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1.  Preventing and Therapeutic Effect of Propolis in Radiotherapy Induced Mucositis of Head and Neck Cancers: A Triple-Blind, Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial 
Background:
Mucositis is one of the acute complications of radiotherapy which can ulcerate oral mucosa and cause severe pain and discomfort which can affect oral normal function. Propolis is a natural source of flavenoid which has antiulcer, antibacterial, antifungal, healing and anti-inflammatory effects. Using such an affordable compound without any bad smell or taste that has reasonable price can help the radiotherapy undergoing patients.
Objectives:
Our goal is assessing the preventing and therapeutic effect of propolis in radiotherapy induced mucositis in patients with head and neck cancer.
Patients and Methods:
In a randomized triple blind clinical trial, 20 patient were selected randomly to swish and swallow 15 ml of water based extract of propolis mouth wash 3 times a day in the case group (n = 10) and 15 ml placebo mouth wash in control group (n = 10). we use NIC-CTC scale for determining mucositis grading.
Results:
We use T-test, Man-Whitney, Chi-square, and Friedman as analyzing tests. Case group had significantly (P < 0.05) lower grade of mucositis in all of the follow-ups, but xerostomia is not significantly different in two groups (P > 0.05).
Conclusions:
This is a pilot study which shows water based extract of propolis efficiently prevents and heals radiotherapy induced mucositis.
doi:10.17795/ijcp-4019
PMCID: PMC4667229  PMID: 26634113
Cancer; Mouthwashes; Mucositis; Propolis; Radiotherapy
2.  The Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus in Mashhad, Iran: A Population-Based Study 
Hepatitis Monthly  2013;13(3):e7723.
Background
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a significant health problem throughout the world. Chronic form of the disease is found in about 75% to 85% of the newly infected individuals. The chronic infection may lead to severe forms including chronic liver disease, cirrhosis and with a higher mortality rate, hepatocellular carcinoma. Since no vaccine has yet been developed against HCV, there is an increasing need to take measures to control the spread of the infection. Therefore, epidemiologic study of the virus is important to manage and monitor the spread of the virus in the community.
Objectives
The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of hepatitis C seropositivity in the general population of Mashhad, northeast of Iran.
Patients and Methods
Three thousand, eight hundred and seventy (3870) individuals living in the city of Mashhad were recruited using cluster sampling method. HCV seropositivity was determined with HCV antibody detection ELISA kit and was confirmed by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) method.
Results
In this study the overall seroprevalence of hepatitis C was founded to be 0.2% by using ELISA method. However, the overall Hepatitis C virus infection prevalence was found to be 0.13% with RT-PCR method.
Conclusions
Our study suggested that the prevalence rate of Hepatitis C virus is below 1% in the general population of Mashhad.
doi:10.5812/hepatmon.7723
PMCID: PMC3669679  PMID: 23745128
Hepatitis C; Prevalence; Population Groups; Iran
3.  Accuracy of color Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in diagnosis of placenta accreta: A survey of 82 cases 
Background:
Placenta adhesive disorder (PAD) is one of the most common causes of postpartum hemorrhage and peripartum hysterectomy. The main risk factors are placenta previa and prior uterine surgery such as cesarean section. Diagnosis of placenta adhesive disorders can lead to a decrease of maternal mortality and morbidities.
Objective:
The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of color Doppler ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in the diagnosis of PADs.
Materials and Methods:
In this is cross-sectional study, Eighty-two pregnant women who were high risk for PAD underwent color Doppler ultrasound and MRI after 18 weeks of gestation. The sonographic and MRI findings were compared with the final pathologic or clinical findings. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results:
Mean maternal age was 31.42±4.2 years. The average gravidity was third pregnancy. 46% of patients had placenta previa. The history of the previous cesarean section was seen in 79 cases (96%). The diagnosis of placenta adhesive disorder was found in 17 cases (21%). Doppler sonography sensitivity was 87% and MRI sensitivity was 76% (p=0.37). Doppler sonography specificity was 63% and MRI specificity was 83% (p=0.01).
Conclusion:
Women with high-risk factors for PAD should undergo Doppler ultrasonography at first. When results on Doppler sonography are equivocal for PAD, MRI can be performed due to its high specificity.
PMCID: PMC5555040
Placenta previa; Color Doppler ultrasonography; Magnetic resonance imaging
4.  Comparison of Clinical and Radiologic Outcome of Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis Treated with Hybrid Hook-Screw Instrumentation versus Universal Clamp System 
Advances in Medicine  2016;2016:7639727.
Background. In surgical treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), hybrid universal clamp system has been used by some authors. We aimed to compare the clinical and radiologic outcome of hybrid universal clamp with hybrid thoracic hook lumbar screw. Methods. A prospective study was performed on 56 consecutive patients with AIS, who had alternatively undergone a posterior spinal fusion and instrumentation with hybrid thoracic hook lumbar screw system (28 patients: group A) and hybrid universal clamp system (28 patients: group B) between June 2006 and January 2014 at Imam Reza University Hospital and had been followed up for more than two years. The comparison was according to radiographic changes, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, complications, and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22) outcome scores. Results. The preoperative mean curve Cobb angle was 58° ± 7° (42°–74°) in group A and 60° ± 9° (46°–75°) in group B. The mean final coronal curve correction was 60.4% and 75.5% in groups A and B, respectively (P = 0.001). Postoperative SRS outcome scores were also comparable. Conclusion. Universal clamp instrumentation had a significantly better curve correction and lower complication rate compared with hybrid thoracic hook lumbar screw. Both instrumentation methods had similar operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and postoperative SRS outcome scores.
doi:10.1155/2016/7639727
PMCID: PMC5107211  PMID: 27872896
5.  A survey of the therapeutic effects of Vitamin E suppositories on vaginal atrophy in postmenopausal women 
Background:
Menopause is associated with various complications such as depression, sleep disorders, and genitourinary atrophy. Vaginal atrophy occurs due to the loss of steroid hormones, and its major symptoms include vaginal dryness, itching, dyspareunia, and bleeding after intercourse. According to the literature, vitamin E plays a key role in estrogen stability. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of vitamin E suppositories and conjugated estrogen vaginal cream on vaginal atrophy.
Materials and Methods:
In this clinical trial, 52 postmenopausal women, who were referred to a gynecology clinic in 2013, were recruited and randomly divided into two groups (26 cases per group). One group received 100 IU of vitamin E suppositories (n = 26), whereas the other group applied 0.5 g of conjugated estrogen cream for 12 weeks. Vaginal maturation value (VMV) was compared between the two groups before and after the intervention. VMV ≤ 55 was regarded as a cut-off point for vaginal atrophy. Treatment success was defined as a 10-unit increase in VMV, compared to the baseline value. Data were analyzed by Friedman test and Mann-Whitney test. P value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
Results:
The mean VMV in the vitamin E group before the treatment and after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of treatment was 43.78 ± 13.75, 69.07 ± 22.75, 77.86 ± 21.79, and 80.59 ± 19.23, respectively. The corresponding values in the estrogen cream group were 42.86 ± 14.40, 86.98 ± 12.58, 92.65 ± 15, and 91.57 ± 14.10, respectively. VMV significantly improved in both the treatment groups after the intervention, compared to the preintervention period (P < 0.001). Treatment success was reported in both groups, although estrogen cream (100%) appeared to be more effective after 4 weeks of treatment, compared to vitamin E suppositories (76.9%) (P = 0.01).
Conclusions:
Based on the findings, use of vitamin E suppositories could improve the laboratory criteria for vaginal atrophy and treatment success. Therefore, vitamin E suppositories are suggested for relieving the symptoms of vaginal atrophy, especially in women who are unable to use hormone therapy or cope with the associated side effects.
doi:10.4103/1735-9066.193393
PMCID: PMC5114791  PMID: 27904630
Conjugated estrogen; vitamin E; vaginal atrophy
6.  Correlation between serum leptin and bone mineral density in hemodialysis patients 
Introduction: For diagnosing of specific types of bone lesions in hemodialysis (HD) patients, it is necessary to conduct a bone biopsy as the gold standard method. However, it is an invasive procedure. While different markers have been suggested as alternative methods, none of them has been selected. The frequency of hip fractures is 80 fold in HD patients who have two-fold mortality as compared with general population.
Objectives: Recently, serum leptin has been suggested as a bone density marker. This study tries to confirm this proposal.
Patients and Methods: In this study about 104 HD patients (53.8% male and 46.2% female) were enrolled. The average age was 38.28±7.89 years. Serum leptin, bone alkaline phosphatase, intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH), 25(OH)D, calcium, phosphorus and bone mineral density (BMD) (at the femoral neck and lumbar spine, as measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry [DXA]) were assessed.
Results: Analysis by polynomial regression revealed no correlation between BMD Z-score at two points and serum leptin level. According to the thresholds of 25 ng/mL and 18-24 ng/mL in some studies, we detected 25 ng/mL as the threshold in our patients. Under this threshold, the leptin effect on bone mass was negative, and above the threshold of 25 ng/mL, we found leptin had positive effect on bone mass.
Conclusion: In this investigation, we found, leptin has a bimodal effect on bone mass. Cortical bones assessment may be a better option for assessment.
doi:10.15171/jrip.2016.24
PMCID: PMC5039995  PMID: 27689105
Hemodialysis; Leptin; Bone mineral density; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry
7.  Haplotype Analysis of Hemochromatosis Gene Polymorphisms in Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Case Control Study 
Background
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is frequently associated with elevated serum iron markers. Polymorphisms in the hemochromatosis (HFE) genes are responsible for iron accumulation in most cases of hemochromatosis, and may play a role in HCV infection.
Objectives
We aimed to assess the prevalence of HFE gene polymorphisms in a group of Iranian HCV-infected patients, and to explore the association of these polymorphisms with HCV infection.
Patients and Methods
HFE gene polymorphisms were examined in a total of 69 HCV patients and 69 healthy controls using polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism techniques. Haplotype and diplotype analyses were performed using PHASE software.
Results
In a recessive analysis model of the His63Asp (H63D) locus (HH vs. HD + DD), the HH genotype was more common in patients compared to controls (adjusted P = 0.012; OR = 6.42 [95% CI: 1.51 - 27.33]). Also, in a recessive analysis model of the Cys282Tyr (C282Y) locus (CC vs. CY + YY), the CC genotype was more frequent in patients compared to controls (adjusted P = 0.03; OR = 5.06 [95% CI: 1.13 - 22.06]). In addition, there was a significant association between the HC haplotype and the HCDC diplotype and HCV infection.
Conclusions
Polymorphism in the hemochromatosis gene may confer some degree of risk for HCV infection, and individuals carrying the H and C alleles may be susceptible to this disease; however, a larger sample of HCV patients and healthy individuals may be necessary to further illustrate the role of these polymorphisms in HCV.
doi:10.5812/ircmj.24675
PMCID: PMC5002998  PMID: 27621921
Hepatitis C Virus; Hemochromatosis (HFE) Gene Polymorphisms; Prognosis
8.  The effect of pelvic floor muscle exercises program on sexual self-efficacy in primiparous women after delivery 
Background:
Selection and acceptance of appropriate sexual behavior and sexual function are made difficult by low sexual self-efficacy in the postpartum period. The general purpose of this research is to define the effects of an 8-week pelvic floor muscle exercise program on sexual self-efficacy in primiparous women after childbirth.
Materials and Methods:
This clinical trial was performed on 79 primiparous women who referred to health care centers, Mashhad, Iran in 2013, 8 weeks after delivery, to receive health care services. They were selected by easy sampling. The samples were randomly assigned to either intervention or control group. The intervention group was trained in Kegel exercises for 8 weeks. Both groups were evaluated at 4 and 8 weeks. Data collection tools included: Demographic information, sexual self-efficacy, and Brink scale. Data were analyzed using repeated measures, Friedman test, t-test, and Mann–Whitney test.
Results:
The results showed significant increase in pelvic floor muscle strength in the intervention group at 4 and 8 weeks after exercises (P < 0.0001), but no significant difference was observed in the control group (P = 0.368). There was a significant increase in sexual self-efficacy in the intervention (P < 0.0001) and control groups (P = 0.001) at 4 and 8 weeks after the start of the study. Comparison of the two groups showed a significant difference in sexual self-efficacy after they performed these exercises (P = 0.001).
Conclusions:
The findings showed that 8-week pelvic muscle exercises increase the sexual self-efficacy in women after delivery.
PMCID: PMC4462060  PMID: 26120335
Exercises; Iran; pelvic floor; postpartum; self-efficacy; sexual
9.  Social Determinants of Tooth Loss among a Group of Iranian Female Heads of Household 
Background and aims. Tooth loss may lead to mastication disability, which in turn has important impact on individual’s quality of life. Social and psychological factors have been shown to be associated with tooth loss. This study aimed to investigate the social determinants and prevalence of tooth loss, and presence of functional dentition among female heads of household under support of Welfare Organization in Mashhad, Iran.
Materials and methods. In current study 556 participants aged 16-76 years were recruited. Sociodemographic characteristics (age, level of education, family size, and monthly income) were collected using interviewer-led questionnaire. Data about number of teeth and functional dentition were obtained by oral examination. The data were analyzed using Chi-square, Kruskal-Wallis, T-test and binary logistic regression analysis.
Results. Four percent of participants were edentulous. Tooth loss was significantly associated with level of education, age and family size (P < 0.001). There was no significant association between level of income and tooth loss (P = 0.88). Only 37.5% of dentate subjects had functional dentition (anterior and premolar teeth). Women older than 40 years were 0.63 times less likely to have functional dentition than those younger than 40 years. Females with at least a high-school diploma were six times more likely to have functional dentition than their illiterate counterparts.
Conclusion. Social determinants of functional dentition should be taken into account when planning oral health promoting programs for female heads of household. For reducing oral health inequalities access to dental services should be facilitated.
doi:10.15171/joddd.2015.025
PMCID: PMC4517306  PMID: 26236441
Dentition; female; head of household; single-parent family; tooth loss
10.  Comparing the effect of open and closed endotracheal suctioning on pain and oxygenation in post CABG patients under mechanical ventilation 
Background:
The aim of this study was to compare changes in pain, oxygenation, and ventilation following endotracheal suctioning with open and closed suctioning systems in post coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients.
Materials and Methods:
130 post CABG mechanically ventilated patients were randomly allocated to undergo either open (n = 75) or closed (n = 55) endotracheal suctioning for 15 s. The patients received 100% oxygen for 1 min before and after suctioning. Pain score using critical-care pain objective tool (CPOT) was compared during suctioning between the two groups. Arterial oxygen pressure (PaO2), PaO2 to fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2) (PF) ratio, and arterial carbon dioxide pressure (PaCO2) were compared at baseline and 5 min after suctioning. Peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) was compared at baseline, during suctioning, and at 1 min interval after suctioning for 5 min between the two groups.
Results:
The patients were the same with regard to CPOT scores, i.e. 3.21 (1.89) and 2.94 (1.56) in the open and closed suctioning systems, respectively. SpO2 did not change significantly between the two groups. Changes in PaO2 and PF ratio was more significant in the open than in the closed system (P = 0.007). Patients in the open group had a higher PaCO2 than those in the closed group, i.e. 40.54 (6.56) versus 38.02 (6.10), and the P value was 0.027.
Conclusions:
Our study revealed that patients’ pain and SpO2 changes are similar following endotracheal suctioning in both suctioning systems. However, oxygenation and ventilation are better preserved with closed suctioning system.
PMCID: PMC4387642  PMID: 25878695
Closed suctioning; coronary artery bypass grafting; endotracheal suctioning; open suctioning; oxygenation; pain; ventilation
11.  Relationship between gender role attitude and fertility rate in women referring to health centers in Mashhad in 2013 
Background:
Fertility rate apparently is a non-interventional behavior, but in practice, it is influenced by social values and norms in which culture and traditional beliefs play a significant role. In this regard, some studies have shown that gender roles can be associated with reproductive behaviors. With regard to the importance of annual reduction of population growth rate and its outcomes, the present study was performed to determine the relationship between gender role attitude and fertility rate in women referring to Mashhad health centers in 2013.
Materials and Methods:
The present study is an analytical cross-sectional and multistage sampling study performed on 712 women. Data were collected by a questionnaire consisting of two sections: Personal information and gender role attitude questionnaire that contained two dimensions, i.e. gender stereotypes and gender egalitarianism. Its validity was determined by content validity and its reliability by internal consistency (r = 0.77). Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16.
Results:
Initial analysis of the data indicated that there was a significant relationship between acceptance of gender stereotypes (P = 0.008) and gender egalitarianism (P < 0.001), and fertility. There was also a direct association between acceptance of gender stereotypes and fertility rate (r = 0.13) and an indirect association between egalitarianism and fertility rate (r = −0.15).
Conclusions:
The results of the present study indicate that there is an association between gender role attitude and fertility. Paying attention to women's attitude is very important for successful planning in the improvement of fertility rate and population policy.
PMCID: PMC4387654  PMID: 25878707
Attitude; fertility rate; gender role; Iran
12.  Overcoming Complications Through Pre-patient Surgical Training in Otolaryngology 
Planning a balanced academic and practical surgical curriculum that is parallel to the constant innovations in surgical fields is the cornerstone of surgical education. Current training methods have coinciding benefits and drawbacks. In this study, we compare the efficacy of two learning models: pre-patient training outside the operating room versus step-by-step training on real patients in the operating room. Facial nerve preservation in superficial parotidectomy is the surgical model used in the study. Five otolaryngology residents in the third year of their residency participated in this study. They were divided into two groups: a treatment group which underwent a pre-patient training program by cadaver dissection and a control group which followed a step-by-step training model. At the end of the study, significant differences were apparent between two groups in the ability to find facial nerve trunk, microdissection of facial nerve branches, and the mean duration of total operating time. Pre-patient training programs outside the operating room provide surgical residents the opportunity to learn by trial and error without fear of complications.
doi:10.1007/s12070-012-0511-z
PMCID: PMC3938698  PMID: 24605292
Pre-patient training; Surgical curriculum; Cadaver dissection; Facial nerve paralysis
13.  A Randomized Placebo-controlled Double Blind Clinical Trial of Quercetin for Treatment of Oral Lichen Planus 
Background and aims. Standard treatment of oral lichen planus (OLP) includes topical or systemic corticosteroids that have many adverse effects. A trend toward alternative natural or herbal drugs has attended recently. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of quercetin in treatment of erosive-atrophic OLP.
Materials and methods. Thirty patients participated in this randomized clinical trial from April 2010 to June 2010 (Trial Registration Number: NCT01375101). Patients were randomly allocated in two groups. Both groups received the standard treatment (dexamethasone mouthwash and nystatin suspension). Experimental group received oral 250 mg quercetin hydrate capsules (bid) and the control group received placebo capsules. The pain and severity of the lesions were recorded at the initial visit and the follow-ups. All recorded data were analyzed with chi-square, Mann-Whitney, t-test, Wilcoxon and Friedman tests using SPSS 11.5.
Results. There were no significant differences between the two groups in severity of the lesions and pain in the follow-ups.According to the Friedman test, there was a significant reduction in pain (P = 0.01) and severity indices (P = 0.00) in the case group. These differences were not observed in the control group(P = 0.26,SI; and P = 0.86, PI). No adverse effect of quercetin was reported.
Conclusion. According to the results, no significant therapeutic effect can be considered for quercetin in treatment of OLP.
doi:10.15171/joddd.2015.005
PMCID: PMC4417489  PMID: 25973150
Clinical trial; lichen Planus; quercetin; oral
14.  Pictorial Health Warning Labels on Cigarette Packages: An Investigation on Opinions of Male Smokers 
Background:
Health warning labels on cigarette packages are among the most straightforward and important tools to communicate with smokers and various studies have illustrated their efficacy.
Objectives:
The current study aimed to investigate the opinions of male smokers in Mashhad city about the efficacy of health warning labels printed on cigarette packages on the smoking status of smokers.
Patients and Methods:
This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in 2013 using a questionnaire. The research population included the male smokers of Mashhad. The participants were selected from the customers referring to the newsstands for cigarettes. The obtained data were analyzed employing SPSS software Version 16, and the statistical tests including Kruskal-Wallis, Spearman, and correlation coefficient of Pearson, Chi Square, Mann-Whitney, and Bonferroni correction were used in this regard.
Results:
In this research, there were 500 participants with the average age of 25 years. The initiation age of smoking was eight years while the maximum age was reported as 45 years. Results of this research about the effect of these labels on decreasing cigarette consumption rate showed that almost half of the participants believed that these labels were ineffective for them (52.2%) and other smokers (53.8%).Furthermore, significant relationship was found between the age and opinion of the smokers about the influence of these labels on reducing their cigarette consumption (P < 0.001).
Conclusions:
To promote the effect of printed images on cigarette packages, it is recommended to consider the suitability of labels in the targeted culture. In addition, to be more effective consultation sites to quit smoking should be introduced under the images.
doi:10.5812/ircmj.14879
PMCID: PMC4005439  PMID: 24829777
Smoking; Tobacco Products; Iran
15.  Determining of Factors Influencing the Success and Failure of Hospital Information System and Their Evaluation Methods: A Systematic Review 
Background:
Nowadays, using new information technology (IT) has provided remarkable opportunities to decrease medical errors, support health care specialist, increase the efficiency and even the quality of patient’s care and safety.
Objectives:
The purpose of this study was the identification of Hospital Information System (HIS) success and failure factors and the evaluation methods of these factors. This research emphasizes the need to a comprehensive evaluation of HISs which considers a wide range of success and failure factors in these systems.
Materials and Methods:
We searched for relevant English language studies based on keywords in title and abstract, using PubMed, Ovid Medline (by applying MeSH terms), Scopus, ScienceDirect and Embase (earliest entry to march 17, 2012). Studies which considered success models and success or failure factors, or studied the evaluation models of HISs and the related ones were chosen. Since the studies used in this systematic review were heterogeneous, the combination of extracted data was carried out by using narrative synthesis method.
Results:
We found 16 articles which required detailed analysis. Finally, the suggested framework includes 12 main factors (functional, organizational, behavioral, cultural, management, technical, strategy, economy, education, legal, ethical and political factors), 67 sub factors, and 33 suggested methods for the evaluation of these sub factors.
Conclusions:
The results of the present research indicates that the emphasis of the HIS evaluation moves from technical subjects to human and organizational subjects, and from objective to subjective issues. Therefore, this issue entails more familiarity with more qualitative evaluation methods. In most of the reviewed studies, the main focus has been laid on the necessity of using multi-method approaches and combining methods to obtain more comprehensive and useful results.
doi:10.5812/ircmj.11716
PMCID: PMC3955501  PMID: 24693386
Hospital Information Systems; Health Information Systems; Review Literature
16.  Growth Curves of Preschool Children in the Northeast of Iran: A Population Based Study Using Quantile Regression Approach 
Introduction:
Growth charts are widely used to assess children’s growth status and can provide a trajectory of growth during early important months of life. The objectives of this study are going to construct growth charts and normal values of weight-for-age for children aged 0 to 5 years using a powerful and applicable methodology. The results compare with the World Health Organization (WHO) references and semi-parametric LMS method of Cole and Green.
Methods:
A total of 70737 apparently healthy boys and girls aged 0 to 5 years were recruited in July 2004 for 20 days from those attending community clinics for routine health checks as a part of a national survey. Anthropometric measurements were done by trained health staff using WHO methodology. The nonparametric quantile regression method obtained by local constant kernel estimation of conditional quantiles curves using for estimation of curves and normal values.
Results:
The weight-for-age growth curves for boys and girls aged from 0 to 5 years were derived utilizing a population of children living in the northeast of Iran. The results were similar to the ones obtained by the semi-parametric LMS method in the same data. Among all age groups from 0 to 5 years, the median values of children’s weight living in the northeast of Iran were lower than the corresponding values in WHO reference data. The weight curves of boys were higher than those of girls in all age groups.
Conclusion:
The differences between growth patterns of children living in the northeast of Iran versus international ones necessitate using local and regional growth charts. International normal values may not properly recognize the populations at risk for growth problems in Iranian children. Quantile regression (QR) as a flexible method which doesn’t require restricted assumptions, proposed for estimation reference curves and normal values.
doi:10.5539/gjhs.v5n3p9
PMCID: PMC4776796  PMID: 23618470
nonparametric quantile regression; kernel estimation; growth curves; reference curve; child
17.  The Prevalence of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Mashhad, Iran: A Population-Based Study 
Background
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the most common and serious liver infection in the world. An estimated 350 million people are chronic carriers of this virus, of whom, more than 620,000 die from liver-related diseases annually. Due to the vaccination program, prevalence of HBV, particularly among the younger generation, is reported to have declined in recent years in Iran.
Objectives
The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HBV infection in Mashhad, North-East of Iran.
Patients and Methods
Three thousand one hundred and ninety eight (3198) individuals living in Mashhad were studied using cluster sampling method. HBV infection was determined by HBsAg ELISA commercial kit. Positive results were subjected for PCR using HBV-specific primers. HBeAg, HBeAb, and HBcAb-IgM ELISA tests were performed for HBsAg-positive samples.
Results
Patients’ age ranged from 15 to 65 years (Mean = 35.54 ± 14.85). Thirty four (1.0%) of the subjects were positive for HBsAg, of whom, 2.9 % (1 of 34 cases) were also positive in PCR-based screening. ELISA tests for HBeAg, HBeAb, and HBcAb IgM were positive in one (2.9 %), 27 (79.4%) and one (2.9 %) cases, respectively.
Conclusions
According to our results, HBsAg was positive in 0.53 of the total population. The prevalence of HBV infection was seemingly low in Mashhad; however, an upward trend was observed in older subjects probably due to successful HBV vaccination coverage in the younger generation. Continuous surveillance and periodic population-based studies are essential to monitor the prevalence of HBV infection in Mashhad in the future.
doi:10.5812/ircmj.8200
PMCID: PMC3745755  PMID: 23984006
Hepatitis B virus; Prevalence
18.  Body Fat Distribution and Its Association with Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Adolescent Iranian Girls 
Iranian Journal of Pediatrics  2012;22(2):197-204.
Objective
The relationships between body fat distribution, lipid profile and blood pressure, have not been studied extensively in young population. This study was designed to evaluate the association between measures of adiposity and established cardiovascular risk factors in adolescent girls.
Methods
A total of 477 adolescent girls aged 15 to 18 years were recruited from Mashhad high schools. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Anthropometric assessments, blood pressure measurement and biochemical assessment were performed. Total and regional fat mass were determined by bio-impedance analysis. Cardiovascular disease risk factors were assessed in relation to body fat measures with adjustment for confounder factors including age and family socioeconomic status.
Findings
The prevalence of overweight and obesity was 14.6% and 3.4% respectively; 16% of study population had greater fat mass compared to its ideal distribution. The majority of cardiovascular risk factors, especially systolic and diastolic blood pressure, triglyceride concentration, CRP and fasting blood sugar were significantly higher in group with a high body fat when compared to those with normal and low values. All anthropometric indices showed significant correlation with fat mass, fat free mass, total and regional body fat percent (P<0.001). After adjustment for age and family socioeconomic status, a high fat mass especially, truncal fat, was positively associated with triglyceride and blood pressure.
Conclusion
Adiposity, especially truncal adiposity, which can be assessed by simple measures such as Body Mass Index (BMI) and Waist Circumference (WC) may predispose adolescent girls for demonstration of metabolic abnormalities and consequently cardiovascular diseases.
PMCID: PMC3446063  PMID: 23056886
Body composition; Hyperlipidemia; Obesity; Girls; Trunk fat
19.  Inter-rater reliability of modified Alberta Stroke program early computerized tomography score in patients with brain infarction 
BACKGROUND:
The Alberta Stroke Program Early Computerized Tomography Score (ASPECTS) was used to detect significant early ischemic changes on brain CT of acute stroke patients. We designed the modified ASPECTS and compared it to the above system based on the inter-rater reliability.
METHODS:
A cross-sectional validation study was conducted based on the inter-rater reliability. The CT images were chosen from the stroke data bank of Ghaem hospital, Mashhad in 2010. The inclusion criteria were the presence of middle cerebral artery territory infarction and performance of CT within 6 hours after stroke onset. Axial CT scans were performed on a third-generation CT scanner (Siemens, ARTX, Germany). Section thickness above posterior fossa was 10 mm (130 kV, 150 mAs). Films were made at window level of 35 HU. The brain CTs were scored by four independent radiologists based on the ASPECTS and modified ASPECTS. The readers were blind to clinical information except symptom side. Cochrane Q and Kappa tests served for statistical analysis.
RESULTS:
24 CT scans were available and of sufficient quality. Difference in distribution of dichotomized ≤7 and >7 ASPECT scores between four raters was significant (Q=13.071, df=3, p=0.04). Distribution of dichotomized <6 and ≥6 scores based on modified ASPECT system between 4 raters was not significantly different (Q=6.349, df=3, p=0.096).
CONCLUSIONS:
Modified ASPECT method is more reliable than ASPECTS in detecting major early ischemic changes in stroke patients candidated to tPA thrombolysis.
PMCID: PMC3430023  PMID: 22973327
Computed Tomography; Cerebral Infarction; Thrombolysis; Inter-Rater Reliability

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