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author:("camara, A.")
1.  The Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Us11 Protein Inhibits Autophagy through Its Interaction with the Protein Kinase PKR 
Journal of Virology  2013;87(2):859-871.
Autophagy is now known to be an essential component of host innate and adaptive immunity. Several herpesviruses have developed various strategies to evade this antiviral host defense. Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) blocks autophagy in fibroblasts and in neurons, and the ICP34.5 protein is important for the resistance of HSV-1 to autophagy because of its interaction with the autophagy machinery protein Beclin 1. ICP34.5 also counteracts the shutoff of protein synthesis mediated by the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-dependent protein kinase PKR by inhibiting phosphorylation of the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) in the PKR/eIF2α signaling pathway. Us11 is a late gene product of HSV-1, which is also able to preclude the host shutoff by direct inhibition of PKR. In the present study, we unveil a previously uncharacterized function of Us11 by demonstrating its antiautophagic activity. We show that the expression of Us11 is able to block autophagy and autophagosome formation in both HeLa cells and fibroblasts. Furthermore, immediate-early expression of Us11 by an ICP34.5 deletion mutant virus is sufficient to render the cells resistant to PKR-induced and virus-induced autophagy. PKR expression and the PKR binding domain of Us11 are required for the antiautophagic activity of Us11. However, unlike ICP34.5, Us11 did not interact with Beclin 1. We suggest that the inhibition of autophagy observed in cells infected with HSV-1 results from the activity of not only ICP34.5 on Beclin 1 but also Us11 by direct interaction with PKR.
doi:10.1128/JVI.01158-12
PMCID: PMC3554085  PMID: 23115300
2.  Search for lepton flavour violation in the eμ continuum with the ATLAS detector in \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\sqrt{s} = 7~\mbox{TeV}$\end{document}pp collisions at the LHC 
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This paper presents a search for the t-channel exchange of an R-parity violating scalar top quark (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\tilde{t}$\end{document}) in the e±μ∓ continuum using 2.1 fb−1 of data collected by the ATLAS detector in \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\sqrt{s}=7~\mbox{TeV}$\end{document}pp collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Data are found to be consistent with the expectation from the Standard Model backgrounds. Limits on R-parity-violating couplings at 95 % C.L. are calculated as a function of the scalar top mass (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}$\end{document}). The upper limits on the production cross section for pp→eμX, through the t-channel exchange of a scalar top quark, ranges from 170 fb for \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}=95~\mbox{GeV}$\end{document} to 30 fb for \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}=1000~\mbox{GeV}$\end{document}.
doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-012-2040-z
PMCID: PMC4370899  PMID: 25814838
3.  Zipper-Like Internalization of Dr-Positive Escherichia coli by Epithelial Cells Is Preceded by an Adhesin-Induced Mobilization of Raft-Associated Molecules in the Initial Step of Adhesion  
Infection and Immunity  2004;72(7):3733-3742.
We undertook a study of the mechanism by which Dr-positive bacteria invade epithelial cells. Our findings show that Dr-positive bacteria enter via a zipper-like mechanism that is independent of the Dr-induced mobilization of F-actin and of the signaling molecules that control Dr-induced F-actin rearrangements. We also observed that Dr-positive IH11128 bacteria entered cells that were positive for the caveola marker VIP21/caveolin (HeLa and Caco-2/Cav-1 cells) to the same extent as those that were not (parental Caco-2 cells). Using fluorescence labeling and confocal laser scanning microscopy, we provide evidence that during the adhesion step, the α5β1 integrin, which plays a pivotal role in Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli bacterial entry, is mobilized around adhering Dr-positive bacteria. We show that the receptor for Afa/Dr adhesins, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored CD55; the raft marker, ganglioside GM1; and VIP21/caveolin are all recruited around adhering Dr-positive bacteria. We also observed that extracting membrane cholesterol with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MBCD) did not affect the recruitment of CD55, GM1, or β1 integrin to adhering Dr-positive bacteria. In contrast, extracting or changing membrane-bound cholesterol by means of drugs that modify lipid rafts (MBCD, filipin III, or mevalonate plus lovastatin plus MBCD) inhibited the entry of Dr-positive IH11128 both into cells that expressed VIP21/caveolin (HeLa and Caco-2/Cav-1 cells) and into those that did not (parental Caco-2 cells). Finally, restoring cholesterol within the cell membrane of MBCD-treated cells restored Dr-positive IH11128 internalization.
doi:10.1128/IAI.72.7.3733-3742.2004
PMCID: PMC427432  PMID: 15213113
4.  The Afa/Dr Adhesins of Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli Stimulate Interleukin-8 Secretion, Activate Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases, and Promote Polymorphonuclear Transepithelial Migration in T84 Polarized Epithelial Cells  
Infection and Immunity  2003;71(3):1068-1074.
Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) strains cause symptomatic urinary tract and intestinal infections. The proinflammatory effects of Afa/Dr DAEC strains in vitro have been not investigated to date. In the present study, we used confluent polarized monolayers of intestinal cell line T84 to evaluate the consequences of epithelial infection by Afa/Dr DAEC strains in terms of proinflammatory response. Polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMNL) migration across the epithelial barrier was induced after incubation of the T84 monolayers with the wild-type Afa/Dr DAEC strain C1845 harboring the fimbrial F1845 adhesin and strain IH11128 harboring the Dr hemagglutinin, and the E. coli laboratory strain HB101 was transformed with the pSSS1 plasmid, producing Afa/Dr F1845 adhesin. PMNL migrations were correlated with a basolateral secretion of interleukin-8 by T84 cells and were abolished after incubation of epithelial cells with an anti-decay accelerating factor (DAF) antibody that recognized the short consensus repeat 3 domain of DAF (monoclonal antibody 1H4). Moreover, Afa/Dr DAEC strains induced tyrosine phosphorylation of several T84 proteins and activated the mitogen-activated protein kinases (ERK1/2 mitogen-activated protein, P38, and Jun-C kinases). These data demonstrated for the first time that, in vitro, Afa/Dr DAEC strains exert a proinflammatory signal in intestinal epithelial cells.
doi:10.1128/IAI.71.3.1068-1074.2003
PMCID: PMC148852  PMID: 12595416
5.  Representational Difference Analysis between Afa/Dr Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli and Nonpathogenic E. coli K-12  
Infection and Immunity  2002;70(10):5503-5511.
Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strains harboring Afa/Dr adhesins (Afa/Dr DAEC) have been associated with diarrhea and urinary tract infections (UTIs). The present work is the first extensive molecular study of a Afa/Dr DAEC strain using the representational difference analysis technique. We have searched for DNA sequences present in strain C1845, recovered from a diarrheagenic child, but absent from a nonpathogenic K-12 strain. Strain C1845 harbors part of a pathogenicity island (PAICFT073) and several iron transport systems found in other E. coli pathovars. We did not find genes encoding factors known to subvert host cell proteins, such as type III secretion system or effector proteins. Several C1845-specific sequences are homologous to putative virulence genes or show no homology with known sequences, and we have analyzed their distribution among Afa/Dr and non-Afa/Dr clinical isolates and among strains from the E. coli Reference Collection. Three C1845-specific sequences (MO30, S109, and S111) have a high prevalence (77 to 80%) among Afa/Dr strains and a low prevalence (12 to 23%) among non-Afa/Dr strains. In addition, our results indicate that strain IH11128, an Afa/Dr DAEC strain recovered from a patient with a UTI, is genetically closely related to strain C1845.
doi:10.1128/IAI.70.10.5503-5511.2002
PMCID: PMC128352  PMID: 12228276
6.  Polarized Entry of Uropathogenic Afa/Dr Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli Strain IH11128 into Human Epithelial Cells: Evidence for α5β1 Integrin Recognition and Subsequent Internalization through a Pathway Involving Caveolae and Dynamic Unstable Microtubules 
Infection and Immunity  2001;69(3):1856-1868.
Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strain IH11128 bacteria basolaterally entered polarized epithelial cells by a CD55- and CD66e-independent mechanism through interaction with the α5β1 integrin and a pathway involving caveolae and dynamic microtubules (MTs). IH11128 invasion within HeLa cells was dramatically decreased after the cells were treated with the cholesterol-extracting drug methyl-β-cyclodextrin or the caveola-disrupting drug filipin. Disassembly of the dynamically unstable MT network by the compound 201-F resulted in a total abolition of IH11128 entry. In apically infected polarized fully differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells, no IH11128 entry was observed. The entry of bacteria into apically IH11128-infected fully differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells was greatly enhanced by treating cells with Ca2+-free medium supplemented with EGTA, a procedure that disrupts intercellular junctions and thus exposes the basolateral surface to bacteria. Basally infected fully differentiated polarized Caco-2/TC7 cells grown on inverted inserts mounted in chamber culture showed a highly significant level of intracellular IH11128 bacteria compared with cells subjected to the apical route of infection. No expression of CD55 and CD66e, the receptors for the Afa/Dr adhesins, was found at the basolateral domains of these cells. Consistent with the hypothesis that a cell-to-cell adhesion molecule acts as a receptor for polarized IH11128 entry, an antibody blockade using anti-α5β1 integrin polyclonal antibody completely abolished bacterial entry. Experiments conducted with the laboratory strain E. coli K-12 EC901 carrying the recombinant plasmid pBJN406, which expresses Dr hemagglutinin, demonstrated that the dra operon is involved in polarized entry of IH11128 bacteria. Examined as a function of cell differentiation, the number of internalized bacteria decreased dramatically beyond cell confluency. Surviving intracellular IH11128 bacteria residing intracellularly had no effect on the functional differentiation of Caco-2/TC7 cells.
doi:10.1128/IAI.69.3.1856-1868.2001
PMCID: PMC98093  PMID: 11179364
7.  Pyelonephritogenic Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli EC7372 Harboring Dr-II Adhesin Carries Classical Uropathogenic Virulence Genes and Promotes Cell Lysis and Apoptosis in Polarized Epithelial Caco-2/TC7 Cells 
Infection and Immunity  2000;68(12):7018-7027.
Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains expressing adhesins of the Afa/Dr family bind to epithelial cells in a diffuse adherence pattern by recognizing a common receptor, the decay-accelerating factor (CD55). Recently, a novel CD55-binding adhesin, named Dr-II, was identified from the pyelonephritogenic strain EC7372. In this report, we show that despite the low level of sequence identity between Dr-II and other members of the Afa/Dr family, EC7372 induces pathophysiological effects similar to those induced by other Afa/Dr DAEC strains on the polarized epithelial cell line Caco-2/TC7. Specifically, the Dr-II adhesin was sufficient to promote CD55 and CD66e clustering around adhering bacteria and apical cytoskeleton rearrangements. Unlike other Afa/Dr DAEC strains, EC7372 expresses a functional hemolysin that promotes a rapid cellular lysis. In addition, cell death by apoptosis or necrosis was observed in EC7372-infected Caco-2/TC7 cells, depending on infection time. Our results indicate that EC7372 harbors a pathogenicity island (PAI) similar to the one described for the pyelonephritogenic strain CFT073, which carries both hly and pap operons. Cumulatively, our findings indicate that strain EC7372 can be considered a prototype of a subclass of Afa/Dr DAEC isolates that have acquired a PAI harboring several classical uropathogenic virulence genes.
PMCID: PMC97812  PMID: 11083827
8.  Structural and Functional Lesions in Brush Border of Human Polarized Intestinal Caco-2/TC7 Cells Infected by Members of the Afa/Dr Diffusely Adhering Family of Escherichia coli 
Infection and Immunity  2000;68(10):5979-5990.
Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) strains expressing F1845 fimbrial adhesin or Dr hemagglutinin belonging to the Afa/Dr family of adhesins infect cultured polarized human intestinal cells through recognition of the brush border-associated decay-accelerating factor (DAF; CD55) as a receptor. The wild-type Afa/Dr DAEC strain C1845 has been shown to induce brush border lesions by an adhesin-dependent mechanism triggering apical F-actin rearrangements. In the present study, we undertook to further characterize cell injuries following the interaction of wild-type Afa/Dr DAEC strains C1845 and IH11128 expressing fimbrial F1845 adhesin and Dr hemagglutinin, respectively, with polarized, fully differentiated Caco-2/TC7 cells. In both cases, bacterium-cell interaction was followed by rearrangement of the major brush border-associated cytoskeletal proteins F-actin, villin, and fimbrin, proteins which play a pivotal role in brush border assembly. In contrast, distribution of G-actin, actin-depolymerizing factor, and tubulin was not modified. Using draE mutants, we found that a mutant in which cysteine replaces aspartic acid at position 54 conserved binding capacity but failed to induce F-actin disassembly. Accompanying the cytoskeleton injuries, we found that the distribution of brush border-associated functional proteins sucrase-isomaltase (SI), dipeptidylpeptidase IV (DPPIV), glucose transporter SGLT1, and fructose transporter GLUT5 was dramatically altered. In parallel, SI and DPPIV enzyme activity decreased.
PMCID: PMC101562  PMID: 10992510
9.  Recruitment of CD55 and CD66e Brush Border-Associated Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Proteins by Members of the Afa/Dr Diffusely Adhering Family of Escherichia coli That Infect the Human Polarized Intestinal Caco-2/TC7 Cells 
Infection and Immunity  2000;68(6):3554-3563.
The Afa/Dr family of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC) includes bacteria expressing afimbrial adhesins (AFA), Dr hemagglutinin, and fimbrial F1845 adhesin. We show that infection of human intestinal Caco-2/TC7 cells by the Afa/Dr DAEC strains C1845 and IH11128 is followed by clustering of CD55 around adhering bacteria. Mapping of CD55 epitopes involved in CD55 clustering by Afa/Dr DAEC was conducted using CD55 deletion mutants expressed by stable transfection in CHO cells. Deletion in the short consensus repeat 1 (SCR1) domain abolished Afa/Dr DAEC-induced CD55 clustering. In contrast, deletion in the SCR4 domain does not modify Afa/Dr DAEC-induced CD55 clustering. We show that the brush border-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein CD66e (carcinoembryonic antigen) is recruited by the Afa/Dr DAEC strains C1845 and IH11128. This conclusion is based on the observations that (i) infection of Caco-2/TC7 cells by Afa/Dr DAEC strains is followed by clustering of CD66e around adhering bacteria and (ii) Afa/Dr DAEC strains bound efficiently to stably transfected HeLa cells expressing CD66e, accompanied by CD66e clustering around adhering bacteria. Inhibition assay using monoclonal antibodies directed against CD55 SCR domains, and polyclonal anti-CD55 and anti-CD66e antibodies demonstrate that CD55 and CD66e function as a receptors for the C1845 and IH11128 bacteria. Moreover, using structural draE gene mutants, we found that a mutant in which cysteine replaced aspartic acid at position 54 displayed conserved binding capacity but failed to induce CD55 and CD66e clustering. Taken together, these data give new insights into the mechanisms by which Afa/Dr DAEC induces adhesin-dependent cross talk in the human polarized intestinal epithelial cells by mobilizing brush border-associated GPI-anchored proteins known to function as transducing molecules.
PMCID: PMC97642  PMID: 10816511
10.  Afa/Dr Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli C1845 Infection Promotes Selective Injuries in the Junctional Domain of Polarized Human Intestinal Caco-2/TC7 Cells 
Infection and Immunity  2000;68(6):3431-3442.
The Afa/Dr diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) C1845 strain harboring the F1845 fimbrial adhesin interacts with the brush border-associated CD55 molecule and promotes elongation of brush border microvilli resulting from rearrangement of the F-actin network. This phenomenon involves the activation of a cascade of signaling coupled to the glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored receptor of the F1845 adhesin. We provide evidence that infection of the polarized human intestinal cell line Caco-2/TC7 by strain C1845 is followed by an increase in the paracellular permeability for [3H]mannitol without a decrease of the transepithelial resistance of the monolayers. Alterations in the distribution of tight-junction (TJ)-associated occludin and ZO-1 protein are observed, whereas the distribution of the zonula adherens-associated E-cadherin is not affected. Using the recombinant E. coli strains HB101(pSSS1) and -(pSSS1C) expressing the F1845 fimbrial adhesin, we demonstrate that the adhesin-CD55 interaction is not sufficient for the induction of structural and functional TJ lesions. Moreover, using the actin filament-stabilizing agent Jasplakinolide, we demonstrate that the C1845-induced functional alterations in TJs are independent of the C1845-induced apical cytoskeleton rearrangements. The results indicated that pathogenic factor(s) other than F1845 adhesin may be operant in Afa/Dr DAEC C1845.
PMCID: PMC97619  PMID: 10816495
11.  Piracy of Decay-Accelerating Factor (CD55) Signal Transduction by the Diffusely Adhering Strain Escherichia coli C1845 Promotes Cytoskeletal F-Actin Rearrangements in Cultured Human Intestinal INT407 Cells 
Infection and Immunity  1998;66(9):4036-4042.
Diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (DAEC) C1845 (clinical isolate) harboring the fimbrial adhesin F1845 can infect cultured human differentiated intestinal epithelial cells; this process is followed by the disassembly of the actin network in the apical domain. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanism by which DAEC C1845 promotes F-actin rearrangements. For this purpose, we used a human embryonic intestinal cell line (INT407) expressing the membrane-associated glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) protein-anchored decay-accelerating factor (DAF), the receptor of the F1845 adhesin. We show here that infection of INT407 cells by DAEC C1845 can provoke dramatic F-actin rearrangements without cell entry. Clustering of phosphotyrosines was observed, revealing that the DAEC C1845-DAF interaction involves the recruitment of signal transduction molecules. A pharmacological approach with a subset of inhibitors of signal transduction molecules was used to identify the cascade of signal transduction molecules that are coupled to the DAF, that are activated upon infection, and that promote the F-actin rearrangements. DAEC C1845-induced F-actin rearrangements can be blocked dose dependently by protein tyrosine kinase, phospholipase Cγ, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, protein kinase C, and Ca2+ inhibitors. F-actin rearrangements and blocking by inhibitors were observed after infection of the cells with two E. coli recombinants carrying the plasmids containing the fimbrial adhesin F1845 or the fimbrial hemagglutinin Dr, belonging to the same family of adhesins. These findings show that the DAEC Dr family of pathogens promotes alterations in the intestinal cell cytoskeleton by piracy of the DAF-GPI signal cascade without bacterial cell entry.
PMCID: PMC108482  PMID: 9712744
12.  The human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LA1 secretes a nonbacteriocin antibacterial substance(s) active in vitro and in vivo. 
The adhering human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LA1 inhibits the cell association and cell invasion of enteropathogens in cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cells (M. F. Bernet, D. Brassard, J. R. Neeser, and A. L. Servin, Gut 35:483-489, 1994). Here, we demonstrate that strain LA1 developed its antibacterial activity in conventional or germ-free mouse models orally infected by Salmonella typhimurium. We present evidence that the spent culture supernatant of strain LA1 (LA1-SCS) contained antibacterial components active against S. typhimurium infecting the cultured human intestinal Caco-2 cells. The LA1-SCS antibacterial activity was observed in vitro against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens, such as Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, S. typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter cloacae. By contrast, no activity was observed against species of the normal gut flora, such as lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The LA1-SCS antibacterial activity was insensitive to proteases and independent of lactic acid production.
PMCID: PMC168570  PMID: 9212421
13.  Antibacterial effect of the adhering human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB. 
The spent culture supernatant of the human Lactobacillus acidophilus strain LB produces an antibacterial activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive pathogens. It decreased the in vitro viability of Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella flexneri, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter spp. In contrast, it did not inhibit lactobacilli and bifidobacteria. The activity was heat stable and relatively sensitive to enzymatic treatments and developed under acidic conditions. The antimicrobial activity was independent of lactic acid production. Activity against S. typhimurium SL1344 infecting human cultured intestinal Caco-2 cells was observed as it was in the conventional C3H/He/oujco mouse model with S. typhimurium C5 infection and oral treatment with the LB spent culture supernatant.
PMCID: PMC163848  PMID: 9145867
14.  Glucose up-regulates expression of the differentiation-associated brush border binding site for enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli colonization factor antigen I in cultured human enterocyte-like cells. 
Infection and Immunity  1997;65(4):1299-1306.
The association of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli expressing colonization factor antigen I (CFA/I) with the cultured human colon adenocarcinoma cell, a model of the mature enterocyte of the small intestine, is dependent on the binding of CFA/I to a brush border-associated component. Binding of the purified radiolabeled [125I]CFA/I- and 14C-labeled CFA/I-positive bacteria could be displaced by an increasing concentration of unlabeled CFA/I. Moreover, we showed that expression of the specific CFA/I binding developed as a function of cell differentiation in Caco-2 cells, whereas expression of the nonspecific binding did not. Expression of the brush border differentiation-associated component acting as a binding site for CFA/I was up-regulated by glucose. Indeed, the enterocyte-like HT-29 glc- cell subpopulation not expressing the CFA/I binding site when cultured in dialyzed serum and hexose-free medium regained the ability to bind CFA/I when the cells were returned to culture medium containing glucose. Furthermore, expression of the brush border-associated CFA/I binding site in the enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells was repressed when the cells were cultured in hexose-free conditions.
PMCID: PMC175131  PMID: 9119465
15.  Antagonistic activity exerted in vitro and in vivo by Lactobacillus casei (strain GG) against Salmonella typhimurium C5 infection. 
The aim of this study was to compare the antagonistic properties of Lactobacillus casei GG exerted in vitro against Salmonella typhimurium C5 in a cellular model, cultured enterocyte-like Caco-2 cells, to those exerted in vivo in an animal model, C3H/He/Oujco mice. Our results show that a 1-h contact between the invading strain C5 and either the culture or the supernatant of L. casei GG impeded the invasion by the Salmonella strain in Caco-2 cells, without modifying the viability of the strain. After neutralization at pH 7, no inhibition of the invasion by C5 was observed. The antagonistic activity of L. casei GG was examined in C3H/He/Oujco mice orally infected with C5 as follows: (i) L. casei GG was given daily to conventional animals as a probiotic, and (ii) it was given once to germ-free animals in order to study the effect of the population of L. casei GG established in the different segments of the gut. In vivo experiments show that after a single challenge with C5, this strain survives and persists at a higher level in the feces of the untreated conventional mice than in those of the treated group. In L. casei GG germ-free mice, establishment of L. casei GG in the gut significantly delayed the occurrence of 100% mortality of the animals (15 days after C5 challenge versus 9 days in germ-free mice [P < 0.01]). Cecal colonization level and translocation rate of C5 to the mesenteric lymph nodes, spleen, and liver were significantly reduced during the first 2 days post-C5 challenge, although the L. casei GG population level in the gut dramatically decreased in these animals.
PMCID: PMC168342  PMID: 9023930
16.  Pathogenicity of the diffusely adhering strain Escherichia coli C1845: F1845 adhesin-decay accelerating factor interaction, brush border microvillus injury, and actin disassembly in cultured human intestinal epithelial cells. 
Infection and Immunity  1996;64(6):1918-1928.
The diffusely adhering Escherichia coli strain C1845 harboring the fimbrial F1845 adhesin can infect cultured human intestinal epithelial cells. The mechanism by which E. coli C1845 induces diarrheal illness remains unknown. This study investigated the injuries of cultured human intestinal cells promoted by E. coli C1845. Membrane-associated decay accelerating factor was identified as the intestinal receptor for the F1845 fimbrial adhesin of the E. coli C1845 strain by using purified F1845 adhesin, antibody directed against the F1845 adhesin, and monoclonal antibodies directed against the decay accelerating factor. Using monolayers of Caco-2 cells apically infected with E. coli C1845 and examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, we observed that strain C1845 induced injury to microvilli (MV) characterized by elongation and nucleation of the MV. We observed that infection of T84 and Caco-2 cells by E. coli C1845 was followed by disassembly of the actin network in the apical and basal cell domains. MV injury was differentiation related: E. coli C1845 promoted MV injury only when the cells were fully differentiated. The disassembly of the actin network occurred in poorly differentiated and fully differentiated Caco-2 cells but not in undifferentiated cells. Moreover, apical actin disassembly was observed in fully differentiated Caco-2 cells infected with the laboratory strain E. coli HB101(pSSS1) expressing the F1845 adhesin. In conclusion, E. coli C1845 promotes MV lesion in human epithelial intestinal cells, resulting from disassembly of the actin network.
PMCID: PMC174017  PMID: 8675288
17.  Differential expression of complement proteins and regulatory decay accelerating factor in relation to differentiation of cultured human colon adenocarcinoma cell lines. 
Gut  1996;38(2):248-253.
Self protection of host cells against inadvertent injury resulting from attack by autologous complement proteins is well reported for vascular epithelium. In intestinal epithelium, the expression of C complement proteins and regulatory proteins remains currently poorly reported. This study looked at the distribution of C complement proteins and regulatory decay accelerating factor (DAF) in four cultured human intestinal cell lines of embryogenic or colon cancer origins. C3 and C4 proteins and DAF were widely present in human colon adenocarcinoma T84, HT-29 glc-/+ cells compared with human embryonic INT407 cells. In contrast, no expression of C5, C5b-9, and CR1 was seen for any of the cell lines. Taking advantage of the Caco-2 cells, which spontaneously differentiate in culture, it was seen that the C3, C4, and DAF were present in undifferentiated cells and that their expression increased as a function of the cell differentiation. These results, taken together with other reports on the presence of C complement proteins and DAF in the intestinal cells infer that the expression of regulatory C complement proteins develops in parallel with the expression of C proteins to protect these cells against the potential injury resulting from the activation of these local C proteins. Moreover, the finding that the pathogenic C1845 Escherichia coli binds to the membrane bound DAF in the cultured human intestinal cells synthetising locally C proteins and regulatory C proteins supports the hypothesis that E coli could promote inflammatory disorders by blocking local regulatory protein function.
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PMCID: PMC1383032  PMID: 8801206

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