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1.  Spatiotemporal regulation of autophagy during Caenorhabditis elegans aging 
eLife  null;6:e18459.
Autophagy has been linked to longevity in many species, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Using a GFP-tagged and a new tandem-tagged Atg8/LGG-1 reporter, we quantified autophagic vesicles and performed autophagic flux assays in multiple tissues of wild-type Caenorhabditis elegans and long-lived daf-2/insulin/IGF-1 and glp-1/Notch mutants throughout adulthood. Our data are consistent with an age-related decline in autophagic activity in the intestine, body-wall muscle, pharynx, and neurons of wild-type animals. In contrast, daf-2 and glp-1 mutants displayed unique age- and tissue-specific changes in autophagic activity, indicating that the two longevity paradigms have distinct effects on autophagy during aging. Although autophagy appeared active in the intestine of both long-lived mutants, inhibition of intestinal autophagy significantly abrogated lifespan extension only in glp-1 mutants. Collectively, our data suggest that autophagic activity normally decreases with age in C. elegans, whereas daf-2 and glp-1 long-lived mutants regulate autophagy in distinct spatiotemporal-specific manners to extend lifespan.
DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18459.001
doi:10.7554/eLife.18459
PMCID: PMC5496740  PMID: 28675140
autophagy,; Atg8/LC3; tissue-specificity; aging; daf-2; glp-1; C. elegans
2.  World Congress Integrative Medicine & Health 2017: Part one 
Brinkhaus, Benno | Falkenberg, Torkel | Haramati, Aviad | Willich, Stefan N. | Briggs, Josephine P. | Willcox, Merlin | Linde, Klaus | Theorell, Töres | Wong, Lisa M. | Dusek, Jeffrey | Wu, Darong | Eisenberg, David | Haramati, Aviad | Berger, Bettina | Kemper, Kathi | Stock-Schröer, Beate | Sützl-Klein, Hedda | Ferreri, Rosaria | Kaplan, Gary | Matthes, Harald | Rotter, Gabriele | Schiff, Elad | Arnon, Zahi | Hahn, Eckhard | Luberto, Christina M. | Martin, David | Schwarz, Silke | Tauschel, Diethard | Flower, Andrew | Gramminger, Harsha | Gupta, Hedwig H. | Gupta, S. N. | Kerckhoff, Annette | Kessler, Christian S. | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian S. | Kim, Eun S. | Jang, Eun H. | Kim, Rana | Jan, Sae B. | Mittwede, Martin | Mohme, Wiebke | Ben-Arye, Eran | Bonucci, Massimo | Saad, Bashar | Breitkreuz, Thomas | Rossi, Elio | Kebudi, Rejin | Daher, Michel | Razaq, Samaher | Gafer, Nahla | Nimri, Omar | Hablas, Mohamed | Kienle, Gunver Sophia | Samuels, Noah | Silbermann, Michael | Bandelin, Lena | Lang, Anna-Lena | Wartner, Eva | Holtermann, Christoph | Binstock, Maxwell | Riebau, Robert | Mujkanovic, Edin | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Michalsen, Andres | Ward, Lesley | Cramer, Holger | Irnich, Dominik | Stör, Wolfram | Burnstock, Geoffrey | Schaible, Hans-Georg | Ots, Thomas | Langhorst, Jost | Lauche, Romy | Sundberg, Tobias | Falkenberg, Torkel | Amarell, Catherina | Amarell, Catherina | Anheyer, Melanie | Eckert, Marion | Eckert, Marion | Ogal, Mercedes | Eckert, Marion | Amarell, Catherina | Schönauer, Annette | Reisenberger, Birgit | Brand, Bernhard | Anheyer, Dennis | Dobos, Gustav | Kroez, Matthias | Martin, David | Matthes, Harald | Ammendola, Aldo | Mao, Jun J. | Witt, Claudia | Yang, Yufei | Dobos, Gustav | Oritz, Miriam | Horneber, Markus | Voiß, Petra | Reisenberger, Birgit | von Rosenstiel, Alexandra | Eckert, Marion | Ogal, Mercedes | Amarell, Catharina | Anheyer, Melanie | Schad, Friedemann | Schläppi, Marc | Kröz, Matthias | Büssing, Arndt | Bar-Sela, Gil | Matthes, Harald | Schiff, Elad | Ben-Arye, Eran | Arnon, Zahi | Avshalomov, David | Attias, Samuel | Schönauer, Annette | Haramati, Aviad | Witt, Claudia | Brinkhaus, Benno | Cotton, Sian | Jong, Miek | Jong, Mats | Scheffer, Christian | Haramati, Aviad | Tauschel, Diethard | Edelhäuser, Friedrich | AlBedah, Abdullah | Lee, Myeong Soo | Khalil, Mohamed | Ogawa, Keiko | Motoo, Yoshiharu | Arimitsu, Junsuke | Ogawa, Masao | Shimizu, Genki | Stange, Rainer | Kraft, Karin | Kuchta, Kenny | Watanabe, Kenji | Bonin, D | Büssing, Arndt | Gruber, Harald | Koch, Sabine | Gruber, Harald | Pohlmann, Urs | Caldwell, Christine | Krantz, Barbara | Kortum, Ria | Martin, Lily | Wieland, Lisa S. | Kligler, Ben | Gould-Fogerite, Susan | Zhang, Yuqing | Wieland, Lisa S. | Riva, John J. | Lumpkin, Michael | Ratner, Emily | Ping, Liu | Jian, Pei | Hamme, Gesa-Meyer | Mao, Xiaosong | Chouping, Han | Schröder, Sven | Hummelsberger, Josef | Wullinger, Michael | Brodzky, Marc | Zalpour, Christoff | Langley, Julia | Weber, Wendy | Mudd, Lanay M. | Wayne, Peter | Witt, Clauda | Weidenhammer, Wolfgang | Fønnebø, Vinjar | Boon, Heather | Steel, Amie | Bugarcic, Andrea | Rangitakatu, Melisa | Steel, Amie | Adams, Jon | Sibbritt, David | Wardle, Jon | Leach, Matthew | Schloss, Janet | Dieze, Helene | Boon, Heather | Ijaz, Nadine | Willcox, Merlin | Heinrich, Michael | Lewith, George | Flower, Andrew | Graz, Bertrand | Adam, Daniela | Grabenhenrich, Linus | Ortiz, Miriam | Binting, Sylvia | Reinhold, Thomas | Brinkhaus, Benno | Andermo, Susanne | Sundberg, Tobias | Falkenberg, Torkel | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Arman, Maria | Bhasin, Manoj | Fan, Xueyi | Libermann, Towia | Fricchione, Gregory | Denninger, John | Benson, Herbert | Berger, Bettina | Stange, Rainer | Michalsen, Andreas | Martin, David D. | Boers, Inge | Vlieger, Arine | Jong, Miek | Brinkhaus, Benno | Teut, Michael | Ullmann, Alexander | Ortiz, Miriam | Rotter, Gabriele | Binting, Sylvia | Lotz, Fabian | Roll, Stephanie | Canella, Claudia | Mikolasek, Michael | Rostock, Matthias | Beyer, Jörg | Guckenberger, Matthias | Jenewein, Josef | Linka, Esther | Six, Claudia | Stoll, Sarah | Stupp, Roger | Witt, Claudia M. | Chuang, Elisabeth | Kligler, Ben | McKee, Melissa D. | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Klose, Petra | Lange, Silke | Langhorst, Jost | Dobos, Gustav | Chung, Vincent C. H. | Wong, Hoi L. C. | Wu, Xin Y. | Wen, Grace Y. G. | Ho, Robin S. T. | Ching, Jessica Y. L. | Wu, Justin C. Y. | Coakley, Amanda | Flanagan, Jane | Annese, Christine | Empoliti, Joanne | Gao, Zishan | Liu, Xugang | Yu, Shuguang | Yan, Xianzhong | Liang, Fanrong | Hohmann, Christoph D. | Steckhan, Nico | Ostermann, Thomas | Paetow, Arion | Hoff, Evelyn | Michalsen, Andreas | Hu, Xiao-Yang | Wu, Ruo-Han | Logue, Martin | Blonde, Clara | Lai, Lily Y. | Stuart, Beth | Flower, Andrew | Fei, Yu-Tong | Moore, Michael | Liu, Jian-Ping | Lewith, George | Hu, Xiao-Yang | Wu, Ruo-Han | Logue, Martin | Blonde, Clara | Lai, Lily Y. | Stuart, Beth | Flower, Andrew | Fei, Yu-Tong | Moore, Michael | Liu, Jian-Ping | Lewith, George | Jeitler, Michael | Zillgen, Hannah | Högl, Manuel | Steckhan, Nico | Stöckigt, Barbara | Seifert, Georg | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian | Khadivzadeh, Talat | Bashtian, Maryam Hassanzadeh | Aval, Shapour Badiee | Esmaily, Habibollah | Kim, Jihye | Kim, Keun H. | Klocke, Carina | Joos, Stefanie | Koshak, Abdulrahman | Wie, Li | Koshak, Emad | Wali, Siraj | Alamoudi, Omer | Demerdash, Abdulrahman | Qutub, Majdy | Pushparaj, Peter | Heinrich, Michael | Kruse, Sigrid | Fischer, Isabell | Tremel, Nadine | Rosenecker, Joseph | Leung, Brenda | Takeda, Wendy | Liang, Ning | Feng, Xue | Liu, Jian-ping | Cao, Hui-juan | Luberto, Christina M. | Shinday, Nina | Philpotts, Lisa | Park, Elyse | Fricchione, Gregory L. | Yeh, Gloria | Munk, Niki | Zakeresfahani, Arash | Foote, Trevor R. | Ralston, Rick | Boulanger, Karen | Özbe, Dominik | Gräßel, Elmar | Luttenberger, Katharina | Pendergrass, Anna | Pach, Daniel | Bellmann-Strobl, Judit | Chang, Yinhui | Pasura, Laura | Liu, Bin | Jäger, Sven F. | Loerch, Ronny | Jin, Li | Brinkhaus, Benno | Ortiz, Miriam | Reinhold, Thomas | Roll, Stephanie | Binting, Sylvia | Icke, Katja | Shi, Xuemin | Paul, Friedemann | Witt, Claudia M. | Rütz, Michaela | Lynen, Andreas | Schömitz, Meike | Vahle, Maik | Salomon, Nir | Lang, Alon | Lahat, Adi | Kopylov, Uri | Ben-Horin, Shomron | Har-Noi, Ofir | Avidan, Benjamin | Elyakim, Rami | Gamus, Dorit | NG, Siew | Chang, Jessica | Wu, Justin | Kaimiklotis, John | Schumann, Dania | Buttó, Ludovica | Langhorst, Jost | Dobos, Gustav | Haller, Dirk | Cramer, Holger | Smith, Caroline | de Lacey, Sheryl | Chapman, Michael | Ratcliffe, Julie | Johnson, Neil | Lyttleton, Jane | Boothroyd, Clare | Fahey, Paul | Tjaden, Bram | van Vliet, Marja | van Wietmarschen, Herman | Jong, Miek | Tröger, Wilfried | Vuolanto, Pia | Aarva, Paulina | Sorsa, Minna | Helin, Kaija | Wenzel, Claudia | Zoderer, Iris | Pammer, Patricia | Simon, Patrick | Tucek, Gerhard | Wode, Kathrin | Henriksson, Roger | Sharp, Lena | Stoltenberg, Anna | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Xiao-ying, Yang | Wang, Li-qiong | Li, Jin-gen | Liang, Ning | Wang, Ying | Liu, Jian-ping | Balneaves, Lynda | Capler, Rielle | Bocci, Chiara | Guffi, Marta | Paolini, Marina | Meaglia, Ilaria | Porcu, Patrizia | Ivaldi, Giovanni B. | Dragan, Simona | Bucuras, Petru | Pah, Ana M. | Badalica-Petrescu, Marius | Buleu, Florina | Hogea-Stoichescu, Gheorghe | Christodorescu, Ruxandra | Kao, Lan | Cho, Yumin | Klafke, Nadja | Mahler, Cornelia | von Hagens, Cornelia | Uhlmann, Lorenz | Bentner, Martina | Schneeweiss, Andreas | Mueller, Andreas | Szecsenyi, Joachim | Joos, Stefanie | Neri, Isabella | Ortiz, Miriam | Schnabel, Katharina | Teut, Michael | Rotter, Gabriele | Binting, Sylvia | Cree, Margit | Lotz, Fabian | Suhr, Ralf | Brinkhaus, Benno | Rossi, Elio | Baccetti, Sonia | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Monechi, Maria V. | Di Stefano, Mariella | Amunni, Gianni | Wong, Wendy | Chen, Bingzhong | Wu, Justin | Amri, Hakima | Haramati, Aviad | Kotlyanskaya, Lucy | Anderson, Belinda | Evans, Roni | Kligler, Ben | Marantz, Paul | Bradley, Ryan | Booth-LaForce, Cathryn | Zwickey, Heather | Kligler, Benjamin | Brooks, Audrey | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Lebensohn, Patricia | Goldblatt, Elisabeth | Esmel-Esmel, Neus | Jiménez-Herrera, Maria | Ijaz, Nadine | Boon, Heather | Jocham, Alexandra | Stock-Schröer, Beate | Berberat, Pascal O. | Schneider, Antonius | Linde, Klaus | Masetti, Morgana | Murakozy, Henriette | Van Vliet, Marja | Jong, Mats | Jong, Miek | Agdal, Rita | Atarzadeh, Fatemeh | Jaladat, Amir M. | Hoseini, Leila | Amini, Fatemeh | Bai, Chen | Liu, Tiegang | Zheng, Zian | Wan, Yuxiang | Xu, Jingnan | Wang, Xuan | Yu, He | Gu, Xiaohong | Daneshfard, Babak | Nimrouzi, Majid | Tafazoli, Vahid | Alorizi, Seyed M. Emami | Saghebi, Seyed A. | Fattahi, Mohammad R. | Salehi, Alireza | Rezaeizadeh, Hossein | Zarshenas, Mohammad M. | Nimrouzi, Majid | Fox, Kealoha | Hughes, John | Kostanjsek, Nenad | Espinosa, Stéphane | Lewith, George | Fisher, Peter | Latif, Abdul | Lefeber, Donald | Paske, William | Öztürk, Ali Ö. | Öztürk, Gizemnur | Boers, Inge | Tissing, Wim | Naafs, Marianne | Busch, Martine | Jong, Miek | Daneshfard, Babak | Sanaye, Mohammad R. | Dräger, Kilian | Fisher, Peter | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Evans, Roni | Leininger, Brent | Shafto, Kate | Breen, Jenny | Sanaye, Mohammad R. | Daneshfard, Babak | Simões-Wüst, Ana P. | Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina | van Dongen, Martien | Dagnelie, Pieter | Thijs, Carel | White, Shelley | Wiesener, Solveig | Salamonsen, Anita | Stub, Trine | Fønnebø, Vinjar | Abanades, Sergio | Blanco, Mar | Masllorens, Laia | Sala, Roser | Al-Ahnoumy, Shafekah | Han, Dongwoon | He, Luzhu | Kim, Ha Yun | In Choi, Da | Alræk, Terje | Stub, Trine | Kristoffersen, Agnete | von Sceidt, Christel | Michalsen, Andreas | Bruset, Stig | Musial, Frauke | Anheyer, Dennis | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Saha, Felix J. | Dobos, Gustav | Anheyer, Dennis | Haller, Heidemarie | Lauche, Romy | Dobos, Gustav | Cramer, Holger | Azizi, Hoda | Khadem, Nayereh | Hassanzadeh, Malihe | Estiri, Nazanin | Azizi, Hamideh | Tavassoli, Fatemeh | Lotfalizadeh, Marzieh | Zabihi, Reza | Esmaily, Habibollah | Azizi, Hoda | Shabestari, Mahmoud Mohammadzadeh | Paeizi, Reza | Azari, Masoumeh Alvandi | Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza | Zabihi, Reza | Azizi, Hamideh | Esmaily, Habibollah | Baars, Erik | De Bruin, Anja | Ponstein, Anne | Baccetti, Sonia | Di Stefano, Mariella | Rossi, Elio | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Segantini, Sergio | Monechi, Maria Valeria | Voller, Fabio | Barth, Jürgen | Kern, Alexandra | Lüthi, Sebastian | Witt, Claudia | Barth, Jürgen | Zieger, Anja | Otto, Fabius | Witt, Claudia | Beccia, Ariel | Dunlap, Corina | Courneene, Brendan | Bedregal, Paula | Passi, Alvaro | Rodríguez, Alfredo | Chang, Mayling | Gutiérrez, Soledad | Beissner, Florian | Beissner, Florian | Preibisch, Christine | Schweizer-Arau, Annemarie | Popovici, Roxana | Meissner, Karin | Beljanski, Sylvie | Belland, Laura | Rivera-Reyes, Laura | Hwang, Ula | Berger, Bettina | Sethe, Dominik | Hilgard, Dörte | Heusser, Peter | Bishop, Felicity | Al-Abbadey, Miznah | Bradbury, Katherine | Carnes, Dawn | Dimitrov, Borislav | Fawkes, Carol | Foster, Jo | MacPherson, Hugh | Roberts, Lisa | Yardley, Lucy | Lewith, George | Bishop, Felicity | Al-Abbadey, Miznah | Bradbury, Katherine | Carnes, Dawn | Dimitrov, Borislav | Fawkes, Carol | Foster, Jo | MacPherson, Hugh | Roberts, Lisa | Yardley, Lucy | Lewith, George | Bishop, Felicity | Holmes, Michelle | Lewith, George | Yardley, Lucy | Little, Paul | Cooper, Cyrus | Bogani, Patrizia | Maggini, Valentina | Gallo, Eugenia | Miceli, Elisangela | Biffi, Sauro | Mengoni, Alessio | Fani, Renato | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Brands-Guendling, Nadine | Guendling, Peter W. | Bronfort, Gert | Evans, Roni | Haas, Mitch | Leininger, Brent | Schulz, Craig | Bu, Xiangwei | Wang, J. | Fang, T. | Shen, Z. | He, Y. | Zhang, X. | Zhang, Zhengju | Wang, Dali | Meng, Fengxian | Büssing, Arndt | Baumann, Klaus | Frick, Eckhard | Jacobs, Christoph | Büssing, Arndt | Grünther, Ralph-Achim | Lötzke, Désirée | Büssing, Arndt | Jung, Sonny | Lötzke, Désirée | Recchia, Daniela R. | Robens, Sibylle | Ostermann, Thomas | Berger, Bettina | Stankewitz, Josephin | Kröz, Matthias | Jeitler, Mika | Kessler, Christian | Michalsen, Andreas | Cheon, Chunhoo | Jang, Bo H. | Ko, Seong G. | Huang, Ching W. | Sasaki, Yui | Ko, Youme | Cheshire, Anna | Ridge, Damien | Hughes, John | Peters, David | Panagioti, Maria | Simon, Chantal | Lewith, George | Cho, Hyun J. | Han, Dongwoon | Choi, Soo J. | Jung, Young S. | Im, Hyea B | Cooley, Kieran | Tummon-Simmons, Laura | Cotton, Sian | Luberto, Christina M. | Wasson, Rachel | Kraemer, Kristen | Sears, Richard | Hueber, Carly | Derk, Gwendolyn | Lill, JR | An, Ruopeng | Steinberg, Lois | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | la Fuente, Francisca García-de | De la Vega, Miguel | Vargas-Román, Keyla | Fernández-Ruiz, Jonatan | Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | García-De la Fuente, Francisca | Jiménez-Guerrero, Fanny | Vargas-Román, Keyla | Fernández-Ruiz, Jonatan | Galiano-Castillo, Noelia | Diaz-Saez, Gualberto | Torres-Jimenez, José I. | Garcia-Gomez, Olga | Hortal-Muñoz, Luis | Diaz-Diez, Camino | Dicen, Demijon | Diezel, Helene | Adams, Jon | Steel, Amie | Wardle, Jon | Diezel, Helene | Steel, Amie | Frawley, Jane | Wardle, Jon | Broom, Alex | Adams, Jon | Dong, Fei | Yu, He | Liu, Tiegang | Ma, Xueyan | Yan, Liyi | Wan, Yuxiang | Zheng, Zian | Gu, Xiaohong | Dong, Fei | Yu, He | Wu, Liqun | Liu, Tiegang | Ma, Xueyan | Ma, Jiaju | Yan, Liyi | Wan, Yuxiang | Zheng, Zian | Zhen, Jianhua | Gu, Xiaohong | Dubois, Julie | Rodondi, Pierre-Yves | Edelhäuser, Friedrich | Schwartze, Sophia | Trapp, Barbara | Cysarz, Dirk
doi:10.1186/s12906-017-1782-4
PMCID: PMC5498855
3.  An ELISA protocol to improve the accuracy and reliability of serological antibody assays 
MethodsX  2017;4:153-165.
Graphical abstract
To assay serum antibodies by indirect ELISA, it is critical to eliminate a variety of false positive and negative reactions attributed to the principle. These include 1) the background (BG) noise reaction caused by hydrophobic binding of immunoglobulin components in sample specimens to solid surfaces, 2) false positive reaction caused by non-specific binding of immunoglobulins to target-antigens by protein-protein interactions, and 3) other false positive and negative reactions caused by buffer components. No current blocking agents can prevent these false positive and negative reactions, and antibody assay results vary significantly depending on the buffer system used. To address these fundamental problems, we investigated all types of non-specific reactions involved in indirect ELISAs, and the blocking efficacy of current buffer systems and a newly developed ELISA buffer, ChonBlock™. The accuracy and reliability of these assay results were examined in detail by inhibition tests in individual buffer systems. Based on these studies, we are providing a definitive ELISA protocol for all users to improve ELISA technique and obtain accurate, reliable, and reproducible assay data against a variety of antigens.
doi:10.1016/j.mex.2017.03.002
PMCID: PMC5387895
ELISA, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; BL, blank; BG, background; OD, optical density; NGS, normal goat serum; RA, rheumatoid arthritis; NL, normal; CCP, cyclic citrullinated peptide; LPS, lipopolysaccharide; ELISA; Antibody Assay; ChonBlock™; False positive reaction; Human serum; Non-specific reaction; Rheumatoid arthritis; Serum immunoglobulin
4.  Development of a comprehensive genotype-to-fitness map of adaptation-driving mutations in yeast 
Cell  2016;166(6):1585-1596.e22.
Summary
Adaptive evolution plays a large role in generating the phenotypic diversity observed in nature, yet current methods are impractical for characterizing the molecular basis and fitness effects of large numbers of individual adaptive mutations. Here we used a DNA barcoding approach to generate the genotype-to-fitness map for adaptation-driving mutations from a Saccharomyces cerevisiae population experimentally evolved by serial transfer under limiting glucose. We isolated and measured the fitness of thousands of independent adaptive clones, and sequenced the genomes of hundreds of clones. We found only two major classes of adaptive mutations: self-diploidization, and mutations in the nutrient-responsive Ras/PKA and TOR/Sch9 pathways. Our large sample size and precision of measurement allowed us to determine that there are significant differences in fitness between mutations in different genes, between different paralogs, and even between different classes of mutations within the same gene.
doi:10.1016/j.cell.2016.08.002
PMCID: PMC5070919  PMID: 27594428
5.  Restoration of Nrf2 Signaling Normalizes the Regenerative Niche 
Diabetes  2015;65(3):633-646.
Chronic hyperglycemia impairs intracellular redox homeostasis and contributes to impaired diabetic tissue regeneration. The Keap1/Nrf2 pathway is a critical regulator of the endogenous antioxidant response system, and its dysfunction has been implicated in numerous pathologies. Here we characterize the effect of chronic hyperglycemia on Nrf2 signaling within a diabetic cutaneous regeneration model. We characterized the effects of chronic hyperglycemia on the Keap1/Nrf2 pathway within models of diabetic cutaneous wound regeneration. We assessed reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and antioxidant gene expression following alterations in the Nrf2 suppressor Keap1 and the subsequent changes in Nrf2 signaling. We also developed a topical small interfering RNA (siRNA)–based therapy to restore redox homeostasis within diabetic wounds. Western blotting demonstrated that chronic hyperglycemia–associated oxidative stress inhibits nuclear translocation of Nrf2 and impairs activation of antioxidant genes, thus contributing to ROS accumulation. Keap1 inhibition increased Nrf2 nuclear translocation, increased antioxidant gene expression, and reduced ROS production to normoglycemic levels, both in vitro and in vivo. Topical siKeap1 therapy resulted in improved regenerative capacity of diabetic wounds and accelerated closure. We report that chronic hyperglycemia weakens the endogenous antioxidant response, and the consequences of this defect are manifested by intracellular redox dysregulation, which can be restored by Keap1 inhibition. Targeted siRNA-based therapy represents a novel, efficacious strategy to reestablish redox homeostasis and accelerate diabetic cutaneous tissue regeneration.
doi:10.2337/db15-0453
PMCID: PMC5314719  PMID: 26647385
6.  Hormetic heat stress and HSF-1 induce autophagy to improve survival and proteostasis in C. elegans 
Nature Communications  2017;8:14337.
Stress-response pathways have evolved to maintain cellular homeostasis and to ensure the survival of organisms under changing environmental conditions. Whereas severe stress is detrimental, mild stress can be beneficial for health and survival, known as hormesis. Although the universally conserved heat-shock response regulated by transcription factor HSF-1 has been implicated as an effector mechanism, the role and possible interplay with other cellular processes, such as autophagy, remains poorly understood. Here we show that autophagy is induced in multiple tissues of Caenorhabditis elegans following hormetic heat stress or HSF-1 overexpression. Autophagy-related genes are required for the thermoresistance and longevity of animals exposed to hormetic heat shock or HSF-1 overexpression. Hormetic heat shock also reduces the progressive accumulation of PolyQ aggregates in an autophagy-dependent manner. These findings demonstrate that autophagy contributes to stress resistance and hormesis, and reveal a requirement for autophagy in HSF-1-regulated functions in the heat-shock response, proteostasis and ageing.
Mild heat stress has beneficial effects on organismal health and survival. Here, Kumsta et al. show that a mild heat shock and HSF-1 overexpression induce autophagy in multiple tissues of C. elegans and autophagy-related genes are essential for both heat shock-induced and HSF-1–mediated stress resistance and longevity.
doi:10.1038/ncomms14337
PMCID: PMC5316864  PMID: 28198373
7.  Zebrafish cerebrospinal fluid mediates cell survival through a retinoid signaling pathway 
Developmental neurobiology  2015;76(1):75-92.
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) includes conserved factors whose function is largely unexplored. To assess the role of CSF during embryonic development, CSF was repeatedly drained from embryonic zebrafish brain ventricles soon after their inflation. Removal of CSF increased cell death in the diencephalon, indicating a survival function. Factors within the CSF are required for neuroepithelial cell survival as injected mouse CSF but not artificial CSF could prevent cell death after CSF depletion. Mass spectrometry analysis of the CSF identified retinol binding protein 4 (Rbp4), which transports retinol, the precursor to retinoic acid (RA). Consistent with a role for Rbp4 in cell survival, inhibition of Rbp4 or RA synthesis increased neuroepithelial cell death. Conversely, ventricle injection of exogenous human RBP4 plus retinol, or RA alone prevented cell death after CSF depletion. Zebrafish rbp4 is highly expressed in the yolk syncytial layer, suggesting Rbp4 protein and retinol/RA precursors can be transported into the CSF from the yolk. In accord with this suggestion, injection of human RBP4 protein into the yolk prevents neuroepithelial cell death in rbp4 loss-of-function embryos. Together, these data support the model that Rbp4 and RA precursors are present within the CSF and used for synthesis of RA, which promotes embryonic neuroepithelial survival.
doi:10.1002/dneu.22300
PMCID: PMC4644717  PMID: 25980532
cerebrospinal fluid; retinoic acid; cell survival; brain development; RBP4
9.  Zebrafish cerebrospinal fluid mediates cell survival through a retinoid signaling pathway 
Developmental Neurobiology  2015;76(1):75-92.
ABSTRACT
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) includes conserved factors whose function is largely unexplored. To assess the role of CSF during embryonic development, CSF was repeatedly drained from embryonic zebrafish brain ventricles soon after their inflation. Removal of CSF increased cell death in the diencephalon, indicating a survival function. Factors within the CSF are required for neuroepithelial cell survival as injected mouse CSF but not artificial CSF could prevent cell death after CSF depletion. Mass spectrometry analysis of the CSF identified retinol binding protein 4 (Rbp4), which transports retinol, the precursor to retinoic acid (RA). Consistent with a role for Rbp4 in cell survival, inhibition of Rbp4 or RA synthesis increased neuroepithelial cell death. Conversely, ventricle injection of exogenous human RBP4 plus retinol, or RA alone prevented cell death after CSF depletion. Zebrafish rbp4 is highly expressed in the yolk syncytial layer, suggesting Rbp4 protein and retinol/RA precursors can be transported into the CSF from the yolk. In accord with this suggestion, injection of human RBP4 protein into the yolk prevents neuroepithelial cell death in rbp4 loss‐of‐function embryos. Together, these data support the model that Rbp4 and RA precursors are present within the CSF and used for synthesis of RA, which promotes embryonic neuroepithelial survival. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 76: 75–92, 2016
doi:10.1002/dneu.22300
PMCID: PMC4644717  PMID: 25980532
cerebrospinal fluid; retinoic acid; cell survival; brain development; RBP4
11.  Molecular patterns in human ulcerative colitis and correlation with response to infliximab 
Inflammatory bowel diseases  2014;20(12):2353-2363.
Objective
As a T cell-mediated disease of the colonic epithelium, ulcerative colitis (UC) is likely to share pathogenic elements with other T cell-mediated inflammatory diseases. Recently microarray analysis revealed large scale molecular changes in T cell-mediated rejection (TCMR) of kidney and heart transplants. We hypothesized that similar disturbances might be operating in UC and could provide insights into responsiveness to therapy.
Methods
We studied 56 colon biopsies from patients with colitis characterizing the clinical and histological features and using microarrays to defined the mRNA phenotype. We expressed the microarray results using previously defined pathogenesis-based transcript sets (PBTs). We also studied 48 published microarray files from human colon biopsies downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, classified by response to infliximab therapy, to examine if the molecular measurements derived from our studies correlated with non-responsiveness to treatment.
Results
UC biopsies manifested coordinate transcript changes resembling rejecting transplants, with effector T cell, IFNG-induced, macrophage, and injury transcripts increasing while parenchymal transcripts decreased. The disturbance in gene expression, summarized as principal component 1 (PC1), correlated with conventional clinical and histologic assessments. When assessed in microarray results from published studies, the disturbance (PC1) predicted response to infliximab: patients with intense disturbance did not achieve clinical response, although quantitative improvement was seen even in many clinical non-responders. Similar changes were seen in Crohn's colitis.
Conclusions
The molecular phenotype of UC manifests a large scale coordinate disturbance reflecting changes in inflammatory cells and parenchymal elements that correlates with conventional features and predicts response to infliximab.
doi:10.1097/MIB.0000000000000239
PMCID: PMC4985265  PMID: 25397893
T cell-mediated rejection; ulcerative colitis; microarrays; infliximab; dedifferentiation
12.  Intestinal Autophagy Improves Healthspan and Longevity in C. elegans during Dietary Restriction 
PLoS Genetics  2016;12(7):e1006135.
Dietary restriction (DR) is a dietary regimen that extends lifespan in many organisms. One mechanism contributing to the conserved effect of DR on longevity is the cellular recycling process autophagy, which is induced in response to nutrient scarcity and increases sequestration of cytosolic material into double-membrane autophagosomes for degradation in the lysosome. Although autophagy plays a direct role in DR-mediated lifespan extension in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, the contribution of autophagy in individual tissues remains unclear. In this study, we show a critical role for autophagy in the intestine, a major metabolic tissue, to ensure lifespan extension of dietary-restricted eat-2 mutants. The intestine of eat-2 mutants has an enlarged lysosomal compartment and flux assays indicate increased turnover of autophagosomes, consistent with an induction of autophagy in this tissue. This increase in intestinal autophagy may underlie the improved intestinal integrity we observe in eat-2 mutants, since whole-body and intestinal-specific inhibition of autophagy in eat-2 mutants greatly impairs the intestinal barrier function. Interestingly, intestinal-specific inhibition of autophagy in eat-2 mutants leads to a decrease in motility with age, alluding to a potential cell non-autonomous role for autophagy in the intestine. Collectively, these results highlight important functions for autophagy in the intestine of dietary-restricted C. elegans.
Author Summary
Dietary restriction (DR) without inducing malnutrition has robust beneficial effects on lifespan in many species, including humans. The cellular recycling process of autophagy contributes to DR-mediated longevity. Autophagy is triggered by nutrient scarcity and increases the degradation of cytosolic molecules and organelles in the lysosomes. Using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism, we previously showed that genes involved in autophagy are required for lifespan extension through DR; however, it is not clear whether autophagy in individual tissues plays critical roles in DR-mediated longevity. Here, we investigated the contribution of autophagy in genetically dietary-restricted eat-2 mutants. Our major findings include: (i) Inhibition of autophagy in the intestine prevents the long lifespan observed in eat-2 mutants; (ii) the intestine of eat-2 mutants contains an expanded lysosomal compartment and flux assays indicate increased autophagosome turnover, consistent with elevated autophagy in this tissue; (iii) intestinal autophagy is required for the improved intestinal integrity observed in eat-2 mutants; (iv) autophagy inhibition impairs motility in older animals; and (v) inhibition of autophagy in the intestine accelerates the motility decline in eat-2 mutants. Collectively, these studies suggest a critical role for intestinal autophagy in dietary-restricted animals, and highlight the importance of this process in maintaining fitness and longevity.
doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1006135
PMCID: PMC4945006  PMID: 27414651
13.  Directional cerebrospinal fluid movement between brain ventricles in larval zebrafish 
Background
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contained within the brain ventricles contacts neuroepithelial progenitor cells during brain development. Dynamic properties of CSF movement may limit locally produced factors to specific regions of the developing brain. However, there is no study of in vivo CSF dynamics between ventricles in the embryonic brain. We address CSF movement using the zebrafish larva, during the major period of developmental neurogenesis.
Methods
CSF movement was monitored at two stages of zebrafish development: early larva [pharyngula stage; 27–30 h post-fertilization (hpf)] and late larva (hatching period; 51–54 hpf) using photoactivatable Kaede protein to calculate average maximum CSF velocity between ventricles. Potential roles for heartbeat in early CSF movement were investigated using tnnt2a mutant fish (tnnt2a−/−) and chemical [2,3 butanedione monoxime (BDM)] treatment. Cilia motility was monitored at these stages using the Tg(βact:Arl13b–GFP) transgenic fish line.
Results
In wild-type early larva there is net CSF movement from the telencephalon to the combined diencephalic/mesencephalic superventricle. This movement directionality reverses at late larval stage. CSF moves directionally from diencephalic to rhombencephalic ventricles at both stages examined, with minimal movement from rhombencephalon to diencephalon. Directional movement is partially dependent on heartbeat, as indicated in assays of tnnt2a−/− fish and after BDM treatment. Brain cilia are immotile at the early larval stage.
Conclusion
These data demonstrate directional movement of the embryonic CSF in the zebrafish model during the major period of developmental neurogenesis. A key conclusion is that CSF moves preferentially from the diencephalic into the rhombencephalic ventricle. In addition, the direction of CSF movement between telencephalic and diencephalic ventricles reverses between the early and late larval stages. CSF movement is partially dependent on heartbeat. At early larval stage, the absence of motile cilia indicates that cilia likely do not direct CSF movement. These data suggest that CSF components may be compartmentalized and could contribute to specialization of the early brain. In addition, CSF movement may also provide directional mechanical signaling.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12987-016-0036-z) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12987-016-0036-z
PMCID: PMC4915066  PMID: 27329482
Cerebrospinal fluid; Brain ventricular system; Fluid dynamics; Zebrafish
14.  Circulating Progenitor Cells in Regenerative Technologies: A Realistic Strategy in Bone Regeneration? 
Strategies in skeletal regeneration research have been primarily focused on optimization of three components: cellular progenitors, biomaterials, and growth factors. With the increased understanding that circulating progenitor cells exist in peripheral blood, the question arises whether such cell types would allow for adequate osteogenesis and mineralization. In this review, we discuss the current literature on circulating progenitor cells in in vitro and in vivo studies on bone regeneration.
PMCID: PMC4908453  PMID: 27331195
Cellular progenitors; Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs); Osteogenesis
15.  C. elegans S6K Mutants Require a Creatine Kinase-Like Effector for Lifespan Extension 
Cell reports  2016;14(9):2059-2067.
Deficiency of S6 kinase (S6K) extends the lifespan of multiple species, but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. To discover potential effectors of S6K-mediated longevity, we performed a proteomics analysis of long-lived rsks-1/S6K C. elegans mutants compared to wild-type animals. We identified the arginine kinase ARGK-1 as the most significantly enriched protein in rsks-1/S6K mutants. ARGK-1 is an ortholog of mammalian creatine kinase, which maintains cellular ATP levels. We found that argk-1 is a selective effector of rsks-1/S6K-mediated longevity, and overexpression of ARGK-1 extends C. elegans lifespan, in part by activating the energy sensor AAK-2/AMPK. argk-1 is also required for the reduced body size and increased stress resistance observed in rsks-1/S6K mutants. Finally, creatine kinase levels are increased in the brains of S6K1 knockout mice. Our study identifies ARGK-1 as a longevity effector in C. elegans with reduced RSKS-1/S6K levels.
doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2016.02.012
PMCID: PMC4823261  PMID: 26923601
16.  Transcriptome dynamics of the stomatal lineage: birth, amplification and termination of a self-renewing population 
Developmental cell  2015;33(1):107-118.
Summary
Developmental transitions can be described in terms of morphology and the roles of individual genes, but also in terms of global transcriptional and epigenetic changes. Temporal dissections of transcriptome changes, however, are rare for intact, developing tissues. We used RNA sequencing and microarray platforms to quantify gene expression from labeled cells isolated by Fluorescence Activated Cell Sorting to generate cell-type specific transcriptomes during development of an adult stem-cell lineage in the Arabidopsis leaf. We show regulatory modules in this early lineage link cell types that had previously been considered to be under separate control and provide evidence for recruitment of individual members of gene families for different developmental decisions. Because stomata are physiologically important and because stomatal lineage cells exhibit exemplary division, cell fate and cell signaling behaviors, this dataset serves as a valuable resource for further investigations of fundamental developmental processes.
doi:10.1016/j.devcel.2015.01.025
PMCID: PMC4390738  PMID: 25850675
17.  Relationships among injury, fibrosis, and time in human kidney transplants 
JCI Insight  null;1(1):e85323.
BACKGROUND. Kidney transplant biopsies offer an opportunity to understand the pathogenesis of organ fibrosis. We studied the relationships between the time of biopsy after transplant (TxBx), histologic fibrosis, diseases, and transcript expression.
METHODS. Expression microarrays from 681 kidney transplant indication biopsies taken either early (n = 282, <1 year) or late (n = 399, >1 year) after transplant were used to analyze the molecular landscape of fibrosis in relationship to histologic fibrosis and diseases.
RESULTS. Fibrosis was absent at transplantation but was present in some early biopsies by 4 months after transplant, apparently as a self-limited response to donation implantation injury not associated with progression to failure. The molecular phenotype of early biopsies represented the time sequence of the response to wounding: immediate expression of acute kidney injury transcripts, followed by fibrillar collagen transcripts after several weeks, then by the appearance of immunoglobulin and mast cell transcripts after several months as fibrosis appeared. Fibrosis in late biopsies correlated with injury, fibrillar collagen, immunoglobulin, and mast cell transcripts, but these were independent of time. Pathway analysis revealed epithelial response-to-wounding pathways such as Wnt/β-catenin.
CONCLUSION. Fibrosis in late biopsies had different associations because many kidneys had potentially progressive diseases and subsequently failed. Molecular correlations with fibrosis in late biopsies were independent of time, probably because ongoing injury obscured the response-to-wounding time sequence. The results indicate that fibrosis in kidney transplants is driven by nephron injury and that progression to failure reflects continuing injury, not autonomous fibrogenesis.
TRIAL REGISTRATION. INTERCOM study (www.clinicalTrials.gov; NCT01299168).
FUNDING. Canada Foundation for Innovation and Genome Canada.
Transcriptome analysis of human kidney transplant biopsies suggests that fibrosis reflects an adaptive response to injury.
doi:10.1172/jci.insight.85323
PMCID: PMC5033890  PMID: 27699214
18.  Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy 
Indirect traumatic optic neuropathy (ITON) refers to optic nerve injury resulting from impact remote to the optic nerve. The mechanism of injury is not understood, and there are no confirmed protocols for prevention, mitigation or treatment. Most data concerning this condition comes from case series of civilian patients suffering blunt injury, such as from sports- or motor vehicle-related concussion, rather than military-related ballistic or blast damage. Research in this field will likely require the development of robust databases to identify patients with ITON and follow related outcomes, in addition to both in-vivo animal and virtual human models to study the mechanisms of damage and potential therapies.
doi:10.1186/s40779-016-0069-2
PMCID: PMC4709956  PMID: 26759722
Indirect trauma; Optic nerve; Blunt; Blast; Neuropathy; Biomechanics; Virtual model
19.  Guidelines for monitoring autophagy in Caenorhabditis elegans 
Autophagy  2015;11(1):9-27.
The cellular recycling process of autophagy has been extensively characterized with standard assays in yeast and mammalian cell lines. In multicellular organisms, numerous external and internal factors differentially affect autophagy activity in specific cell types throughout the stages of organismal ontogeny, adding complexity to the analysis of autophagy in these metazoans. Here we summarize currently available assays for monitoring the autophagic process in the nematode C. elegans. A combination of measuring levels of the lipidated Atg8 ortholog LGG-1, degradation of well-characterized autophagic substrates such as germline P granule components and the SQSTM1/p62 ortholog SQST-1, expression of autophagic genes and electron microscopy analysis of autophagic structures are presently the most informative, yet steady-state, approaches available to assess autophagy levels in C. elegans. We also review how altered autophagy activity affects a variety of biological processes in C. elegans such as L1 survival under starvation conditions, dauer formation, aging, and cell death, as well as neuronal cell specification. Taken together, C. elegans is emerging as a powerful model organism to monitor autophagy while evaluating important physiological roles for autophagy in key developmental events as well as during adulthood.
doi:10.1080/15548627.2014.1003478
PMCID: PMC4502811  PMID: 25569839
autophagy; C. elegans; development; LC3; SQSTM1; ASEL, ASE left; ASER, ASE right; ATG, autophagy-related; epg, ectopic PGL granules; ER, endoplasmic reticulum; GFP, green fluorescent protein; lgg-1, LC3, GABARAP and GATE-16 family; MO, membranous organelle; PGL, P-granule abnormality; RER, rough endoplasmic reticulum; SQST, SeQueSTosome related protein; TEM, transmission electron microscopy
20.  Phosphorylation of LC3 by the Hippo kinases STK3/STK4 is essential for autophagy 
Molecular cell  2014;57(1):55-68.
The protein LC3 is indispensible for the cellular recycling process of autophagy and plays critical roles during cargo recruitment, autophagosome biogenesis, and completion. Here, we report that LC3 is phosphorylated at threonine 50 (Thr50) by the mammalian sterile-20 kinases STK3 and STK4. Loss of phosphorylation at this site blocks autophagy by impairing fusion of autophagosomes with lysosomes, and compromises the ability of cells to clear intra-cellular bacteria, an established cargo for autophagy. Strikingly, mutation of LC3 mimicking constitutive phosphorylation at Thr50 reverses the autophagy block in STK3/4-deficient cells and restores their capacity to clear bacteria. Loss of STK3/4 impairs autophagy in diverse species, indicating that these kinases are conserved autophagy regulators. We conclude that phosphorylation of LC3 by STK3/4 is an essential step in the autophagy process. Since several pathological conditions, including bacterial infections, display aberrant autophagy, we propose that pharmacological agents targeting this novel regulatory circuit hold therapeutic potential.
doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2014.11.019
PMCID: PMC4373083  PMID: 25544559
Ste20 kinases; Mst1/2; Hippo kinase; autophagic flux; MAP1LC3; group A streptococcus
21.  Direct roles of SPEECHLESS in the specification of stomatal self-renewing cells 
Science (New York, N.Y.)  2014;345(6204):1605-1609.
Lineage-specific stem cells are critical for the production and maintenance of specific cell types and tissues in multicellular organisms. In Arabidopsis, the initiation and proliferation of stomatal lineage cells is controlled by the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor SPEECHLESS (SPCH). SPCH-driven asymmetric and self-renewing divisions allow flexibility in stomatal production and overall organ growth. How SPCH directs stomatal lineage cell behaviors, however, is unclear. Here, we improved the chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay and profiled the genome-wide targets of Arabidopsis SPCH in vivo. We found that SPCH controls key regulators of cell fate and asymmetric cell divisions and modulates responsiveness to peptide and phytohormone-mediated intercellular communication. Our results delineate the molecular pathways that regulate an essential adult stem cell lineage in plants.
doi:10.1126/science.1256888
PMCID: PMC4390554  PMID: 25190717
22.  Intracranial pressure and skull remodeling 
Saudi Journal of Ophthalmology  2014;29(1):57-62.
In this article we review bony changes resulting from alterations in intracranial pressure (ICP) and the implications for ophthalmologists and the patients for whom we care. Before addressing ophthalmic implications, we will begin with a brief overview of bone remodeling. Bony changes seen with chronic intracranial hypotension and hypertension will be discussed. The primary objective of this review was to bring attention to bony changes seen with chronic intracranial hypotension. Intracranial hypotension skull remodeling can result in enophthalmos. In advanced disease enophthalmos develops to a degree that is truly disfiguring. The most common finding for which subjects are referred is ocular surface disease, related to loss of contact between the eyelids and the cornea. Other abnormalities seen include abnormal ocular motility and optic atrophy. Recognition of such changes is important to allow for diagnosis and treatment prior to advanced clinical deterioration. Routine radiographic assessment of bony changes may allow for the identification of patient with abnormal ICP prior to the development of clinically significant disease.
doi:10.1016/j.sjopt.2014.12.003
PMCID: PMC4314569  PMID: 25859141
Intracranial pressure; Hypotension; Hypertension; Bony changes
23.  Effects of Intraduodenal Glutamine on Incretin Hormone and Insulin Release, the Glycemic Response to an Intraduodenal Glucose Infusion, and Antropyloroduodenal Motility in Health and Type 2 Diabetes 
Diabetes Care  2013;36(8):2262-2265.
OBJECTIVE
Glutamine reduces postprandial glycemia when given before oral glucose. We evaluated whether this is mediated by stimulation of insulin and/or slowing of gastric emptying.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS
Ten healthy subjects were studied during intraduodenal (ID) infusion of glutamine (7.5 or 15 g) or saline over 30 min, followed by glucose (75 g over 100 min), while recording antropyloroduodenal pressures. Ten patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were also studied with 15 g glutamine or saline.
RESULTS
ID glutamine stimulated glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1; healthy: P < 0.05; T2DM: P < 0.05), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP; P = 0.098; P < 0.05), glucagon (P < 0.01; P < 0.001), insulin (P = 0.05; P < 0.01), and phasic pyloric pressures (P < 0.05; P < 0.05), but did not lower blood glucose (P = 0.077; P = 0.5).
CONCLUSIONS
Glutamine does not lower glycemia after ID glucose, despite stimulating GLP-1, GIP, and insulin, probably due to increased glucagon. Its capacity for pyloric stimulation suggests that delayed gastric emptying is a major mechanism for lowering glycemia when glutamine is given before oral glucose.
doi:10.2337/dc12-1663
PMCID: PMC3714522  PMID: 23564914
25.  The TFEB orthologue HLH-30 regulates autophagy and modulates longevity in Caenorhabditis elegans 
Nature communications  2013;4:10.1038/ncomms3267.
Autophagy is a cellular recycling process that has an important anti-aging role, but the underlying molecular mechanism is not well understood. The mammalian TFEB was recently shown to regulate multiple genes in the autophagy process. Here we show that the predicted TFEB orthologue HLH-30 regulates autophagy in Caenorhabditis elegans and, in addition, has a key role in lifespan determination. We demonstrate that hlh-30 is essential for the extended lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans in six mechanistically distinct longevity models, and overexpression of HLH-30 extends lifespan. Nuclear localization of HLH-30 is increased in all six Caenorhabditis elegans models and, notably, nuclear TFEB levels are augmented in the livers of mice subjected to dietary restriction, a known longevity-extending regimen. Collectively, our results demonstrate a conserved role for HLH-30 and TFEB in autophagy, and possibly longevity, and identify HLH-30 as a uniquely important transcription factor for lifespan modulation in Caenorhabditis elegans.
doi:10.1038/ncomms3267
PMCID: PMC3866206  PMID: 23925298

Results 1-25 (33)