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1.  Risk Stratification Among Men With Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System Version 2 Category 3 Transition Zone Lesions: Is Biopsy Always Necessary? 
AJR. American journal of roentgenology  2017;209(6):1272-1277.
OBJECTIVE
The objective of our study was to determine the clinical and MRI characteristics of clinically significant prostate cancer (PCA) (Gleason score ≥ 3 + 4) in men with Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System version 2 (PI-RADSv2) category 3 transition zone (TZ) lesions.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
From 2014 to 2016, 865 men underwent prostate MRI and MRI/ultrasound (US) fusion biopsy (FB). A subset of 90 FB-naïve men with 96 PI-RADSv2 category 3 TZ lesions was identified. Patients were imaged at 3 T using a body coil. Images were assigned a PI-RADSv2 category by an experienced radiologist. Using clinical data and imaging features, we performed univariate and multivariate analyses to identify predictors of clinically significant PCA.
RESULTS
The mean patient age was 66 years, and the mean prostate-specific antigen density (PSAD) was 0.13 ng/mL2. PCA was detected in 34 of 96 (35%) lesions, 14 of which (15%) harbored clinically significant PCA. In univariate analysis, DWI score, prostate volume, and PSAD were significant predictors (p < 0.05) of clinically significant PCA with a suggested significance for apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and prostate-specific antigen value (p < 0.10). On multivariate analysis, PSAD and lesion ADC were the most important covariates. The combination of both PSAD of 0.15 ng/mL2 or greater and an ADC value of less than 1000 mm2/s yielded an AUC of 0.91 for clinically significant PCA (p < 0.001). If FB had been restricted to these criteria, only 10 of 90 men would have undergone biopsy, resulting in diagnosis of clinically significant PCA in 60% with eight men (9%) misdiagnosed (false-negative).
CONCLUSION
The yield of FB in men with PI-RADSv2 category 3 TZ lesions for clinically significant PCA is 15% but significantly improves to 60% (AUC > 0.9) among men with PSAD of 0.15 ng/mL2 or greater and lesion ADC value of less than 1000 mm2/s.
doi:10.2214/AJR.17.18008
PMCID: PMC5732583  PMID: 28858541
MRI; prostate; Prostate Imaging and Reporting System (PI-RADS); risk stratification; transition zone
2.  Serial Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Active Surveillance of Prostate Cancer: Incremental Value 
The Journal of urology  2015;195(5):1421-1427.
Purpose
We assessed whether changes in serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging can help predict the pathological progression of prostate cancer in men on active surveillance.
Materials and Methods
A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 49 consecutive men with Gleason 6 prostate cancer who underwent multi-parametric magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and again more than 6 months later, each followed by a targeted prostate biopsy, between January 2011 and May 2015. We evaluated whether progression on multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (an increase in index lesion suspicion score, increase in index lesion volume or decrease in index lesion apparent diffusion coefficient) could predict pathological progression (Gleason 3 + 4 or greater on subsequent biopsy, in systematic or targeted cores). Diagnostic performance of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was determined with and without clinical data using a binary logistic regression model.
Results
The mean interval between baseline and followup multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was 28.3 months (range 11 to 43). Pathological progression occurred in 19 patients (39%). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging was 37%, 90%, 69% and 70%, respectively. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.63. A logistic regression model using clinical information (maximum cancer core length greater than 3 mm on baseline biopsy or a prostate specific antigen density greater than 0.15 ng/ml2 at followup biopsy) had an AUC of 0.87 for predicting pathological progression. The addition of serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging data significantly improved the AUC to 0.91 (p = 0.044).
Conclusions
Serial multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging adds incremental value to prostate specific antigen density and baseline cancer core length for predicting Gleason 6 upgrading in men on active surveillance.
doi:10.1016/j.juro.2015.11.055
PMCID: PMC4900685  PMID: 26674305
magnetic resonance imaging; prostatic neoplasms; watchful waiting
3.  Search for lepton flavour violation in the eμ continuum with the ATLAS detector in \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\sqrt{s} = 7~\mbox{TeV}$\end{document}pp collisions at the LHC 
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This paper presents a search for the t-channel exchange of an R-parity violating scalar top quark (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\tilde{t}$\end{document}) in the e±μ∓ continuum using 2.1 fb−1 of data collected by the ATLAS detector in \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\sqrt{s}=7~\mbox{TeV}$\end{document}pp collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Data are found to be consistent with the expectation from the Standard Model backgrounds. Limits on R-parity-violating couplings at 95 % C.L. are calculated as a function of the scalar top mass (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}$\end{document}). The upper limits on the production cross section for pp→eμX, through the t-channel exchange of a scalar top quark, ranges from 170 fb for \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}=95~\mbox{GeV}$\end{document} to 30 fb for \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}=1000~\mbox{GeV}$\end{document}.
doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-012-2040-z
PMCID: PMC4370899  PMID: 25814838
4.  Vbeta-dependent stimulation of bovine and human T cells by host-specific staphylococcal enterotoxins. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(10):4048-4054.
Staphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine and ovine species produce unique molecular variants of type C staphylococcal enterotoxin (SEC). The SEC animal variants have greater than 98% amino acid sequence identity with SEC1, a human-associated SEC. The two SEC animal variants have been designated SEC(bovine) and SEC(ovine) according to their corresponding host species. We showed previously that these toxins induce quantitatively different levels of T-cell stimulation in several animal species. The present study compared the abilities of these closely related host-specific SEC variants to stimulate Vbeta-bearing T cells from bovine and human donors. All three toxins expanded human T cells bearing T-cell receptor Vbeta elements (huVbeta) 3, 12, 13.2, 14, 15, 17, and 20. However, SEC1 resulted in greater expansion of hyVbeta12 than either SEC(bovine) or SEC(ovine). In addition, bovine T cells proliferate in a Vbeta-dependent manner in response to these superantigens (SAgs). All three toxins induced the proliferation of bovine T cells bearing the previously sequenced Vbeta element (boVbeta) from the bovine T-cell clone BTB13 (boVbetaBTB13). SEC1 and SEC(ovine) also were able to induce proliferation of bovine T cells bearing boVbetaBTB35, which SEC(bovine) failed to stimulate. The species-specific differences in T-cell proliferation exhibited by these closely related SEC variants may reflect the evolutionary adaptation of S. aureus, presumably to increase its host range by the manipulation of the immune system in a host-specific manner.
PMCID: PMC175582  PMID: 9317006
5.  Inhibition, Inactivation, and Recovery of Ammonia-Oxidizing Activity in Cometabolism of Trichloroethylene by Nitrosomonas europaea 
The kinetics of the cometabolism of trichloroethylene (TCE) by the ammonia-oxidizing soil bacterium Nitrosomonas europaea in short-term (<10-min) incubations were investigated. Three individual effects of TCE cometabolism on this bacterium were characterized. First, we observed that TCE is a potent competitive inhibitor of ammonia oxidation by N. europaea. The K(infi) value for TCE (30 (mu)M) is similar to the K(infm) for ammonia (40 (mu)M). Second, we examined the toxicity associated with TCE cometabolism by N. europaea. Stationary-phase cells of N. europaea oxidized approximately 60 nmol of TCE per mg of protein before ammonia-oxidizing activity was completely inactivated by reactive intermediates generated during TCE oxidation. At the TCE concentrations used in these experiments, ammonia did not provide significant protection against inactivation. Third, we have determined the ability of cells to recover ammonia-oxidizing activity after exposure to TCE. Cells recovering from TCE inactivation were compared with cells recovering from the specific inactivation of ammonia-oxidizing activity by light. The recovery kinetics were indistinguishable when 40% or less of the activity was inactivated. However, at increased levels of inactivation, TCE-inactivated cells did not recover as rapidly as light-inactivated cells. The kinetics of recovery appear to be dependent on both the extent of inactivation of ammonia-oxidizing activity and the degree of specificity of the inactivating treatment.
PMCID: PMC1388415  PMID: 16534997
6.  Toxic effects of fermented and unfermented sorghum meal diets naturally contaminated with mycotoxins. 
Male weanling rats fed diets containing fermented and unfermented tannin-free sorghum meals naturally contaminated with traces of ochratoxin A, zearalenone, and an unidentified toxic substance developed anorexia. Mean changes in body weight over a 28-day feeding period for rats fed fermented and unfermented sorghum meal and ANCR casein diets of 8% protein were -2.8, +13.8, and +100.5 g, respectively. Rats fed fermented sorghum meal developed alopecia; hematological findings showed a decreased mean corpuscular volume, hypochromic microcytosis, balanced leukopenia, and hypoproteinuria . Histological findings showed testicular hypoplasia of the germinal epithelium and no mature spermatozoa. Necrosis and mineralization in Henle's loop were also observed. No damage was apparent to the liver, cerebellum, cerebrum, spleen, or adrenal glands.
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PMCID: PMC240074  PMID: 6234860

Results 1-7 (7)