaucoma surgery
11.  Ocular blood flow alteration in glaucoma is related to systemic vascular dysregulation 
Aims: To investigate the source of ocular blood flow alterations in glaucoma.
Methods: In 56 patients with open angle glaucoma, blood flow parameters were obtained from both eyes in the ophthalmic and central retinal artery by means of colour Doppler imaging, as well as in the choroidal circulation and the neuroretinal rim of the optic nerve by means of laser Doppler flowmetry. Based on these haemodynamic parameters, a cluster analysis (two groups) was performed and differences with regard to risk factors were assessed between clusters.
Results: Ocular blood flow data in the two clusters indicated that the two groups (cluster 1 = 26 patient with higher blood flow values; cluster 2 = 30 patients with lower blood flow values) differed mainly in choroidal and optic nerve blood flow. No differences in sex distribution, propensity to have normal tension glaucoma, age, endothelin-1 plasma levels, visual field damage, intraocular pressure, or systemic blood pressure parameters were observed between the two clusters. However, 12 patients (46%) from the cluster with high ocular blood flow values showed a vasospastic response in nailfold capillaroscopy, while such a response was observed in 24 patients (80%) of the cluster with low ocular blood flow values. This difference in vasospastic propensity was statistically significant (p = 0.0121).
Conclusions: Ocular blood flow alterations in glaucoma patients seem, at least partly, to be related to a systemic vascular dysregulation.
doi:10.1136/bjo.2003.032110
PMCID: PMC1772120  PMID: 15090420
autoregulation; blood flow; glaucoma; haemodynamics; vasospasm
12.  Architecture of arachnoid trabeculae, pillars, and septa in the subarachnoid space of the human optic nerve: anatomy and clinical considerations 
Aims: To describe the anatomy and the arrangement of the arachnoid trabeculae, pillars, and septa in the subarachnoid space of the human optic nerve and to consider their possible clinical relevance for cerebrospinal fluid dynamics and fluid pressure in the subarachnoid space of the human optic nerve.
Methods: Postmortem study with a total of 12 optic nerves harvested from nine subjects without ocular disease. All optic nerves used in this study were obtained no later than 7 hours after death, following qualified consent for necropsy. The study was performed with transmission (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
Results: The subarachnoid space of the human optic nerve contains a variety of trabeculae, septa, and stout pillars that are arranged between the arachnoid and the pia layers of the meninges of the nerve. They display a considerable numeric and structural variability depending on their location within the different portions of the optic nerve. In the bulbar segment (ampulla), adjacent to the globe, a dense and highly ramified meshwork of delicate trabeculae is arranged in a reticular fashion. Between the arachnoid trabeculae, interconnecting velum-like processes are observed. In the mid-orbital segment of the orbital portion, the subarachnoid space is subdivided, and can appear even loosely chambered by broad trabeculae and velum-like septa at some locations. In the intracanalicular segment additionally, few stout pillars and single round trabeculae are observed.
Conclusion: The subarachnoid space of the human optic nerve is not a homogeneous and anatomically empty chamber filled with cerebrospinal fluid, but it contains a complex system of arachnoid trabeculae and septa that divide the subarachnoid space. The trabeculae, septa, and pillars, as well as their arrangement described in this study, may have a role in the cerebrospinal fluid dynamics between the subarachnoid space of the optic nerve and the chiasmal cistern and may contribute to the understanding of the pathophysiology of asymmetric and unilateral papilloedema. All the structures described are of such delicate character that they can not even be visualised with high resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
PMCID: PMC1771732  PMID: 12770980
optic nerve; subarachnoid space; arachnoid trabecula; cerebrospinal fluid dynamics; papilloedema
13.  Optic neuritis with marked distension of the optic nerve sheath due to local fluid congestion 
PMCID: PMC1771494  PMID: 12543769
optic neuritis; optic nerve sheath; fluid congestion
14.  Melatonin MT-1-receptor immunoreactivity in the human eye 
The British Journal of Ophthalmology  2002;86(9):1053-1057.
Aim: To examine the distribution of melatonin 1a (MT1) receptors in the human eye.
Methods: Seven normal human eyes were examined by immunohistochemical staining of paraffin sections, using an anti-MT1 primary antibody and an ABC detection system.
Results: MT1 receptor immunoreactivity (MT1-IR) was detected primarily in the inner segments of rods and cones and in retinal ganglion cells. In addition, MT1-IR was present in the adventitia of retinal arteries and veins, including the papillary region, but absent in ciliary and choroidal vessels. Mild staining of corneal endothelial cells and keratocytes was observed in all but two eyes.
Conclusion: MT1-IR is present in various ocular tissues with the highest density in photoreceptor cells and ganglion cells. The physiological function of these receptors deserves further investigation.
PMCID: PMC1771283  PMID: 12185137
melatonin receptor; retina; ganglion cell; photoreceptor; retinal vessels; cornea
15.  Ocular pulse amplitude is reduced in patients with advanced retinitis pigmentosa 
BACKGROUND/AIMS—The choroid, a low resistance vascular structure carrying 85% of the ocular blood flow, provides nourishment to and removal of potential toxic waste products from the adjacent non-vascularised outer layers of the retina, macula, and optic disc regions. Choroidal perfusion may be reduced in retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and might contribute to retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) degeneration. The aim of this study was to determine whether choroidal perfusion is reduced in RP and whether this is correlated with the stage of disease.
METHODS—Ocular pulse amplitude (OPA) evaluated with the ocular blood flow (OBF) system, applanation intraocular pressure (IOP), visual fields, blood pressure (BP), and heart rate (HR) were measured in 75 RP patients having stage RP-I (stage I: visual field size: 7.85-14.67 cm2; n = 22), stage RP-II (stage II: visual field size: 2.83-7.84 cm2; n = 29), or stage RP-III (stage III: visual field size: 0.52-2.82 cm2; n = 24) were compared with matched healthy controls and each other.
RESULTS—Neither IOP nor systemic perfusion parameters were significantly (p >0.1) altered, but OPA (mm Hg) in RP patients beginning with stage RP-II (1.6 (0.1), 27.3%, p<0.0001), and RP-III (1.2 (0.1), 45.5%, p<0.0001) was significantly reduced when compared with matched subgroups from a pool of healthy controls (2.2 (0.1), n = 94).
CONCLUSIONS—OPA can be used neither for early clinical detection of RP nor to follow the natural course of the disease. However, our data show that in advanced stages of RP not only the retina but also the choroidal circulation is affected.


doi:10.1136/bjo.85.6.678
PMCID: PMC1724009  PMID: 11371487
17.  Blood flow velocity in the extraocular vessels in chronic smokers 
AIMS—To determine blood flow velocity in the extraocular vessels in healthy, chronic smokers and to compare these blood flow velocities with those of healthy non-smokers.
METHODS—In 46 healthy chronic smokers and 189 healthy non-smokers, peak systolic velocity (PSV), end diastolic velocity (EDV), and the resistivity index (RI) were measured in the ophthalmic artery (OA), central retinal artery (CRA), lateral short posterior ciliary artery (LPCA), and medial short posterior ciliary artery (MPCA) by means of a colour Doppler device, Siemens Quantum 2000.The maximal (max) and minimal (min) velocities were measured in the central retinal vein (CRV). Only one eye was measured in each subject, and right and left eyes were chosen randomly. Blood flow velocities were compared with one way MANOVA and t tests. The influence of age, sex, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as heart rate on blood flow velocity and RI were evaluated by an analysis of covariance. The potential differences of the influence of the covariables on blood flow variables in smokers and non-smokers were tested by calculating the interactions.
RESULTS—In the majority of measured vessels blood flow velocity was higher in smokers than in non-smokers. This difference was statistically significant in the OA, CRV, and LPCA. The RI indices were equal or slightly lower in smokers. Furthermore, smokers had significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Heart rate was higher in smokers but this difference did not reach statistical significance.
CONCLUSIONS—Colour Doppler measurements may differ significantly in smokers compared with non-smokers. Therefore, smoking habits should be considered when interpreting colour Doppler imaging results, and comparing different groups of diseased or healthy subjects.


PMCID: PMC1722124  PMID: 9059247

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