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PubMed Central Canada to be taken offline in February 2018

On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  World Congress Integrative Medicine & Health 2017: part two 
Ee, Carolyn | Thuraisingam, Sharmala | Pirotta, Marie | French, Simon | Xue, Charlie | Teede, Helena | Kristoffersen, Agnete E. | Sirois, Fuschia | Stub, Trine | Engler, Jennifer | Joos, Stefanie | Güthlin, Corina | Felenda, Jennifer | Beckmann, Christiane | Stintzing, Florian | Evans, Roni | Bronfort, Gert | Keefe, Daniel | Taberko, Anna | Hanson, Linda | Haley, Alex | Ma, Haiwei | Jolton, Joseph | Yarosh, Lana | Keefe, Francis | Nam, Jung | Evans, Roni | Ojala, Liwanag | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Hanson, Linda | Fink, Careen | Kraft, Karin | Flower, Andrew | Lewith, George | Harman, Kim | Stuart, Beth | Bishop, Felicity L. | Frawley, Jane | Füleki, Lilla | Kiss, Eva | Vancsik, Tamas | Krenacs, Tibor | Funabashi, Martha | Pohlman, Katherine A. | Mior, Silvano | Thiel, Haymo | Hill, Michael D. | Cassidy, David J. | Westaway, Michael | Yager, Jerome | Hurwitz, Eric | Kawchuk, Gregory N. | O’Beirne, Maeve | Vohra, Sunita | Gaboury, Isabelle | Morin, Chantal | Gaertner, Katharina | Torchetti, Loredana | Frei-Erb, Martin | Kundi, Michael | Frass, Michael | Gallo, Eugenia | Maggini, Valentina | Comite, Mattia | Sofi, Francesco | Baccetti, Sonia | Vannacci, Alfredo | Di Stefano, Mariella | Monechi, Maria V. | Gori, Luigi | Rossi, Elio | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Mediati, Rocco D. | Ballerini, Giovanna | Gardiner, Paula | Lestoquoy, Anna S. | Negash, Lily | Stillman, Sarah | Shah, Prachi | Liebschutz, Jane | Adelstein, Pamela | Farrell-Riley, Christine | Brackup, Ivy | Penti, Brian | Saper, Robert | Sampedro, Isabel Giralt | Carvajal, Gilda | Gleiss, Andreas | Gross, Marie M. | Brendlin, Dorothea | Röttger, Jonas | Stritter, Wiebke | Seifert, Georg | Grzanna, Noelle | Stange, Rainer | Guendling, Peter W. | Gu, Wen | Lu, Yan | Wang, Jie | Zhang, Chengcheng | Bai, Hua | He, Yuxi | Zhang, Xiaoxu | Zhang, Zhengju | Wang, Dali | Meng, Fengxian | Hagel, Alexander | Albrecht, Heinz | Vollbracht, Claudia | Dauth, Wolfgang | Hagel, Wolfgang | Vitali, Francesco | Ganzleben, Ingo | Schultis, Hans | Konturek, Peter | Stein, Jürgen | Neurath, Markus | Raithel, Martin | Hagel, Alexander | Vollbracht, Claudia | Raithel, Martin | Konturek, Peter | Krick, Bianka | Haller, Heidemarie | Klose, Petra | Dobos, Gustav | Kümmel, Sherko | Cramer, Holger | Haller, Heidemarie | Saha, Felix J. | Kowoll, Anna | Ebner, Barbara | Berger, Bettina | Dobos, Gustav | Choi, Kyung-Eun | He, Lisha | Wang, Han | He, X. | Gu, C. | Zhang, Y. | Zhao, Linhua | Tong, Xiaolin | He, Lisha | Wang, Han | He, Xinhui | Gu, Chengjuan | Zhang, Ying | Zhao, Linhua | Tong, Xiaolin | He, Lisha | Wang, Han | He, Xinhui | Gu, Chengjuan | Zhang, Ying | Zhao, Linhua | Tong, Xiaolin | Ho, Robin S. T. | Chung, Vincent C. H. | Wu, Xinyin | Wong, Charlene H. L. | Wu, Justin C. Y. | Wong, Samuel Y. S. | Lau, Alexander Y. L. | Sit, Regina W. S. | Wong, Wendy | Holmes, Michelle | Bishop, Felicity | Calman, Lynn | Holmes, Michelle | Bishop, Felicity | Lewith, George | Newell, Dave | Field, Jonathan | Htut, Win L. | Han, Dongwoon | Choi, Da I. | Choi, Soo J. | Kim, Ha Y. | Hwang, Jung H. | Huang, Ching W. | Jang, Bo H. | Chen, Fang P. | Ko, Seong G. | Huang, Wenjing | Jin, De | Lian, Fengmei | Jang, Soobin | Kim, Kyeong H. | Lee, Eun K. | Sun, Seung H. | Go, Ho Y. | Ko, Youme | Park, Sunju | Jang, Bo H. | Shin, Yong C. | Ko, Seong G. | Janik, Hubert | Greiffenhagen, Natalie | Bolte, Jürgen | Kraft, Karin | Jaworski, Mariusz | Adamus, Miroslawa | Dobrzynska, Aleksandra | Jeitler, Michael | Jaspers, Jessica | von Scheidt, Christel | Koch, Barbara | Michalsen, Andreas | Steckhan, Nico | Kessler, Christian | Jin, De | Huang, Wen-jing | Pang, Bing | Lian, Feng-Mei | Jong, Miek | Baars, Erik | Glockmann, Anja | Hamre, Harald | Kainuma, Mosaburo | Murakami, Aya | Kubota, Toshio | Kobayashi, Daisuke | Sumoto, Yasuhiro | Furusyo, Norihiro | Ando, Shin-Ichi | Shimazoe, Takao | Kelber, Olaf | Verjee, S. | Gorgus, Eva | Schrenk, Dieter | Kemper, Kathi | Hill, Ellie | Kemper, Kathi | Rao, Nisha | Gascon, Gregg | Mahan, John | Kienle, Gunver | Dietrich, Jörg | Schmoor, Claudia | Huber, Roman | Kim, Weon H. | Han, Dongwoon | Ahmed, Mansoor | He, Luzhu | Hwang, Jung Hye | Kiss, Eva | Vancsik, Tamas | Meggyeshazi, Nora | Kovago, Csaba | Krenacs, Tibor | Klaus, Anne K. | Zerm, Roland | Pranga, Danilo | Ostermann, Thomas | Reif, Marcus | von Laue, Hans Broder | Brinkhaus, Benno | Kröz, Matthias | Klaus, Anne K. | Zerm, Roland | Pranga, Danilo | Recchia, Daniela Rodrigues | Ostermann, Thomas | Reif, Marcus | von Laue, Hans B. | Brinkhaus, Benno | Kröz, Matthias | Klein-Laansma, Christien T. | Jong, Mats | von Hagens, Cornelia | Jansen, Jean P. | van Wietmarschen, Herman | Jong, Miek C. | Ko, Youme | Sun, Seung-Ho | Go, Ho-Yeon | Jeon, Chan-Yong | Song, Yun-Kyung | Ko, Seong-Gyu | Koch, Anna K. | Rabsilber, Sybille | Lauche, Romy | Kümmel, Sherko | Dobos, Gustav | Langhorst, Jost | Cramer, Holger | Koch, Anna K. | Trifunovic-Koenig, Milena | Klose, Petra | Cramer, Holger | Dobos, Gustav | Langhorst, Jost | Koster, Evi | Baars, Erik | Delnoij, Diana | Kroll, Lena | Weiss, Kathrin | Kubo, Ai | Hendlish, Sarah | Altschuler, Andrea | Connolly, Nancy | Avins, Andy | Lauche, Romy | Recchia, Daniela Rodrigues | Cramer, Holger | Wardle, Jon | Lee, David | Sibbritt, David | Adams, Jon | Ostermann, Thomas | Lauche, Romy | Sibbritt, David | Park, Crystal | Mishra, Gita | Adams, Jon | Cramer, Holger | Lechner, Johann | Lee, Inseon | Chae, Younbyoung | Lee, Jisu | Cho, Seung H. | Choi, Yujin | Lee, Jee Y. | Ryu, Han S. | Yoon, Sung S. | Oh, Hye K. | Hyun, Lyun K. | Kim, Jin O. | Yoon, Seong W. | Lee, Ju-Yeon | Shin, Sang-Hoon | Jang, Min | Müller, Indra | Park, So-Hyun Janson | Lestoquoy, Anna S. | Laird, Lance | Negash, Lily | Mitchell, Suzanne | Gardiner, Paula | Li, Xiaofei | Wang, Yunhui | Zhen, Jianhua | Yu, He | Liu, Tiegang | Gu, Xiaohong | Liu, Hui | Ma, Weiguo | Zhang, Chengcheng | Shang, Xuezheng | Bai, Yu | Meng, Fengxian | Liu, Wei | Rooney, Collin | Smith, Amos | Lopes, Shirlene | Demarzo, Marcelo | do Patrocínio Nunes, Maria | Lorenz, Peter | Gründemann, Carsten | Heinrich, Miriam | Garcia-Käufer, Manuel | Grunewald, Franziska | Messerschmidt, Silke | Herrick, Anja | Gruber, Kim | Beckmann, Christiane | Knödler, Matthias | Huber, Roman | Steinborn, Carmen | Stintzing, Florian | Lu, Taoying | Wang, Lixin | Wu, Darong | Luberto, Christina M | Hall, Daniel L. | Chad-Friedman, Emma | Lechner, Suzanne | Park, Elyse R. | Luberto, Christina M. | Park, Elyse | Goodman, Janice | Luer, Sonja | Heri, Matthias | von Ammon, Klaus | Frei-Erb, Martin | Ma, Weiguo | Meng, Fengxian | Maggini, Valentina | Gallo, Eugenia | Landini, Ida | Lapucci, Andrea | Nobili, Stefania | Mini, Enrico | Firenzuoli, Fabio | McDermott, Clare | Lewith, George | Richards, Selwyn | Cox, Diane | Frossell, Sarah | Leydon, Geraldine | Eyles, Caroline | Raphael, Hilly | Rogers, Rachael | Selby, Michelle | Adler, Charlotte | Allam, Jo | Meng, Fengxian | Gu, Wen | Zhang, Chengcheng | Bai, Hua | Zhang, Zhengju | Wang, Dali | Bu, Xiangwei | Zhang, Honghong | Zhang, Jianpeng | Liu, Hui | Mikolasek, Michael | Berg, Jonas | Witt, Claudia | Barth, Jürgen | Miskulin, Ivan | Lalic, Zdenka | Miskulin, Maja | Dumic, Albina | Sebo, Damir | Vcev, Aleksandar | Mohammed, Nasr A. A. | Han, Dongwoon | Ahmed, Mansoor | Choi, Soo Jeung | Im, Hyea Bin | Hwang, Jung Hye | Mukherjee, Anwesha | Kandhare, Amit | Bodhankar, Subhash | Mukherjee, Anwesha | Kandhare, Amit | Thakurdesai, Prasad | Bodhankar, Subhash | Munk, Niki | Evans, Erica | Froman, Amanda | Kline, Matthew | Bair, Matthew J. | Musial, Frauke | Kristoffersen, Agnete E. | Alræk, Terje | Hamre, Harald J. | Stub, Trine | Björkman, Lars | Fønnebø, Vinjar M. | Pang, Bing | Lian, Feng-mei | Ni, Qing | Tong, Xiao-lin | Li, Xin-long | Liu, Wen-ke | Feng, Shuo | Zhao, Xi-yan | Zheng, Yu-jiao | Zhao, Xue-min | Lin, Yi-qun | Pang, Bing | Lian, Feng-mei | Tong, Xiao-lin | Zhao, Tian-yu | Zhao, Xi-Yan | Phd, Hui Che | Zhang, Chen | Pang, Bing | Liu, Feng | Tong, Xiao-lin | Zhao, Lin-hua | Zhao, Xue-min | Ye, Ru | Gu, Cheng-juan | Pang, Bing | Ni, Qing | Tong, Xiao-lin | Lian, Feng-mei | Zhao, Xi-yan | Jin, De | Zhao, Xue-min | Zheng, Yu-jiao | Lin, Yi-qun | Peng, Wenbo | Lauche, Romy | Sibbritt, David | Adams, Jon | Peng, Wenbo | Wardle, Jon | Cramer, Holger | Mishra, Gita | Lauche, Romy | Pohlman, Katherine A. | Mior, Silvano | Funabashi, Martha | De Carvalho, Diana | El-Bayoumi, Mohamed | Haig, Bob | Kelly, Kimbalin | Wade, Darrell J. | O’Beirne, Maeve | Vohra, Sunita | Portalupi, Emanuela | Gobo, Giampietro | Bellavita, Luigi | Guglielmetti, Chiara | Raak, Christa | Teuber, Myriam | Molsberger, Friedrich | von Rath, Ulrich | Reichelt, Ulrike | Schwanebeck, Uta | Zeil, Sabine | Vogelberg, Christian | Veintimilla, Dolores Rodríguez | Vollbracht, Claudia | Mery, Guerrero Tapia | Villavicencio, Marisol Maldonado | Moran, Sandra Herrera | Sachse, Christian | Gündlin, Peter W | Stange, Rainer | Sahebkarkhorasani, Monirsadat | Azizi, Hoda | Schumann, Dania | Lauche, Romy | Sundberg, Tobias | Leach, Matthew J. | Cramer, Holger | Seca, Susana | Greten, Henry | Selliah, Sugir | Shakya, Anu | Han, Dongwoon | Kim, Ha Yun | Choi, Da I. | Im, Hyea B. | Choi, Soo J. | Sherbakova, Anna | Ulrich-Merzenich, Gudrun | Kelber, Olaf | Abdel-Aziz, Heba | Sibinga, Erica | Webb, Lindsey | Ellen, Jonathan | Skrautvol, Kari | Nåden, Dagfinn | Song, Rhayun | Grabowska, Weronika | Osypiuk, Kamila | Diaz, Gloria V. | Bonato, Paolo | Park, Moonkyoung | Hausdorff, Jeffrey | Fox, Michael | Sudarsky, Lewis R. | Tarsy, Daniel | Novakowski, James | Macklin, Eric A. | Wayne, Peter M. | Song, Rhayun | Hwang, Inok | Ahn, Sukhee | Lee, Myung-Ah | Wayne, Peter M. | Sohn, Min K. | Sorokin, Oleg | Steckhan, Nico | Heydeck, Dagmar | Borchert, Astrid | Hohmann, Christoph-Daniel | Kühn, Harmut | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian | Steckhan, Nico | Hohmann, Christoph-Daniel | Cramer, Holger | Michalsen, Andreas | Dobos, Gustav | von Scheidt, Christel | Kirschbaum, Clemens | Stalder, Tobias | Stöckigt, Barbara | Teut, Michael | Suhr, Ralf | Sulmann, Daniela | Brinkhaus, Benno | Streeter, Chris | Gerbarg, Patrica | Silveri, Marisa | Brown, Richard | Jensen, John | Stritter, Wiebke | Rutert, Britta | Eggert, Angelika | Längler, Alfred | Seifert, Georg | Holmberg, Christine | Sun, Jin | Deng, Xin | Li, Wen-Yuan | Wen, Bin | Robinson, Nicola | Liu, Jian-Ping | Sung, Hyun K. | Yang, Narae | Go, Ho Y. | Shin, Seon M. | Jung, Hee | Kim, Young J. | Jung, Woo S. | Park, Tae Y. | Suzuki, Kiyoshi | Ito, Toshinori | Uchida, Seiya | Kamohara, Seika | Ono, Naoya | Takamura, Mitsuyuki | Yokochi, Ayumu | Maruyama, Kazuo | Tapia, Patricio | Thabaut, Katarzyna | Brinkhaus, Benno | Stöckigt, Barbara | Thronicke, Anja | Kröz, Matthias | Steele, Megan | Matthes, Harald | Herbstreit, Cornelia | Schad, Friedemann | Tian, Jiaxing | Lian, Fengmei | Yang, Libo | Tong, Xiaolin | Tian, Tian | Zhang, Hewei | Tian, Xia | Wang, CongCong | Chai, Qian Yun | Zhang, Lijuan | Xia, Ruyu | Huang, Na | Fei, Yutong | Liu, Jianpin | Trent, Natalie | Miraglia, Mindy | Dusek, Jeffrey | Pasalis, Edi | Khalsa, Sat B. | Trifunovic-König, Milena | Klose, Petra | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Koch, Anna | Dobos, Gustav | Langhorst, Jost | Uebelacker, Lisa | Tremont, Geoffrey | Gillette, Lee | Epstein-Lubow, Gary | Strong, David | Abrantes, Ana | Tyrka, Audrey | Tran, Tanya | Gaudiano, Brandon | Miller, Ivan | Ullmann, Gerhild | Ullmann, Gerhild | Li, Yuhua | Vaidya, Sujata | Marathe, Vinod | Vale, Ana C. | Motta, Jacquelyne | Donadão, Fabíola | Valente, Angela C. | Valente, Luana C. Carvalho | Ghelman, Ricardo | Vesovic, Dusan | Jevdic, Dragan | Jevdic, Aleksandar | Jevdic, Katarina | Djacic, Mihael | Letic, Dragica | Bozic, Drago | Markovic, Marija | Dunjic, Slobodan | Vesovic, Dusan | Jevdic, Dragan | Jevdic, Aleksandar | Jevdic, Katarina | Djacic, Mihael | Letic, Dragica | Bozic, Drago | Markovic, Marija | Ruscuklic, Gordana | Baksa, Dezire | Dunjic, Slobodan | Vesovic, Dusan | Jevdic, Dragan | Jevdic, Aleksandar | Jevdic, Katarina | Djacic, Mihael | Letic, Dragica | Bozic, Drago | Markovic, Marija | Ruscuklic, Gordana | Baksa, Dezire | Dunjic, Slobodan | Vesovic, Dusan | Jevdic, Dragan | Jevdic, Aleksandar | Jevdic, Katarina | Djacic, Mihael | Letic, Dragica | Bozic, Drago | Markovic, Marija | Ruscuklic, Gordana | Baksa, Dezire | Dunjic, Slobodan | Vesovic, Dusan | Jevdic, Dragan | Jevdic, Aleksandar | Jevdic, Katarina | Djacic, Mihael | Letic, Dragica | Bozic, Drago | Markovic, Marija | Vrca, Kenan | Dunjic, Slobodan | Vincent, Ann | Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind | Whipple, Mary | Vogelius, Maria M. | Vollbracht, Claudia | Friesecke, Iris | Gündling, Peter W. | Wahner-Roedler, Dietlind | Mahapatra, Saswati | Hynes, Rebecca | Van Rooy, Kimberly | Looker, Sherry | Ghosh, Aditya | Bauer, Brent | Cutshall, Susanne | Walach, Harald | Flores, Ana Borges | Walach, Harald | Ofner, Michael | Kastner, Andreas | Schwarzl, Gerhard | Schwameder, Hermann | Alexander, Nathalie | Strutzenberger, Gerda | Wang, Jie | Lu, Yan | Gu, Wen | Zhang, Chengcheng | Bu, Xianwei | Zhang, Honghong | Zhang, Jianping | He, Yuxi | Zhang, Xiaoxu | Meng, Fengxian | Wang, Shang | Yu, He | Shi, Jinfeng | Hao, Yu | Liu, Tiegang | Wu, Jun | Qiu, Zeji | Gu, Xiaohong | Wang, Yuh-Hai | Lou, Chi-Jung | Watts, Sam | Wayne, Peter | Osypiuk, Kamila | Vergara-Diaz, Gloria | Bonato, Paolo | Gow, Brian | Hausdorff, Jeffrey | Miranda, Jose | Sudarsky, Lewis | Tarsy, Daniel | Fox, Michael | Macklin, Eric | Wode, Kathrin | Bergqvist, Jenny | Bernhardsson, Britt-Marie | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Kienle, Gunver | Sharp, Lena | Henriksson, Roger | Woo, Yeonju | Hyun, Min K. | Wu, Hao | Wang, Tian-Fang | Zhao, Yan | Wei, Yu | Tian, Lei | He, Lei | Wang, Xue | Wu, Ruohan | Feng, Shuo | Han, Mei | Caldwell, Patrina H. Y. | Liu, Shigang | Zhang, Jing | Liu, Jianping | Xia, Ruyu | Chai, Qianyun | Fei, Yutong | Guo, Zhongning | Wang, Congcong | Liu, Zhijun | Li, Xun | Zhang, Ying | Liu, Jianping | Yang, I. J. | Lincha, V. Ruberio | Ahn, S. H. | Lee, D. U. | Shin, H. M. | Yang, Lu | Sibbritt, David | Peng, Wenbo | Adams, Jon | Yang, N. | Sung, H. | Shin, S. M. | Go, H. Y. | Jung, H. | Kim, Y. | Park, T. Y. | Yap, Angela | Kwan, Yu H. | Tan, Chuen S. | Ibrahim, Syed | Ang, Seng B. | Yayi, Alfred | Han, Dongwoon | Im, Hyea Bin | Hwang, Jung Hye | Choi, Soo Jeung | Yoo, Jeong E. | Yoo, Ho R. | Jang, Sae B. | Lee, Hye L. | Youssef, Ala’a | Ezzat, Shahira | Motaal, Amira Abdel | El-Askary, Hesham | Yu, Xiaotong | Cui, Yashan | Zhang, Ying | Lian, Fengmei | Yun, Younghee | Ko, Youme | Ahn, Jin-Hyang | Jang, Bo-Hyung | Kim, Kyu-Seok | Ko, Seong-Gyu | Choi, Inhwa | Zerm, Roland | Glinz, Augustina | Pranga, Danilo | Berger, Bettina | ten Brink, Fadime | Reif, Marcus | Büssing, Arnd | Gutenbrunner, Christoph | Kröz, Matthias | Zerm, Roland | Helbrecht, Bert | Pranga, Danilo | Brinkhaus, Benno | Michalsen, Andreas | Kröz, Matthias | Zhang, Honghong | Fang, Tiesheng | Wang, Jie | Zhang, Chengcheng | He, Yuxi | Zhang, Xiaoxu | Zhang, Zhengju | Wang, Dali | Meng, Fengxion | Zhang, Jianping | Zhang, Chengcheng | Bai, Hua | Shen, Zhiming | Ma, Weiguo | Liu, Hui | Bai, Yu | Shang, Xuezheng | Meng, Fengxian | Zhang, Ruixin | Wu, Fan | Li, Ming | Xuan, Xinyun | Shen, Xueyong | Ren, Ke | Berman, Brian | Zhen, Jianhua | Li, Xiaofei | Gu, Xiaohong | Yu, He | Zheng, Zian | Wan, Yuxiang | Wang, Yunhui | Ma, Xueyan | Dong, Fei | Liu, Tiegang | Zhen, Jianhua | Li, Xiaofei | Gu, Xiaohong | Yu, He | Zheng, Zian | Wan, Yuxiang | Wang, Yunhui | Ma, Xueyan | Dong, Fei | Liu, Tiegang | Zick, Suzie | Harris, Richard | Bae, Go E. | Kwon, Jung N. | Lee, Hye Y. | Nam, Jong K. | Lee, Sang D. | Lee, Dong H. | Han, Ji Y. | Yun, Young J. | Lee, Ji H. | Park, Hye L. | Park, Seong H. | Bocci, Chiara | Ivaldi, Giovanni B. | Vietti, Ilaria | Meaglia, Ilaria | Guffi, Marta | Ruggiero, Rubina | Gualea, Marita | Longa, Emanuela | Bonucci, Massimo | Croke, Sarah | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | Caracuel-Martínez, Juan C. | Fajardo-Rodríguez, Manuel F. | Ariza-García, Angélica | la Fuente, Francisca García-De | Arroyo-Morales, Manuel | Estrems, Maria S. | Gómez, Vicente G. | Estrems, Maria S. | Sabater, Mónica Valero | Ferreri, Rosaria | Bernardini, Simonetta | Pulcri, Roberto | Cracolici, Franco | Rinaldi, Massimo | Porciani, Claudio | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Baccetti, Sonia | Di Stefano, Mariella | Monechi, Maria V. | Gallo, Eugenia | Maggini, Valentina | Gori, Luigi | Rossi, Elio | Fisher, Peter | Hughes, John | Mendoza, Ariadna | MacPherson, Hugh | Witt, Claudia | Filshie, Jacqueline | Lewith, George | Di Francesco, Antonia | Bernardini, Alberto | Messe, Monica | Primitivo, Vincenzo | Iasella, Piera A. | Ghelman, Ricardo | Taminato, Monica | Alcantara, Jaqueline Do Carmo | De Oliveira, Katia R. | Rodrigues, Debora C. De Azevedo | Mumme, Juliana R. Campana | Sunakozawa, Olga K. Matsumoto | Filho, Vicente Odone | Seifert, Georg | Goldenberg, Joshua | Day, Andrew | Sasagawa, Masa | Ward, Lesley | Cooley, Kieran | Gunnarsdottir, Thora | Hjaltadottir, Ingibjorg | Hajimonfarednejad, Mahdie
doi:10.1186/s12906-017-1783-3
PMCID: PMC5498867
2.  World Congress Integrative Medicine & Health 2017: Part one 
Brinkhaus, Benno | Falkenberg, Torkel | Haramati, Aviad | Willich, Stefan N. | Briggs, Josephine P. | Willcox, Merlin | Linde, Klaus | Theorell, Töres | Wong, Lisa M. | Dusek, Jeffrey | Wu, Darong | Eisenberg, David | Haramati, Aviad | Berger, Bettina | Kemper, Kathi | Stock-Schröer, Beate | Sützl-Klein, Hedda | Ferreri, Rosaria | Kaplan, Gary | Matthes, Harald | Rotter, Gabriele | Schiff, Elad | Arnon, Zahi | Hahn, Eckhard | Luberto, Christina M. | Martin, David | Schwarz, Silke | Tauschel, Diethard | Flower, Andrew | Gramminger, Harsha | Gupta, Hedwig H. | Gupta, S. N. | Kerckhoff, Annette | Kessler, Christian S. | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian S. | Kim, Eun S. | Jang, Eun H. | Kim, Rana | Jan, Sae B. | Mittwede, Martin | Mohme, Wiebke | Ben-Arye, Eran | Bonucci, Massimo | Saad, Bashar | Breitkreuz, Thomas | Rossi, Elio | Kebudi, Rejin | Daher, Michel | Razaq, Samaher | Gafer, Nahla | Nimri, Omar | Hablas, Mohamed | Kienle, Gunver Sophia | Samuels, Noah | Silbermann, Michael | Bandelin, Lena | Lang, Anna-Lena | Wartner, Eva | Holtermann, Christoph | Binstock, Maxwell | Riebau, Robert | Mujkanovic, Edin | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Michalsen, Andres | Ward, Lesley | Cramer, Holger | Irnich, Dominik | Stör, Wolfram | Burnstock, Geoffrey | Schaible, Hans-Georg | Ots, Thomas | Langhorst, Jost | Lauche, Romy | Sundberg, Tobias | Falkenberg, Torkel | Amarell, Catherina | Amarell, Catherina | Anheyer, Melanie | Eckert, Marion | Eckert, Marion | Ogal, Mercedes | Eckert, Marion | Amarell, Catherina | Schönauer, Annette | Reisenberger, Birgit | Brand, Bernhard | Anheyer, Dennis | Dobos, Gustav | Kroez, Matthias | Martin, David | Matthes, Harald | Ammendola, Aldo | Mao, Jun J. | Witt, Claudia | Yang, Yufei | Dobos, Gustav | Oritz, Miriam | Horneber, Markus | Voiß, Petra | Reisenberger, Birgit | von Rosenstiel, Alexandra | Eckert, Marion | Ogal, Mercedes | Amarell, Catharina | Anheyer, Melanie | Schad, Friedemann | Schläppi, Marc | Kröz, Matthias | Büssing, Arndt | Bar-Sela, Gil | Matthes, Harald | Schiff, Elad | Ben-Arye, Eran | Arnon, Zahi | Avshalomov, David | Attias, Samuel | Schönauer, Annette | Haramati, Aviad | Witt, Claudia | Brinkhaus, Benno | Cotton, Sian | Jong, Miek | Jong, Mats | Scheffer, Christian | Haramati, Aviad | Tauschel, Diethard | Edelhäuser, Friedrich | AlBedah, Abdullah | Lee, Myeong Soo | Khalil, Mohamed | Ogawa, Keiko | Motoo, Yoshiharu | Arimitsu, Junsuke | Ogawa, Masao | Shimizu, Genki | Stange, Rainer | Kraft, Karin | Kuchta, Kenny | Watanabe, Kenji | Bonin, D | Büssing, Arndt | Gruber, Harald | Koch, Sabine | Gruber, Harald | Pohlmann, Urs | Caldwell, Christine | Krantz, Barbara | Kortum, Ria | Martin, Lily | Wieland, Lisa S. | Kligler, Ben | Gould-Fogerite, Susan | Zhang, Yuqing | Wieland, Lisa S. | Riva, John J. | Lumpkin, Michael | Ratner, Emily | Ping, Liu | Jian, Pei | Hamme, Gesa-Meyer | Mao, Xiaosong | Chouping, Han | Schröder, Sven | Hummelsberger, Josef | Wullinger, Michael | Brodzky, Marc | Zalpour, Christoff | Langley, Julia | Weber, Wendy | Mudd, Lanay M. | Wayne, Peter | Witt, Clauda | Weidenhammer, Wolfgang | Fønnebø, Vinjar | Boon, Heather | Steel, Amie | Bugarcic, Andrea | Rangitakatu, Melisa | Steel, Amie | Adams, Jon | Sibbritt, David | Wardle, Jon | Leach, Matthew | Schloss, Janet | Dieze, Helene | Boon, Heather | Ijaz, Nadine | Willcox, Merlin | Heinrich, Michael | Lewith, George | Flower, Andrew | Graz, Bertrand | Adam, Daniela | Grabenhenrich, Linus | Ortiz, Miriam | Binting, Sylvia | Reinhold, Thomas | Brinkhaus, Benno | Andermo, Susanne | Sundberg, Tobias | Falkenberg, Torkel | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Arman, Maria | Bhasin, Manoj | Fan, Xueyi | Libermann, Towia | Fricchione, Gregory | Denninger, John | Benson, Herbert | Berger, Bettina | Stange, Rainer | Michalsen, Andreas | Martin, David D. | Boers, Inge | Vlieger, Arine | Jong, Miek | Brinkhaus, Benno | Teut, Michael | Ullmann, Alexander | Ortiz, Miriam | Rotter, Gabriele | Binting, Sylvia | Lotz, Fabian | Roll, Stephanie | Canella, Claudia | Mikolasek, Michael | Rostock, Matthias | Beyer, Jörg | Guckenberger, Matthias | Jenewein, Josef | Linka, Esther | Six, Claudia | Stoll, Sarah | Stupp, Roger | Witt, Claudia M. | Chuang, Elisabeth | Kligler, Ben | McKee, Melissa D. | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Klose, Petra | Lange, Silke | Langhorst, Jost | Dobos, Gustav | Chung, Vincent C. H. | Wong, Hoi L. C. | Wu, Xin Y. | Wen, Grace Y. G. | Ho, Robin S. T. | Ching, Jessica Y. L. | Wu, Justin C. Y. | Coakley, Amanda | Flanagan, Jane | Annese, Christine | Empoliti, Joanne | Gao, Zishan | Liu, Xugang | Yu, Shuguang | Yan, Xianzhong | Liang, Fanrong | Hohmann, Christoph D. | Steckhan, Nico | Ostermann, Thomas | Paetow, Arion | Hoff, Evelyn | Michalsen, Andreas | Hu, Xiao-Yang | Wu, Ruo-Han | Logue, Martin | Blonde, Clara | Lai, Lily Y. | Stuart, Beth | Flower, Andrew | Fei, Yu-Tong | Moore, Michael | Liu, Jian-Ping | Lewith, George | Hu, Xiao-Yang | Wu, Ruo-Han | Logue, Martin | Blonde, Clara | Lai, Lily Y. | Stuart, Beth | Flower, Andrew | Fei, Yu-Tong | Moore, Michael | Liu, Jian-Ping | Lewith, George | Jeitler, Michael | Zillgen, Hannah | Högl, Manuel | Steckhan, Nico | Stöckigt, Barbara | Seifert, Georg | Michalsen, Andreas | Kessler, Christian | Khadivzadeh, Talat | Bashtian, Maryam Hassanzadeh | Aval, Shapour Badiee | Esmaily, Habibollah | Kim, Jihye | Kim, Keun H. | Klocke, Carina | Joos, Stefanie | Koshak, Abdulrahman | Wie, Li | Koshak, Emad | Wali, Siraj | Alamoudi, Omer | Demerdash, Abdulrahman | Qutub, Majdy | Pushparaj, Peter | Heinrich, Michael | Kruse, Sigrid | Fischer, Isabell | Tremel, Nadine | Rosenecker, Joseph | Leung, Brenda | Takeda, Wendy | Liang, Ning | Feng, Xue | Liu, Jian-ping | Cao, Hui-juan | Luberto, Christina M. | Shinday, Nina | Philpotts, Lisa | Park, Elyse | Fricchione, Gregory L. | Yeh, Gloria | Munk, Niki | Zakeresfahani, Arash | Foote, Trevor R. | Ralston, Rick | Boulanger, Karen | Özbe, Dominik | Gräßel, Elmar | Luttenberger, Katharina | Pendergrass, Anna | Pach, Daniel | Bellmann-Strobl, Judit | Chang, Yinhui | Pasura, Laura | Liu, Bin | Jäger, Sven F. | Loerch, Ronny | Jin, Li | Brinkhaus, Benno | Ortiz, Miriam | Reinhold, Thomas | Roll, Stephanie | Binting, Sylvia | Icke, Katja | Shi, Xuemin | Paul, Friedemann | Witt, Claudia M. | Rütz, Michaela | Lynen, Andreas | Schömitz, Meike | Vahle, Maik | Salomon, Nir | Lang, Alon | Lahat, Adi | Kopylov, Uri | Ben-Horin, Shomron | Har-Noi, Ofir | Avidan, Benjamin | Elyakim, Rami | Gamus, Dorit | NG, Siew | Chang, Jessica | Wu, Justin | Kaimiklotis, John | Schumann, Dania | Buttó, Ludovica | Langhorst, Jost | Dobos, Gustav | Haller, Dirk | Cramer, Holger | Smith, Caroline | de Lacey, Sheryl | Chapman, Michael | Ratcliffe, Julie | Johnson, Neil | Lyttleton, Jane | Boothroyd, Clare | Fahey, Paul | Tjaden, Bram | van Vliet, Marja | van Wietmarschen, Herman | Jong, Miek | Tröger, Wilfried | Vuolanto, Pia | Aarva, Paulina | Sorsa, Minna | Helin, Kaija | Wenzel, Claudia | Zoderer, Iris | Pammer, Patricia | Simon, Patrick | Tucek, Gerhard | Wode, Kathrin | Henriksson, Roger | Sharp, Lena | Stoltenberg, Anna | Nordberg, Johanna Hök | Xiao-ying, Yang | Wang, Li-qiong | Li, Jin-gen | Liang, Ning | Wang, Ying | Liu, Jian-ping | Balneaves, Lynda | Capler, Rielle | Bocci, Chiara | Guffi, Marta | Paolini, Marina | Meaglia, Ilaria | Porcu, Patrizia | Ivaldi, Giovanni B. | Dragan, Simona | Bucuras, Petru | Pah, Ana M. | Badalica-Petrescu, Marius | Buleu, Florina | Hogea-Stoichescu, Gheorghe | Christodorescu, Ruxandra | Kao, Lan | Cho, Yumin | Klafke, Nadja | Mahler, Cornelia | von Hagens, Cornelia | Uhlmann, Lorenz | Bentner, Martina | Schneeweiss, Andreas | Mueller, Andreas | Szecsenyi, Joachim | Joos, Stefanie | Neri, Isabella | Ortiz, Miriam | Schnabel, Katharina | Teut, Michael | Rotter, Gabriele | Binting, Sylvia | Cree, Margit | Lotz, Fabian | Suhr, Ralf | Brinkhaus, Benno | Rossi, Elio | Baccetti, Sonia | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Monechi, Maria V. | Di Stefano, Mariella | Amunni, Gianni | Wong, Wendy | Chen, Bingzhong | Wu, Justin | Amri, Hakima | Haramati, Aviad | Kotlyanskaya, Lucy | Anderson, Belinda | Evans, Roni | Kligler, Ben | Marantz, Paul | Bradley, Ryan | Booth-LaForce, Cathryn | Zwickey, Heather | Kligler, Benjamin | Brooks, Audrey | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Lebensohn, Patricia | Goldblatt, Elisabeth | Esmel-Esmel, Neus | Jiménez-Herrera, Maria | Ijaz, Nadine | Boon, Heather | Jocham, Alexandra | Stock-Schröer, Beate | Berberat, Pascal O. | Schneider, Antonius | Linde, Klaus | Masetti, Morgana | Murakozy, Henriette | Van Vliet, Marja | Jong, Mats | Jong, Miek | Agdal, Rita | Atarzadeh, Fatemeh | Jaladat, Amir M. | Hoseini, Leila | Amini, Fatemeh | Bai, Chen | Liu, Tiegang | Zheng, Zian | Wan, Yuxiang | Xu, Jingnan | Wang, Xuan | Yu, He | Gu, Xiaohong | Daneshfard, Babak | Nimrouzi, Majid | Tafazoli, Vahid | Alorizi, Seyed M. Emami | Saghebi, Seyed A. | Fattahi, Mohammad R. | Salehi, Alireza | Rezaeizadeh, Hossein | Zarshenas, Mohammad M. | Nimrouzi, Majid | Fox, Kealoha | Hughes, John | Kostanjsek, Nenad | Espinosa, Stéphane | Lewith, George | Fisher, Peter | Latif, Abdul | Lefeber, Donald | Paske, William | Öztürk, Ali Ö. | Öztürk, Gizemnur | Boers, Inge | Tissing, Wim | Naafs, Marianne | Busch, Martine | Jong, Miek | Daneshfard, Babak | Sanaye, Mohammad R. | Dräger, Kilian | Fisher, Peter | Kreitzer, Mary J. | Evans, Roni | Leininger, Brent | Shafto, Kate | Breen, Jenny | Sanaye, Mohammad R. | Daneshfard, Babak | Simões-Wüst, Ana P. | Moltó-Puigmartí, Carolina | van Dongen, Martien | Dagnelie, Pieter | Thijs, Carel | White, Shelley | Wiesener, Solveig | Salamonsen, Anita | Stub, Trine | Fønnebø, Vinjar | Abanades, Sergio | Blanco, Mar | Masllorens, Laia | Sala, Roser | Al-Ahnoumy, Shafekah | Han, Dongwoon | He, Luzhu | Kim, Ha Yun | In Choi, Da | Alræk, Terje | Stub, Trine | Kristoffersen, Agnete | von Sceidt, Christel | Michalsen, Andreas | Bruset, Stig | Musial, Frauke | Anheyer, Dennis | Cramer, Holger | Lauche, Romy | Saha, Felix J. | Dobos, Gustav | Anheyer, Dennis | Haller, Heidemarie | Lauche, Romy | Dobos, Gustav | Cramer, Holger | Azizi, Hoda | Khadem, Nayereh | Hassanzadeh, Malihe | Estiri, Nazanin | Azizi, Hamideh | Tavassoli, Fatemeh | Lotfalizadeh, Marzieh | Zabihi, Reza | Esmaily, Habibollah | Azizi, Hoda | Shabestari, Mahmoud Mohammadzadeh | Paeizi, Reza | Azari, Masoumeh Alvandi | Bahrami-Taghanaki, Hamidreza | Zabihi, Reza | Azizi, Hamideh | Esmaily, Habibollah | Baars, Erik | De Bruin, Anja | Ponstein, Anne | Baccetti, Sonia | Di Stefano, Mariella | Rossi, Elio | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Segantini, Sergio | Monechi, Maria Valeria | Voller, Fabio | Barth, Jürgen | Kern, Alexandra | Lüthi, Sebastian | Witt, Claudia | Barth, Jürgen | Zieger, Anja | Otto, Fabius | Witt, Claudia | Beccia, Ariel | Dunlap, Corina | Courneene, Brendan | Bedregal, Paula | Passi, Alvaro | Rodríguez, Alfredo | Chang, Mayling | Gutiérrez, Soledad | Beissner, Florian | Beissner, Florian | Preibisch, Christine | Schweizer-Arau, Annemarie | Popovici, Roxana | Meissner, Karin | Beljanski, Sylvie | Belland, Laura | Rivera-Reyes, Laura | Hwang, Ula | Berger, Bettina | Sethe, Dominik | Hilgard, Dörte | Heusser, Peter | Bishop, Felicity | Al-Abbadey, Miznah | Bradbury, Katherine | Carnes, Dawn | Dimitrov, Borislav | Fawkes, Carol | Foster, Jo | MacPherson, Hugh | Roberts, Lisa | Yardley, Lucy | Lewith, George | Bishop, Felicity | Al-Abbadey, Miznah | Bradbury, Katherine | Carnes, Dawn | Dimitrov, Borislav | Fawkes, Carol | Foster, Jo | MacPherson, Hugh | Roberts, Lisa | Yardley, Lucy | Lewith, George | Bishop, Felicity | Holmes, Michelle | Lewith, George | Yardley, Lucy | Little, Paul | Cooper, Cyrus | Bogani, Patrizia | Maggini, Valentina | Gallo, Eugenia | Miceli, Elisangela | Biffi, Sauro | Mengoni, Alessio | Fani, Renato | Firenzuoli, Fabio | Brands-Guendling, Nadine | Guendling, Peter W. | Bronfort, Gert | Evans, Roni | Haas, Mitch | Leininger, Brent | Schulz, Craig | Bu, Xiangwei | Wang, J. | Fang, T. | Shen, Z. | He, Y. | Zhang, X. | Zhang, Zhengju | Wang, Dali | Meng, Fengxian | Büssing, Arndt | Baumann, Klaus | Frick, Eckhard | Jacobs, Christoph | Büssing, Arndt | Grünther, Ralph-Achim | Lötzke, Désirée | Büssing, Arndt | Jung, Sonny | Lötzke, Désirée | Recchia, Daniela R. | Robens, Sibylle | Ostermann, Thomas | Berger, Bettina | Stankewitz, Josephin | Kröz, Matthias | Jeitler, Mika | Kessler, Christian | Michalsen, Andreas | Cheon, Chunhoo | Jang, Bo H. | Ko, Seong G. | Huang, Ching W. | Sasaki, Yui | Ko, Youme | Cheshire, Anna | Ridge, Damien | Hughes, John | Peters, David | Panagioti, Maria | Simon, Chantal | Lewith, George | Cho, Hyun J. | Han, Dongwoon | Choi, Soo J. | Jung, Young S. | Im, Hyea B | Cooley, Kieran | Tummon-Simmons, Laura | Cotton, Sian | Luberto, Christina M. | Wasson, Rachel | Kraemer, Kristen | Sears, Richard | Hueber, Carly | Derk, Gwendolyn | Lill, JR | An, Ruopeng | Steinberg, Lois | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | la Fuente, Francisca García-de | De la Vega, Miguel | Vargas-Román, Keyla | Fernández-Ruiz, Jonatan | Cantarero-Villanueva, Irene | Rodriguez, Lourdes Diaz | García-De la Fuente, Francisca | Jiménez-Guerrero, Fanny | Vargas-Román, Keyla | Fernández-Ruiz, Jonatan | Galiano-Castillo, Noelia | Diaz-Saez, Gualberto | Torres-Jimenez, José I. | Garcia-Gomez, Olga | Hortal-Muñoz, Luis | Diaz-Diez, Camino | Dicen, Demijon | Diezel, Helene | Adams, Jon | Steel, Amie | Wardle, Jon | Diezel, Helene | Steel, Amie | Frawley, Jane | Wardle, Jon | Broom, Alex | Adams, Jon | Dong, Fei | Yu, He | Liu, Tiegang | Ma, Xueyan | Yan, Liyi | Wan, Yuxiang | Zheng, Zian | Gu, Xiaohong | Dong, Fei | Yu, He | Wu, Liqun | Liu, Tiegang | Ma, Xueyan | Ma, Jiaju | Yan, Liyi | Wan, Yuxiang | Zheng, Zian | Zhen, Jianhua | Gu, Xiaohong | Dubois, Julie | Rodondi, Pierre-Yves | Edelhäuser, Friedrich | Schwartze, Sophia | Trapp, Barbara | Cysarz, Dirk
doi:10.1186/s12906-017-1782-4
PMCID: PMC5498855
3.  Leadership and capacity building in international chiropractic research: introducing the chiropractic academy for research leadership (CARL) 
In an evidence-based health care environment, healthcare professions require a sustainable research culture to remain relevant. At present however, there is not a mature research culture across the chiropractic profession largely due to deficiencies in research capacity and leadership, which may be caused by a lack of chiropractic teaching programs in major universities. As a response to this challenge the Chiropractic Academy for Research Leadership, CARL, was created with the aim of develop a global network of successful early-career chiropractic researchers under the mentorship of three successful senior academics from Australia, Canada, and Denmark. The program centres upon an annual week-long program residential that rotates continental locations over the first three-year cycle and between residentials the CARL fellows work on self-initiated research and leadership initiatives. Through a competivite application process, the first cohort was selected and consists of 13 early career researchers from five professions in seven countries who represent diverse areas of interests of high relevance for chiropractic. The first residential was held in Odense, Denmark, with the second being planned in April 2018 in Edmonton, Canada, and the final residential to be held in Sydney, Australia in 2019.
doi:10.1186/s12998-018-0173-3
PMCID: PMC5800066
Chiropractic; Leadership; Research; Evidence
4.  Exploring Positive Survivorship Experiences of Indigenous Australian Cancer Patients 
Amongst Indigenous Australians, “cancer” has negative connotations that detrimentally impact upon access to cancer care services. Barriers to accessing cancer services amongst Indigenous Australians are widely reported. In contrast, factors that facilitate this cohort to successfully navigate cancer care services (“enablers”) are scarcely reported in the literature. Through qualitative interviews, this article examines factors that assist Indigenous Australians to have positive cancer experiences. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with twelve adult Indigenous oncology patients recruited from a tertiary hospital in Queensland, Australia during 2012–2014. Data generated from the interviews were independently reviewed by two researchers via inductive thematic analytical processes. Discussions followed by consensus on the major categories allowed conclusions to be drawn on potential enablers. Two major categories of enablers were identified by the researchers: resilience and communication. Individual’s intrinsic strength, their coping strategies, and receipt of support improved participant’s resilience and consequently supported a positive experience. Communication methods and an effective patient-provider relationship facilitated positive experiences for participants. Despite potential barriers to access of care for Indigenous cancer patients, participants in the study demonstrated that it was still possible to focus on the positive aspects of their cancer experiences. Many participants explained how cancer changed their outlook on life, often for the better, with many feeling empowered as they progressed through their cancer diagnosis and treatment processes.
doi:10.3390/ijerph15010135
PMCID: PMC5800234  PMID: 29342934
Indigenous Australians; survivorship; cancer; qualitative design
5.  The treatment of migraine patients within chiropractic: analysis of a nationally representative survey of 1869 chiropractors 
Background
While the clinical role of manual therapies in migraine management is unclear, the use of chiropractors for this condition is considerable. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prevalence and characteristics of chiropractors who frequently manage patients with migraine.
Methods
A national cross-sectional survey of chiropractors collected information on practitioner characteristics, clinical management characteristics and practice settings. A secondary analysis was conducted on 1869 respondents who reported on their migraine caseload to determine the predictors associated with the frequent management of patients with migraine.
Results
A large proportion of chiropractors report having a high migraine caseload (HMC) (n = 990; 53.0%). The strongest factors predicting a chiropractor having a HMC include the frequent treatment of patients with axial neck pain (OR = 2.89; 95%CI: 1.18, 7.07), thoracic pain (referred/radicular) (OR = 2.52; 95%CI: 1.58, 3.21) and non-musculoskeletal disorders (OR = 3.06; 95%CI: 2.13, 4.39).
Conclusions
Several practice-setting and clinical management characteristics are associated with chiropractors managing a HMC. These findings raise key questions about the therapeutic approach to chiropractic migraine management that deserves further examination. There is a need for more primary research to assess the approach to headache and migraine management provided by chiropractors and to understand the prevalence, burden and comorbidities associated with migraine found within chiropractic patient populations. This information is vital in helping to inform safe, effective and coordinated care for migraine sufferers within the wider health system.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (10.1186/s12906-017-2026-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12906-017-2026-3
PMCID: PMC5715542  PMID: 29202816
Chiropractic; Migraine; Headaches; Practice-based research network; Utilisation; Manual therapy; Prevalence
6.  Efficacy of Tai Chi and qigong for the prevention of stroke and stroke risk factors 
Medicine  2017;96(45):e8517.
Abstract
Background:
This review aims to summarize the evidence of Tai Chi and qigong interventions for the primary prevention of stroke, including the effects on populations with major stroke risk factors.
Methods:
A systematic literature search was conducted on January 16, 2017 using the PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL databases. Randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of Tai Chi or qigong for stroke prevention and stroke risk factors were included. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool.
Results:
Twenty-one trials with n = 1604 patients with hypertension, hyperlipidaemia, diabetes, overweight or obesity, or metabolic syndrome were included. No trials were found that examined the effects of Tai Chi/qigong on stroke incidence. Meta-analyses revealed significant, but not robust, benefits of Tai Chi/qigong over no interventions for hypertension (systolic blood pressure: −15.55 mm Hg (95% CI: −21.16; −9.95); diastolic blood pressure: −10.66 mm Hg (95% CI: −14.90, −6.43); the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA) index (−2.86%; 95% CI: −5.35, −0.38) and fasting blood glucose (−9.6 mg/dL; 95% CI: −17.28, −1.91), and for the body mass index compared with exercise controls (−1.65 kg/m2; 95% CI: −3.11, −0.20). Risk of bias was unclear or high for the majority of trials and domains, and heterogeneity between trials was high. Only 6 trials adequately reported safety. No recommendation for the use of Tai Chi/qigong for the prevention of stroke can be given.
Conclusion:
Although Tai Chi and qigong show some potential more robust studies are required to provide conclusive evidence on the efficacy and safety of Tai Chi and qigong for reducing major stroke risk factors.
doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000008517
PMCID: PMC5690748  PMID: 29137055
diabetes; dyslipidaemia; hypertension; metabolic syndrome; obesity; overweight; prevention; qigong; risk factor; stroke; Tai Chi
7.  Comparison of Health Information Technology Use Between American Adults With and Without Chronic Health Conditions: Findings From The National Health Interview Survey 2012 
Background
Health information technology (HIT) is utilized by people with different chronic conditions such as diabetes and hypertension. However, there has been no comparison of HIT use between persons without a chronic condition, with one chronic condition, and multiple (≥2) chronic conditions (MCCs).
Objective
The aim of the study was to assess the difference in HIT use between persons without a chronic condition, with one chronic condition, and with MCCs, to describe the characteristics of HIT use among those with chronic conditions and to identify the predictors of HIT use of the persons with one chronic condition and MCCs.
Methods
A secondary data analysis was conducted in spring 2017 using the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) 2012 Family Core and Sample Adult Core datasets that yielded 34,525 respondents aged 18 years and older. Measures included overall HIT use (ie, any use of the following five HIT on the Internet: seeking health information, ordering prescription, making appointment, emailing health provider, and using health chat groups), as well as sociodemographic and health-related characteristics. Sociodemographic and health characteristics were compared between HIT users and nonusers among those who reported having at least one chronic condition using chi-square tests. Independent predictors of HIT use were identified using multiple logistic regression analyses for those with one chronic condition, with MCCs, and without a chronic condition. Analyses were weighted and performed at significance level of .005.
Results
In 2012, adults with one health chronic condition (raw count 4147/8551, weighted percentage 48.54%) was significantly higher than among those with MCCs (3816/9637, 39.55%) and those with none of chronic condition (7254/16,337, 44.40%, P<.001). Seeking health information was the most prevalent HIT use. Chi-square tests revealed that among adults with chronic conditions, those who used HIT were significantly different from their counterpart peers who did not use HIT in terms of sociodemographic and health characteristics (P<.001). Overall, the significant factors related to HIT use were similar among the adults with one chronic condition, with MCCs, or without a chronic condition: younger age, female sex, non-Hispanic white, higher education level, and higher income level were shown to be positively related to the HIT use.
Conclusions
This study provides a snapshot of HIT use among those with chronic conditions and potential factors related to such use. Clinical care and public health communication efforts attempting to leverage more HIT use should acknowledge differential HIT usage as identified in this study to better address communication inequalities and persistent disparities in socioeconomic status.
doi:10.2196/jmir.6989
PMCID: PMC5649043  PMID: 28982644
health information technology; chronic illness
8.  A cross-sectional examination of the profile of chiropractors recruited to the Australian Chiropractic Research Network (ACORN): a sustainable resource for future chiropractic research 
BMJ Open  2017;7(9):e015830.
Objectives
The Australian Chiropractic Research Network (ACORN) practice-based research network (PBRN) cohort was established to provide sustainable infrastructure necessary to address lack of rigorous investigation and to bridge the research–practice gap focused on chiropractic care for future years. This paper presents the profile of chiropractors recruited to the ACORN PBRN, a nationally representative sample of chiropractors working in Australia.
Design
Cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a cohort study of chiropractors in Australia.
Setting
All registered chiropractors in Australia were invited to participate in the ACORN study and those who completed a practitioner questionnaire and consent form were included in the PBRN cohort.
Participants
A total of 1680 chiropractors (36%) were recruited to the cohort database. The average age of the PBRN participants is 41.9 years and 63% are male. The vast majority of the PBRN participants hold a university degree.
Results
General practitioners were identified as the most popular referral source for chiropractic care and low back pain and neck pain were the most common conditions ‘often’ treated by the PBRN chiropractors. The chiropractors in this PBRN cohort rated high velocity, low amplitude adjustment/manipulation/mobilisation as the most commonly used technique/method and soft tissue therapy as the most frequently employed musculoskeletal intervention in their patient management.
Conclusions
The ACORN PBRN cohort constitutes the largest coverage of any single healthcare profession via a national voluntary PBRN providing a sustainable resource for future follow-up. The ACORN cohort provides opportunities for further nested substudies related to chiropractic care, chiropractors, their patients and a vast range of broader healthcare issues with a view to helping build a diverse but coordinated research programme and further research capacity building around Australian chiropractic.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2017-015830
PMCID: PMC5640145  PMID: 28965091
chiropractic; practice-based research network
9.  Efficacy of Chinese herbal medicine for stroke modifiable risk factors: a systematic review 
Chinese Medicine  2017;12:25.
Background
The vast majority of stroke burden is attributable to its modifiable risk factors. This paper aimed to systematically summarise the evidence of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) interventions on stroke modifiable risk factors for stroke prevention.
Methods
A literature search was conducted via the MEDLINE, CINAHL/EBSCO, SCOPUS, and Cochrane Database from 1996 to 2016. Randomised controlled trials or cross-over studies were included. Risk of bias was assessed according to the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool.
Results
A total of 46 trials (6895 participants) were identified regarding the use of CHM interventions in the management of stroke risk factors, including 12 trials for hypertension, 10 trials for diabetes, eight trials for hyperlipidemia, seven trials for impaired glucose tolerance, three trials for obesity, and six trials for combined risk factors. Amongst the included trials with diverse study design, an intervention of CHM as a supplement to biomedicine and/or a lifestyle intervention was found to be more effective in lowering blood pressure, decreasing blood glucose level, helping impaired glucose tolerance reverse to normal, and/or reducing body weight compared to CHM monotherapy. While no trial reported deaths amongst the CHM groups, some papers do report moderate adverse effects associated with CHM use. However, the findings of such beneficial effects of CHM should be interpreted with caution due to the heterogeneous set of complex CHM studied, the various control interventions employed, the use of different participants’ inclusion criteria, and low methodological quality across the published studies. The risk of bias of trials identified was largely unclear in the domains of selection bias and detection bias across the included studies.
Conclusion
This study showed substantial evidence of varied CHM interventions improving the stroke modifiable risk factors. More rigorous research examining the use of CHM products for sole or multiple major stroke risk factors are warranted.
doi:10.1186/s13020-017-0146-9
PMCID: PMC5584346
Chinese herbal medicine; Stroke; Risk factor; Prevention
10.  Identification of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Cancer Patients in the Primary Health Care Setting 
Background
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians have poorer cancer outcomes and experience 30% higher mortality rates compared to non-Indigenous Australians. Primary health care (PHC) services are increasingly being recognized as pivotal in improving Indigenous cancer patient outcomes. It is currently unknown whether patient information systems and practices in PHC settings accurately record Indigenous and cancer status. Being able to identify Indigenous cancer patients accessing services in PHC settings is the first step in improving outcomes.
Methods
Aboriginal Medical Centres, mainstream (non-Indigenous specific), and government-operated centers in Queensland were contacted and data were collected by telephone during the period from 2014 to 2016. Participants were asked to (i) identify the number of patients diagnosed with cancer attending the service in the previous year; (ii) identify the Indigenous status of these patients and if this information was available; and (iii) advise how this information was obtained.
Results
Ten primary health care centers (PHCCs) across Queensland participated in this study. Four centers were located in regional areas, three in remote areas and three in major cities. All participating centers reported ability to identify Indigenous cancer patients attending their service and utilizing electronic Patient Care Information Systems (PCIS) to manage their records; however, not all centers were able to identify Indigenous cancer patients in this way. Indigenous cancer patients were identified by PHCCs using PCIS (n = 8), searching paper records (n = 1), and combination of PCIS and staff recall (n = 1). Six different types of PCIS were being utilized by participating centers. There was no standardized way to identify Indigenous cancer patients across centers. Health service information systems, search functions and capacities of systems, and staff skill in extracting data using PCIS varied between centers.
Conclusion
It is crucial to be able to easily identify Indigenous cancer patients accessing health services in the PHC setting to monitor progress, improve and evaluate care, and ultimately improve Indigenous cancer outcomes. It is also important for PHC staff to receive adequate training and support to utilize PCISs efficiently and effectively.
doi:10.3389/fpubh.2017.00199
PMCID: PMC5549720
aboriginal health; identification of Indigenous cancer patients; primary health care; cancer; electronic patient records
11.  Substantial out-of-pocket expenditure on maternity care practitioner consultations and treatments during pregnancy: estimates from a nationally-representative sample of pregnant women in Australia 
Background
A wide range of health care options are utilised by pregnant women in Australia. The out-of-pocket costs of maternity care in Australia vary depending on many factors including model of care utilised, health insurance coverage, and women’s decision to access health services outside of conventional maternity care provision.
Methods
Women from the 1973–78 cohort of the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH) who identified as pregnant or as recently having given birth in 2009 were invited to complete a sub-study questionnaire investigating health service utilisation during their most recent pregnancy.
Results
A total of 1,835 women agreed to participate in the sub-study. The majority of women (99.8%) consulted with a conventional health care practitioner during pregnancy, 49.4% consulted with a complementary and alternative medicine practitioner at least once during pregnancy and 89.6% of the women used a complementary and alternative medicine product. Women reported an average of AUD$781.10 in out-of-pocket expenses for consultations with conventional health care practitioners, AUD$185.40 in out-of-pocket expenses for consultations with complementary and alternative medicine practitioners and AUD$179.60 in out-of-pocket expenses for complementary and alternative medicine products. From the study data we estimate Australian pregnant women spend over AUD$337 M on out-of-pocket health services.
Conclusion
While the majority of pregnant women in Australia may obtain health services via the publically-funded health care system and/or private health insurance coverage, our analysis identifies substantial out-of-pocket expenditure for health care by pregnant women – a trend in public spending for maternity care of importance to policy makers, health administrators, and health professionals.
doi:10.1186/s12884-017-1297-5
PMCID: PMC5389012  PMID: 28403816
Pregnancy; Economics; Complementary and alternative medicine
12.  A critical review of manual therapy use for headache disorders: prevalence, profiles, motivations, communication and self-reported effectiveness 
BMC Neurology  2017;17:61.
Background
Despite the expansion of conventional medical treatments for headache, many sufferers of common recurrent headache disorders seek help outside of medical settings. The aim of this paper is to evaluate research studies on the prevalence of patient use of manual therapies for the treatment of headache and the key factors associated with this patient population.
Methods
This critical review of the peer-reviewed literature identified 35 papers reporting findings from new empirical research regarding the prevalence, profiles, motivations, communication and self-reported effectiveness of manual therapy use amongst those with headache disorders.
Results
While available data was limited and studies had considerable methodological limitations, the use of manual therapy appears to be the most common non-medical treatment utilized for the management of common recurrent headaches. The most common reason for choosing this type of treatment was seeking pain relief. While a high percentage of these patients likely continue with concurrent medical care, around half may not be disclosing the use of this treatment to their medical doctor.
Conclusions
There is a need for more rigorous public health and health services research in order to assess the role, safety, utilization and financial costs associated with manual therapy treatment for headache. Primary healthcare providers should be mindful of the use of this highly popular approach to headache management in order to help facilitate safe, effective and coordinated care.
doi:10.1186/s12883-017-0835-0
PMCID: PMC5364599
Headache; Migraine; Tension headache; Cervicogenic headache; Manual therapy; Physical therapy; Chiropractic; Osteopathy; Massage
13.  A cross-sectional analysis of traditional medicine use for malaria alongside free antimalarial drugs treatment amongst adults in high-risk malaria endemic provinces of Indonesia 
PLoS ONE  2017;12(3):e0173522.
Background
The level of traditional medicine use, particularly Jamu use, in Indonesia is substantial. Indonesians do not always seek timely treatment for malaria and may seek self-medication via traditional medicine. This paper reports findings from the first focused analyses of traditional medicine use for malaria in Indonesia and the first such analyses worldwide to draw upon a large sample of respondents across high-risk malaria endemic areas.
Methods
A sub-study of the Indonesia Basic Health Research/Riskesdas Study 2010 focused on 12,226 adults aged 15 years and above residing in high-risk malaria-endemic provinces. Logistic regression was undertaken to determine the significant associations for traditional medicine use for malaria symptoms.
Findings
Approximately one in five respondents use traditional medicine for malaria symptoms and the vast majority experiencing multiple episodes of malaria use traditional medicine alongside free antimalarial drug treatments. Respondents consuming traditional medicine for general health/common illness purposes every day (odds ratio: 3.75, 95% Confidence Interval: 2.93 4.79), those without a hospital in local vicinity (odds ratio: 1.31, 95% Confidence Interval: 1.10 1.57), and those living in poorer quality housing, were more likely to use traditional medicine for malaria symptoms.
Conclusion
A substantial percentage of those with malaria symptoms utilize traditional medicine for treating their malaria symptoms. In order to promote safe and effective malaria treatment, all providing malaria care in Indonesia need to enquire with their patients about possible traditional medicine use.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0173522
PMCID: PMC5362041  PMID: 28329019
14.  An Overview of the Practitioner Research and Collaboration Initiative (PRACI): a practice-based research network for complementary medicine 
Background
The Practitioner Research and Collaboration Initiative (PRACI) is an innovative, multi-modality practice-based research network (PBRN) that represents fourteen complementary medicine (CM) professions across Australia. It is the largest known PBRN for complementary healthcare in the world and was launched in 2015. The purpose of this paper is to provide an update on the progress of the PRACI project, including a description of the characteristics of PRACI members in order to facilitate further sub-studies through the PRACI PBRN.
Methods
A CM workforce survey was distributed electronically to CM practitioners across fourteen disciplines, throughout Australia. Practitioners electing to become a member of PRACI were registered on the PBRN database. The database was interrogated and the data analysed to described sociodemographic characteristics, practice characteristics, professional qualification and practice interest of PRACI members.
Results
Foundational members of PRACI were found to be predominately female (76.2%) and middle-aged (82.5%). Members were primarily located in urban settings (82.5%) across the Eastern seaboard of Australia (82.5%), with few working remotely. The main modalities represented include massage therapists (58.5%), naturopaths (26.4%) and nutritionists (14.4%). The primary area of clinical interest for PRACI members were general health and well-being (75.4%), musculoskeletal complaints (72%) and pain management (62.6%).
Conclusions
PRACI provides an important infrastructure for complementary healthcare research in Australia and its success relies on CM practitioners being involved in the research being conducted through the PBRN. The aim of this database is to ensure that the research conducted through PRACI is rigorous, robust, clinically relevant and reflects the diversity of clinical practice amongst CM practitioners in Australia.
doi:10.1186/s12906-017-1609-3
PMCID: PMC5286815  PMID: 28143544
Research; Database; Practice-based; Workforce; PBRN
15.  A workforce survey of Australian chiropractic: the profile and practice features of a nationally representative sample of 2,005 chiropractors 
Background
This paper reports the profile of the Australian chiropractic workforce and characteristics of chiropractic care from a large nationally-representative sample of practitioners.
Methods
A 21-item questionnaire examining practitioner, practice and clinical management characteristics was distributed to all registered chiropractors (n = 4,684) in Australia in 2015 via both online and hard copy mail out.
Results
The survey attracted a response rate of 43% (n = 2,005), and the sample is largely representative of the national chiropractic workforce on a number of key indicators. The average age of the chiropractors was 42.1 years, nearly two-thirds are male, and the vast majority hold a bachelor degree or higher qualification. Australian chiropractors are focused upon treating people across a wide age range who mainly present with musculoskeletal conditions. Australian chiropractors have referral relationships with a range of conventional, allied health and complementary medicine (CAM) providers.
Conclusion
The chiropractic profession represents a substantial component of the contemporary Australian health care system with chiropractors managing an estimated 21.3 million patient visits per year. While the Australian chiropractic workforce is well educated, research engagement and research capacity remains sub-optimal and there is much room for further capacity building to help chiropractic reach full potential as a key integrated profession within an evidence-based health care system. Further rich, in-depth research is warranted to improve our understanding of the role of chiropractic within the Australian health care system.
doi:10.1186/s12906-016-1542-x
PMCID: PMC5217252  PMID: 28056964
Chiropractic; Chiropractor; Complementary and alternative medicine; Workforce; Practice-based research network
16.  Prevalence, patterns, and predictors of meditation use among US adults: A nationally representative survey 
Scientific Reports  2016;6:36760.
Emerging evidence suggests substantial health benefits from using meditation. While there are some indications that the popularity of meditation is increasing, little is known about the prevalence, patterns, and predictors of meditation use in the general population. In this secondary analysis of data from the 2012 US National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (n = 34,525), lifetime and 12-month prevalence of meditation use were 5.2% and 4.1%, respectively. Compared to non-users, those who had used meditation in the past 12 months were more likely to be 40–64 years, female, non-Hispanic White, living in the West, at least college-educated, not in a relationship, diagnosed with one or more chronic conditions, smoking, consuming alcohol and physically active. Meditation was mainly used for general wellness (76.2%), improving energy (60.0%), and aiding memory or concentration (50.0%). Anxiety (29.2%), stress (21.6%), and depression (17.8%) were the top health problems for which people used meditation; 63.6% reported that meditation had helped a great deal with these conditions. Only 34.8% disclosed their use of meditation with a health provider. These findings indicate that about 9.3 million US adults have used meditation in the past 12 months; and that mental health problems were the most important reason for meditation use.
doi:10.1038/srep36760
PMCID: PMC5103185  PMID: 27829670
17.  The effectiveness of complementary manual therapies for pregnancy-related back and pelvic pain 
Medicine  2016;95(38):e4723.
Abstract
Background:
Low back pain and pelvic girth pain are common in pregnancy and women commonly utilize complementary manual therapies such as massage, spinal manipulation, chiropractic, and osteopathy to manage their symptoms.
Objective:
The aim of this systematically review was to critically appraise and synthesize the best available evidence regarding the effectiveness of manual therapies for managing pregnancy-related low back and pelvic pain.
Methods:
Seven databases were searched from their inception until April 2015 for randomized controlled trials. Studies investigating the effectiveness of massage and chiropractic and osteopathic therapies were included. The study population was pregnant women of any age and at any time during the antenatal period. Study selection, data extraction, and assessment of risk of bias were conducted by 2 reviewers independently, using the Cochrane tool. Separate meta-analyses were conducted to compare manual therapies to different control interventions.
Results:
Out of 348 nonduplicate records, 11 articles reporting on 10 studies on a total of 1198 pregnant women were included in this meta-analysis. The therapeutic interventions predominantly involved massage and osteopathic manipulative therapy. Meta-analyses found positive effects for manual therapy on pain intensity when compared to usual care and relaxation but not when compared to sham interventions. Acceptability did not differ between manual therapy and usual care or sham interventions.
Conclusions:
There is currently limited evidence to support the use of complementary manual therapies as an option for managing low back and pelvic pain during pregnancy. Considering the lack of effect compared to sham interventions, further high-quality research is needed to determine causal effects, the influence of the therapist on the perceived effectiveness of treatments, and adequate dose–response of complementary manual therapies on low back and pelvic pain outcomes during pregnancy.
doi:10.1097/MD.0000000000004723
PMCID: PMC5044890  PMID: 27661020
back pain; complementary and alternative medicine; manual therapy; pelvic pain; pregnancy
18.  Severity of back pain may influence choice and order of practitioner consultations across conventional, allied and complementary health care: a cross-sectional study of 1851 mid-age Australian women 
Background
Back pain is a common, disabling and costly disorder for which patients often consult with a wide range of health practitioners. Unfortunately, no research to date has directly examined the association between the severity of back pain and back pain sufferers’ choice of whom and in what order to consult different health practitioners.
Methods
This is a sub-study of the large nationally representative Australian Longitudinal Study on Women’s Health (ALSWH). The mid-age cohort women (born 1946-51, n = 13,715) of the ALSWH were recruited from the Australian national Medicare database in 1996. These women have been surveyed six time, with survey 6 being conducted in 2010 (n = 10,011). Mid-age women (n = 1851) who in 2010 had sought help from a health care practitioner for their back pain were mailed a self-report questionnaire targeting their previous 12 months of health services utilisation, health status and their levels of back pain intensity.
Results
A total of 1620 women were deemed eligible and 1310 (80.9 %) returned completed questionnaires. Mid-age women with back pain visited various conventional, allied health and CAM practitioners for care: 75.6 % consulted a CAM practitioner; 58.4 % consulted a medical doctor; and 54.2 % consulted an allied health practitioner. Women with the most severe back pain sought conventional care from a general practitioner, and those who consulted a general practitioner first had more severe back pain than those who consulted another practitioner first. Following the general practitioner visit, the women with more severe back pain were more likely to be referred to a conventional specialist, and those with less severe back pain were more likely to be referred to a physiotherapist.
Conclusions
Our findings suggest that women with more severe back pain are likely to visit a conventional practitioner first, whereas women with less severe back pain are likely to explore a range of treatment options including CAM practitioners. The improvement of back pain over time following the various possible sequencing of consultations with different types of health practitioners is a topic with implications for ensuring safe and effective back pain care and worthy of further detailed investigation.
doi:10.1186/s12891-016-1251-0
PMCID: PMC5026776  PMID: 27639556
Back pain; Health service utilisation; Complementary medicine; Women
19.  Is Health Practitioner Regulation Keeping Pace with the Changing Practitioner and Health-Care Landscape? An Australian Perspective 
Health-care delivery is undergoing significant evolution and change. Task substitution has resulted in some practitioner groups expanding their scope of practice by assuming more complex clinical roles, new practitioner groups have emerged, and consumer-driven demand has changed the way the public engage with health practitioners and the way many health-care services are delivered. Using Australia as a case study, this paper explores the issue of the hesitancy to include new professions in health professions regulation schemes. Despite the significant changes in the health-care delivery landscape, policy development in this area has remained relatively static, with active resistance to extending formal registration to new practitioner groups. Ignoring the issue of new practitioner groups in regulatory schemes is unacceptable from a public health perspective and runs against the key public protection objectives of health practitioner regulation. Development of pathways for the entry of new health practitioner groups into regulatory schemes must be developed as a matter of priority.
doi:10.3389/fpubh.2016.00091
PMCID: PMC4904026  PMID: 27379222
health professions; health practitioner regulation; primary care; regulation; consumer protection
20.  Complementary medicine use by the Australian population: a critical mixed studies systematic review of utilisation, perceptions and factors associated with use 
Background
There is increasing evidence that complementary medicine (CM) services are being used by a substantial proportion of the Australian population and this topic has attracted keen interest from primary health care providers and policy makers. This article outlines the first summative critical review of the predictors of CM use in Australia as well as the characteristics and perceptions of Australian CM users over the last 14 years.
Methods
A literature search was conducted to ascertain original research from 2000 to 2014 in the AMED; CINAHL; and PubMed databases. Selected articles were subject to a critical appraisal analysis to identify the quality of the article. The search was confined to peer reviewed original articles published in English which identified the nature of CM services use in Australia.
Results
The findings indicate a correlation between CM users and gender, with reports of a higher rate of use from females compared to males. Female CM users are more likely to be middle-aged with a higher education and higher annual income in comparison to female non-CM users. An association between resident location and use of CM disciplines was also identified with reports of rural residents utilising manual therapies more frequently compared to urban residents. CM users are more likely to seek CM services for a range of chronic conditions including diseases identified as National Health Priority Areas by the Australian Government.
Conclusions
This article provides the first comprehensive review examining the nature of CM use in Australia. The review findings offer important insights into the characteristics and features of CM use in Australia and provide insights for national and regional primary health care initiatives and of interest to medical doctors, allied health professionals, CM practitioners, researchers and policy makers.
doi:10.1186/s12906-016-1143-8
PMCID: PMC4902999  PMID: 27289517
Complementary medicine; Health services use; Chronic disease; Sociodemographics; Sociological factors
21.  Regional Influences on Chinese Medicine Education: Comparing Australia and Hong Kong 
High quality education programs are essential for preparing the next generation of Chinese medicine (CM) practitioners. Currently, training in CM occurs within differing health and education policy contexts. There has been little analysis of the factors influencing the form and status of CM education in different regions. Such a task is important for understanding how CM is evolving internationally and predicting future workforce characteristics. This paper compares the status of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong across a range of dimensions: historical and current positions in the national higher education system, regulatory context and relationship to the health system, and public and professional legitimacy. The analysis highlights the different ways in which CM education is developing in these settings, with Hong Kong providing somewhat greater access to clinical training opportunities for CM students. However, common trends and challenges shape CM education in both regions, including marginalisation from mainstream health professions, a small but established presence in universities, and an emphasis on biomedical research. Three factors stand out as significant for the evolution of CM education in Australia and Hong Kong and may have international implications: continuing biomedical dominance, increased competition between universities, and strengthened links with mainland China.
doi:10.1155/2016/6960207
PMCID: PMC4917680  PMID: 27379170
22.  The use of complementary and alternative medicine by 7427 Australian women with cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort: a cross-sectional study 
Background
To assess the prevalence of cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort and to detail the pattern of complementary and alternative (CAM) use adopted by women for the treatment of these symptoms.
Methods
Data from the 2012 national Australian Longitudinal Study of Women’s Health (ALSWH) cross-sectional survey of 7427 women aged 34–39 years were analysed to estimate the prevalence of endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome (PMS), irregular or heavy periods and severe dysmenorrhoea and to examine the association between their symptoms and their visits to CAM practitioners as well as their use of CAM therapies and products in the previous 12 months.
Results
The prevalence of endometriosis was 3.7 % and of the perimenstrual symptoms assessed, PMS was most prevalent at 41.2 % whilst irregular bleeding (22.2 %), heavy periods (29.8 %) and severe period pain (24.1 %) were reported at lower levels. Women with endometriosis were more likely than non-sufferers to have consulted with a massage therapist or acupuncturist and to have used vitamins/minerals, yoga/meditation or Chinese medicines (p < 0.05). PMS sufferers were more likely to consult with an osteopath, massage therapist, naturopath/herbalist or alternative health practitioner and to have used all forms of CAM therapies except Chinese medicines than women who had infrequent PMS (all p < 0.05). Women with irregular periods did not have different patterns of CAM use from non-sufferers and those with heavy periods did not favour any form of CAM but were less likely to visit a massage therapist or use yoga/meditation than non-sufferers (p < 0.05). For women with severe dysmenorrhoea there was no difference in their visits to CAM practitioners compared to non-sufferers but they were more likely to use aromatherapy oils (p < 0.05) and for more frequent dysmenorrhoea also herbal medicines, Chinese medicines and other alternative therapies compared to non-sufferers (all p < 0.05).
Conclusions
There is a high prevalence of cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort amongst women in this age group. Women were using CAM differentially when they had specific symptoms of cyclic perimenstrual pain and discomfort. The use of CAM needs to be properly assessed to ensure their safe, effective use and to ascertain their significance as a treatment option enabling women with menstrual problems and their care providers to improve their quality of life.
doi:10.1186/s12906-016-1119-8
PMCID: PMC4870787  PMID: 27189381
Endometriosis; Premenstrual syndrome; Irregular periods; Heavy periods; Severe dysmenorrhoea; Complementary and Alternative medicine
23.  A qualitative study of hospital pharmacists and antibiotic governance: negotiating interprofessional responsibilities, expertise and resource constraints 
Background
Antibiotic treatment options for common infections are diminishing due to the proliferation of antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The impact of Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) programs seeking to preserve viable antibiotic drugs by governing their use in hospitals has hitherto been limited. Pharmacists have been delegated a critical role in antibiotic governance in AMS teams within hospitals but the experience of pharmacists in influencing antibiotic use has received limited attention. In this study we explore the experiences of pharmacists in antibiotic decision-making in two Australian hospitals.
Methods
We conducted 19 semi-structured interviews to explore hospital-based pharmacists’ perceptions and experiences of antibiotic use and governance. The analysis was conducted with NVivo10 software, utilising the framework approach.
Results
Three major themes emerged in the pharmacist interviews including (1) the responsibilities of pharmacy in optimising antibiotic use and the interprofessional challenges therein; (2) the importance of antibiotic streamlining and the constraints placed on pharmacists in achieving this; and (3) the potential, but often under-utilised expertise, pharmacists bring to antibiotic optimisation.
Conclusions
Pharmacists have a critical role in AMS teams but their capacity to enact change is limited by entrenched interprofessional dynamics. Identifying how hospital pharmacy’s antibiotic gatekeeping is embedded in the interprofessional nature of clinical decision-making and limited by organisational environment has important implications for the implementation of hospital policies seeking to streamline antibiotic use. Resource constraints (i.e. time limitation and task prioritisation) in particular limit the capacity of pharmacists to overcome the interprofessional barriers through development of stronger collaborative relationships. The results of this study suggest that to enact change in antibiotic use in hospitals, pharmacists must be supported in their negotiations with doctors, have increased presence on hospital wards, and must be given opportunities to pass on specialist knowledge within multidisciplinary clinical teams.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12913-016-1290-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s12913-016-1290-0
PMCID: PMC4744423  PMID: 26852016
Antibiotics; Qualitative research; Semi-structured interviews; Pharmacy; Hospital governance; Antimicrobial resistance; Australia; Antimicrobial Stewardship; Antibiotic prescribing
25.  What role do pharmacists play in mediating antibiotic use in hospitals? A qualitative study 
BMJ Open  2015;5(11):e008326.
Objective
To understand Australian hospital pharmacists’ accounts of antibiotic use, and the potential role of pharmacy in antibiotic optimisation within a tertiary hospital setting.
Design, setting and participants
Qualitative study, utilising semistructured interviews with 19 pharmacists in two hospitals in Queensland, Australia in 2014. Data was analysed using the framework approach and supported by NVivo10 qualitative data analysis software.
Results
The results demonstrate that (1) pharmacists’ attitudes are ambivalent towards the significance of antibiotic resistance with optimising antibiotic use perceived as low priority; (2) pharmacists’ current capacity to influence antibiotic decision-making is limited by the prescribing power of doctors and the perception of antibiotic use as a medical responsibility; and, (3) interprofessional and organisational barriers exist that prevent change in the hospital setting including medical hierarchies, limited contact with senior doctors and resource constraints resulting in insufficient pharmacy staffing to foster collaborative relationships and facilitate the uptake of their advice.
Discussion
While pharmacy is playing an increasingly important role in enhanced antibiotic governance and is a vital component of antimicrobial stewardship in Australia, role-based limitations, interprofessional dynamics and organisational/resource constraints in hospitals, if not urgently addressed, will continue to significantly limit the ability of pharmacy to influence antibiotic prescribing.
doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2015-008326
PMCID: PMC4636622  PMID: 26534731
Antibiotics; Pharmacy; QUALITATIVE RESEARCH; Hospital Medicine

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