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1.  Impact of neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio on periprocedural myocardial infarction in patients undergoing non-urgent percutaneous coronary revascularisation 
Netherlands Heart Journal  2016;24(7-8):462-474.
Background
Pro-thrombotic conditions importantly influence myocardial perfusion and procedural results after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) has emerged as a predictor of cardiovascular events and of long-term prognosis, especially in ST-elevation myocardial infarction patients undergoing primary PCI. The aim of our study was to evaluate the role of NLR on periprocedural myocardial infarction (MI) in patients undergoing non-urgent PCI.
Methods
In a consecutive cohort of 1542 patients undergoing PCI, myonecrosis biomarkers were determined at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours post-procedure. Patients were divided into quintiles according to NLR values. Periprocedural myonecrosis was defined as a troponin I increase of 3 times the upper limit of normal or as 50 % of an elevated baseline value, whereas periprocedural MI was defined as a CK-MB increase of 3 times the upper limit of normal or 50 % of baseline.
Results
Higher NLR was related to age, established risk factors and cardiovascular history. NLR was associated with severe coronary artery disease (p = 0.009), tighter stenosis (p < 0.001), coronary calcifications (p = 0.005), intracoronary thrombus or thrombectomy use (p < 0.001), TIMI flow pre- and post-PCI (p < 0.001), and inversely to restenosis (p = 0.04) and use of a drug-eluting stent (p = 0.001). NLR did not influence the occurrence of myonecrosis (p = 0.75; adjusted OR (95 % CI) = 0.99 (0.63–1.54), p = 0.96), but was associated with a higher occurrence of periprocedural MI, even after correction for baseline differences (p = 0.03; adjusted OR (95 % CI) = 1.33 (1.02–2.3), p = 0.02), with NLR ≥ 3 best predicting the risk of periprocedural MI at the receiver operating characteristic curve analysis.
Conclusion
In patients undergoing non-urgent PCI, a higher NLR increases the risk of periprocedural MI, especially for values ≥ 3.
doi:10.1007/s12471-016-0850-6
PMCID: PMC4943889  PMID: 27277659
Neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio; White blood cells; PCI; Periprocedural myocardial infarction
2.  Search for lepton flavour violation in the eμ continuum with the ATLAS detector in \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\sqrt{s} = 7~\mbox{TeV}$\end{document}pp collisions at the LHC 
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This paper presents a search for the t-channel exchange of an R-parity violating scalar top quark (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\tilde{t}$\end{document}) in the e±μ∓ continuum using 2.1 fb−1 of data collected by the ATLAS detector in \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$\sqrt{s}=7~\mbox{TeV}$\end{document}pp collisions at the Large Hadron Collider. Data are found to be consistent with the expectation from the Standard Model backgrounds. Limits on R-parity-violating couplings at 95 % C.L. are calculated as a function of the scalar top mass (\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}$\end{document}). The upper limits on the production cross section for pp→eμX, through the t-channel exchange of a scalar top quark, ranges from 170 fb for \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}=95~\mbox{GeV}$\end{document} to 30 fb for \documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$m_{\tilde{t}}=1000~\mbox{GeV}$\end{document}.
doi:10.1140/epjc/s10052-012-2040-z
PMCID: PMC4370899  PMID: 25814838
3.  Antiphospholipid antibodies associated with alcoholic liver disease specifically recognise oxidised phospholipids 
Gut  2001;49(6):852-859.
BACKGROUND—Circulating antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) are often detected in patients with alcoholic liver disease (ALD) but little is known about the causes of their formation.
AIMS—We have evaluated whether ethanol mediated oxidative injury might promote the development of aPL in ALD.
PATIENTS AND METHODS—IgG against β2 glycoprotein 1 (β2-GP1), cardiolipin, and human serum albumin (HSA) complexed with either oxidised arachidonic acid (HSA-APP) or malondialdehyde (HSA-MDA) were assayed by ELISA in heavy drinkers with or without ALD and in healthy subjects.
RESULTS—Circulating IgG recognising cardiolipin were significantly higher in ALD patients than in controls. However, anticardiolipin reactivity of ALD sera was only evident using, as the antigen, oxidised cardiolipin but not oxidation protected cardiolipin. In ALD patients, individual values of IgG antioxidised cardiolipin were associated with the titres of antibodies against HSA-MDA and HSA-APP (r=0.68 and 0.72, respectively; p<0.0001) used as markers of oxidative stress. ALD patients also displayed increased levels of antibodies against phospholipid binding protein β2-GP1, and individual reactivity towards oxidised cardiolipin and β2-GP1 were highly correlated (r=0.85; p<0.0001). IgG binding to oxidised cardiolipin, HSA-MDA, and HSA-APP was also significantly higher in β2-GP1 positive than in β2-GP1 negative sera. However, preadsorption of β2-GP1 positive sera on β2-GP1 coated ELISA plates reduced reactivity to oxidised cardiolipin by 80%, without affecting that to HSA-APP or HSA-MDA.
CONCLUSIONS—Ethanol induced oxidative injury is associated with the development of antibodies targeting complexes between oxidised cardiolipin and β2-GP1. These antibodies might account for high aPL titres observed in patients with severe ALD.


Keywords: oxidative stress; lipid peroxidation; β2 glycoprotein 1; ethanol; autoantibodies
doi:10.1136/gut.49.6.852
PMCID: PMC1728559  PMID: 11709522
4.  Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 targets CYP2D6 on hepatocyte plasma membrane 
Gut  2000;46(4):553-561.
BACKGROUND—Liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1 (LKM1) is the marker of type 2 autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and is detected in up to 6% of patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. It recognises linear and conformational epitopes of cytochrome P450IID6 (CYP2D6) and may have liver damaging activity, provided that CYP2D6 is accessible to effector mechanisms of autoimmune attack.
METHODS—The presence of LKM1 in the plasma membrane was investigated by indirect immunofluorescence and confocal laser microscopy of isolated rat hepatocytes probed with 10 LKM1 positive sera (five from patients with AIH and five from patients with chronic HCV infection) and a rabbit polyclonal anti-CYP2D6 serum.
RESULTS—Serum from both types of patient stained the plasma membrane of non-permeabilised cells, where the fluorescent signal could be visualised as discrete clumps. Conversely, permeabilised hepatocytes showed diffuse submembranous/cytoplasmic staining. Adsorption with recombinant CYP2D6 substantially reduced plasma membrane staining and LKM1 immunoblot reactivity. Plasma membrane staining of LKM1 colocalised with that of anti-CYP2D6. Immunoprecipitation experiments showed that a single 50 kDa protein recognised by anti-CYP2D6 can be isolated from the plasma membrane of intact hepatocytes.
CONCLUSIONS—AIH and HCV related LKM1 recognise CYP2D6 exposed on the plasma membrane of isolated hepatocytes. This observation supports the notion that anti-CYP2D6 autoreactivity may be involved in the pathogenesis of liver damage.


Keywords: liver/kidney microsomal antibody type 1; autoimmunity; autoimmune hepatitis; hepatitis C virus infection; confocal microscopy
doi:10.1136/gut.46.4.553
PMCID: PMC1727874  PMID: 10716687
5.  Reduction of oxidative stress does not affect recovery of myocardial function: warm continuous versus cold intermittent blood cardioplegia. 
Heart  1997;77(5):465-473.
OBJECTIVE: To compare oxidative stress after cardiac surgery in patients treated with two different methods of myocardial protection: warm continuous versus cold intermittent blood cardioplegia. To correlate oxidative stress with postoperative myocardial dysfunction. DESIGN: Prospective, randomised, double blind, trial. SETTING: Institutional centre of cardiovascular surgery. PATIENTS: 20 patients were selected for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG) on the following basis: stable angina, ejection fraction > 50%, double or triple vessel disease, no previous CABG or associated disease. Patients were randomised to two groups of 10 patients each. INTERVENTIONS: Patients underwent CABG with one of two different methods of myocardial protection and cardiopulmonary bypass. CBC group: intermittent cold blood antegrade-retrograde cardioplegia with moderate hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass; WBC group: continuous warm blood antegrade-retrograde cardioplegia with mild hypothermic cardiopulmonary bypass. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: The index of oxidative stress used was the alteration of whole blood and plasma glutathione redox status. Samples were collected from the coronary sinus and peripheral vein before anaesthesia (T1), before aortic unclamping (T2), 15 minutes (T3), and 30 minutes (T4) after unclamping. Haemodynamic parameters were measured with thermodilution techniques. RESULTS: Oxidised glutathione and glutathione-cysteine mixed disulphide significantly increased in the coronary sinus plasma in the CBC group, and the overall redox balance of glutathione was decreased (P < 0.01) at T2-T4 versus T1, and compared with the WBC group. Comparable results were obtained for coronary sinus blood. There was no correlation between postoperative haemodynamic measurements and oxidative stress markers. CONCLUSIONS: Oxidative stress was significant in patients undergoing CABG using cold blood cardioplegia, while the warm technique minimised the effects of ischaemia. However, oxidative stress was not correlated with myocardial dysfunction following CABG.
PMCID: PMC484771  PMID: 9196419
6.  HNE interacts directly with JNK isoforms in human hepatic stellate cells. 
Journal of Clinical Investigation  1998;102(11):1942-1950.
4-Hydroxy-2,3-nonenal (HNE) is an aldehydic end product of lipid peroxidation which has been detected in vivo in clinical and experimental conditions of chronic liver damage. HNE has been shown to stimulate procollagen type I gene expression and synthesis in human hepatic stellate cells (hHSC) which are known to play a key role in liver fibrosis. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying HNE actions in cultured hHSC. HNE, at doses compatible with those detected in vivo, lead to an early generation of nuclear HNE-protein adducts of 46, 54, and 66 kD, respectively, as revealed by using a monoclonal antibody specific for HNE-histidine adducts. This observation is related to the lack of crucial HNE-metabolizing enzymatic activities in hHSC. Kinetics of appearance of these nuclear adducts suggested translocation of cytosolic proteins. The p46 and p54 isoforms of c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNKs) were identified as HNE targets and were activated by this aldehyde. A biphasic increase in AP-1 DNA binding activity, associated with increased mRNA levels of c-jun, was also observed in response to HNE. HNE did not affect the Ras/ERK pathway, c-fos expression, DNA synthesis, or NF-kappaB binding. This study identifies a novel mechanism linking oxidative stress to nuclear signaling in hHSC. This mechanism is not based on redox sensors and is stimulated by concentrations of HNE compatible with those detected in vivo, and thus may be relevant during chronic liver diseases.
PMCID: PMC509146  PMID: 9835619

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