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On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  Absence of neurological abnormalities in mice homozygous for the Polr3a G672E hypomyelinating leukodystrophy mutation 
Molecular Brain  2017;10:13.
Recessive mutations in the ubiquitously expressed POLR3A gene cause one of the most frequent forms of childhood-onset hypomyelinating leukodystrophy (HLD): POLR3-HLD. POLR3A encodes the largest subunit of RNA Polymerase III (Pol III), which is responsible for the transcription of transfer RNAs (tRNAs) and a large array of other small non-coding RNAs. In order to study the central nervous system pathophysiology of the disease, we introduced the French Canadian founder Polr3a mutation c.2015G > A (p.G672E) in mice, generating homozygous knock-in (KI/KI) as well as compound heterozygous mice for one Polr3a KI and one null allele (KI/KO). Both KI/KI and KI/KO mice are viable and are able to reproduce. To establish if they manifest a motor phenotype, WT, KI/KI and KI/KO mice were submitted to a battery of behavioral tests over one year. The KI/KI and KI/KO mice have overall normal balance, muscle strength and general locomotion. Cerebral and cerebellar Luxol Fast Blue staining and measurement of levels of myelin proteins showed no significant differences between the three groups, suggesting that myelination is not overtly impaired in Polr3a KI/KI and KI/KO mice. Finally, expression levels of several Pol III transcripts in the brain showed no statistically significant differences. We conclude that the first transgenic mice with a leukodystrophy-causing Polr3a mutation do not recapitulate the childhood-onset HLD observed in the majority of human patients with POLR3A mutations, and provide essential information to guide selection of Polr3a mutations for developing future mouse models of the disease.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13041-017-0294-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13041-017-0294-y
PMCID: PMC5391615  PMID: 28407788
Leukodystrophy; POLR3A; Mouse model; Hypomyelination; RNA Polymerase III; Transfer RNAs
2.  Antidepressant-like effects of neurokinin receptor antagonists in the forced swim test in the rat 
European journal of pharmacology  2004;507(1-3):99-105.
Although a wide assortment of agents is currently available for the treatment of depression, this disorder remains poorly managed in a large proportion of patients. Traditional antidepressant treatments target the biogenic amine systems. However, a growing body of evidence is implicating the involvement of neuropeptides in depression, especially the neurokinin substance P. This study evaluated the effects of selective antagonists of the tachykinin NK1, NK2, and NK3 receptors in the forced swim test, a commonly used screen for antidepressants. Rats were given CP-96,345 (2S, 3S)-cis-2-(diphenylmethyl)-N-[(2-methoxyphenyl)-methyl]-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]octan-3-amine, SR 48968 (S)-N-methyl-N[4-(4-acetylamino-4-phenylpiperidino)-2-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-butyl]benzamide, or SR 142801 (S)-(N)-(1-(3-(1-benzoyl-3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl) piperidin-3-yl) propyl)-4-phenylpiperidin-4-yl)-N-methylacetamide, antagonists of the NK1, NK2, and NK3 receptors, respectively, at doses of 2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.). The time of immobility during the forced swim test was used as an indicator of antidepressant activity of the antagonists. All antagonists decreased immobility times. CP-96,345 and SR 142801 showed dose-related effects; SR 48968 had its maximum effect at 2.5 mg/kg. The magnitude of the effects of the neurokinin receptor antagonists was approximately the same as that of amitriptyline and desipramine, two traditional antidepressants, both given at 10 mg/kg, i.p. This study provides comparative data on the relative effectiveness of NK1, NK2, and NK3 receptor antagonists in this screen for antidepressant drug activity.
doi:10.1016/j.ejphar.2004.11.024
PMCID: PMC5127697  PMID: 15659299 CAMSID: cams410
Forced swim test; Depression; Neurokinin receptor antagonist; CP-96,345; SR 48968; SR 142801
3.  FXR1P Limits Long-Term Memory, Long-Lasting Synaptic Potentiation, and de novo GluA2 Translation 
Cell reports  2014;9(4):1402-1416.
SUMMARY
Translational control of mRNAs allows for rapid and selective changes in synaptic protein expression, changes that are required for long-lasting plasticity and memory formation in the brain. Fragile X Related Protein 1 (FXR1P) is an RNA-binding protein that controls mRNA translation in non-neuronal cells and co-localizes with translational machinery in neurons. However, its neuronal mRNA targets and role in the brain are unknown. Here, we demonstrate that removal of FXR1P from the forebrain of postnatal mice selectively enhances long-term storage of spatial memories, hippocampal late-phase LTP (L-LTP) and de novo GluA2 synthesis. Furthermore, FXR1P binds specifically to the 5’UTR of GluA2 mRNA to repress translation and limit the amount of GluA2 incorporated at potentiated synapses. This study uncovers a new mechanism for regulating long-lasting synaptic plasticity and spatial memory formation and reveals an unexpected divergent role of FXR1P among Fragile X proteins in brain plasticity.
doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.10.028
PMCID: PMC4254574  PMID: 25456134
synapse; plasticity; protein synthesis; mRNA translation; GluA2; Fragile X Proteins; L-LTP; memory; FXR1P; FMRP; FXR2P
4.  Pioglitazone Improves Reversal Learning and Exerts Mixed Cerebrovascular Effects in a Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease with Combined Amyloid-β and Cerebrovascular Pathology 
PLoS ONE  2013;8(7):e68612.
Animal models of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) are invaluable in dissecting the pathogenic mechanisms and assessing the efficacy of potential new therapies. Here, we used the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonist pioglitazone in an attempt to rescue the pathogenic phenotype in adult (12 months) and aged (>18 months) bitransgenic A/T mice that overexpress a mutated human amyloid precursor protein (APPSwe,Ind) and a constitutively active form of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1). A/T mice recapitulate the AD-related cognitive deficits, amyloid beta (Aβ) and cerebrovascular pathologies, as well as the altered metabolic and vascular coupling responses to increased neuronal activity. Pioglitazone normalized neurometabolic and neurovascular coupling responses to sensory stimulation, and reduced cortical astroglial and hippocampal microglial activation in both age groups. Spatial learning and memory deficits in the Morris water maze were not rescued by pioglitazone, but reversal learning was improved in the adult cohort notwithstanding a progressing Aβ pathology. While pioglitazone preserved the constitutive nitric oxide synthesis in the vessel wall, it unexpectedly failed to restore cerebrovascular reactivity in A/T mice and even exacerbated the dilatory deficits. These data demonstrate pioglitazone’s efficacy on selective AD hallmarks in a complex AD mouse model of comorbid amyloidosis and cerebrovascular pathology. They further suggest a potential benefit of pioglitazone in managing neuroinflammation, cerebral perfusion and glucose metabolism in AD patients devoid of cerebrovascular pathology.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068612
PMCID: PMC3715495  PMID: 23874687

Results 1-4 (4)