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Important Notice

PubMed Central Canada to be taken offline in February 2018

On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

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1.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part one 
Lundqvist, Andreas | van Hoef, Vincent | Zhang, Xiaonan | Wennerberg, Erik | Lorent, Julie | Witt, Kristina | Sanz, Laia Masvidal | Liang, Shuo | Murray, Shannon | Larsson, Ola | Kiessling, Rolf | Mao, Yumeng | Sidhom, John-William | Bessell, Catherine A. | Havel, Jonathan | Schneck, Jonathan | Chan, Timothy A. | Sachsenmeier, Eliot | Woods, David | Berglund, Anders | Ramakrishnan, Rupal | Sodre, Andressa | Weber, Jeffrey | Zappasodi, Roberta | Li, Yanyun | Qi, Jingjing | Wong, Philip | Sirard, Cynthia | Postow, Michael | Newman, Walter | Koon, Henry | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Callahan, Margaret K. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Lum, Lawrence G. | Choi, Minsig | Thakur, Archana | Deol, Abhinav | Dyson, Gregory | Shields, Anthony | Haymaker, Cara | Uemura, Marc | Murthy, Ravi | James, Marihella | Wang, Daqing | Brevard, Julie | Monaghan, Catherine | Swann, Suzanne | Geib, James | Cornfeld, Mark | Chunduru, Srinivas | Agrawal, Sudhir | Yee, Cassian | Wargo, Jennifer | Patel, Sapna P. | Amaria, Rodabe | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Woodman, Scott | Hwu, Wen-Jen | Davies, Michael A. | Hwu, Patrick | Overwijk, Willem W. | Bernatchez, Chantale | Diab, Adi | Massarelli, Erminia | Segal, Neil H. | Ribrag, Vincent | Melero, Ignacio | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Urba, Walter | Schadendorf, Dirk | Ferris, Robert L. | Houot, Roch | Morschhauser, Franck | Logan, Theodore | Luke, Jason J. | Sharfman, William | Barlesi, Fabrice | Ott, Patrick A. | Mansi, Laura | Kummar, Shivaani | Salles, Gilles | Carpio, Cecilia | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | McDonald, Dan | Maurer, Matthew | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Levy, Ronald | Khushalani, Nikhil | Wu, Jennifer | Zhang, Jinyu | Basher, Fahmin | Rubinstein, Mark | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | MacDonald, Cameron | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Chatterjee, Shilpak | Daenthanasanmak, Anusara | Chakraborty, Paramita | Toth, Kyle | Meek, Megan | Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth | Nishimura, Michael | Paulos, Chrystal | Beeson, Craig | Yu, Xuezhong | Mehrotra, Shikhar | Zhao, Fei | Evans, Kathy | Xiao, Christine | Holtzhausen, Alisha | Hanks, Brent A. | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Moreci, Rebecca | Whetstone, Ryan | Dadey, Rebekah | Watkins, Simon | Ferris, Robert | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Peled, Jonathan | Devlin, Sean | Staffas, Anna | Lumish, Melissa | Rodriguez, Kori Porosnicu | Ahr, Katya | Perales, Miguel | Giralt, Sergio | Taur, Ying | Pamer, Eric | van den Brink, Marcel R. M. | Jenq, Robert | Annels, Nicola | Pandha, Hardev | Simpson, Guy | Mostafid, Hugh | Harrington, Kevin | Melcher, Alan | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Au, Gough | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Ricca, Jacob | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zamarin, Dmitriy | Batista, Luciana | Marliot, Florence | Vasaturo, Angela | Carpentier, Sabrina | Poggionovo, Cécile | Frayssinet, Véronique | Fieschi, Jacques | Van den Eynde, Marc | Pagès, Franck | Galon, Jérôme | Hermitte, Fabienne | Smith, Sean G. | Nguyen, Khue | Ravindranathan, Sruthi | Koppolu, Bhanu | Zaharoff, David | Schvartsman, Gustavo | Bassett, Roland | McQuade, Jennifer L. | Haydu, Lauren E. | Davies, Michael A. | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Kline, Douglas | Chen, Xiufen | Fosco, Dominick | Kline, Justin | Overacre, Abigail | Chikina, Maria | Brunazzi, Erin | Shayan, Gulidanna | Horne, William | Kolls, Jay | Ferris, Robert L. | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Bruno, Tullia C. | Workman, Creg | Vignali, Dario | Adusumilli, Prasad S. | Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A | Li, Zihai | Gerry, Andrew | Sanderson, Joseph P. | Howe, Karen | Docta, Roslin | Gao, Qian | Bagg, Eleanor A. L. | Tribble, Nicholas | Maroto, Miguel | Betts, Gareth | Bath, Natalie | Melchiori, Luca | Lowther, Daniel E. | Ramachandran, Indu | Kari, Gabor | Basu, Samik | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Chagin, Karen | Pandite, Lini | Holdich, Tom | Amado, Rafael | Zhang, Hua | Glod, John | Bernstein, Donna | Jakobsen, Bent | Mackall, Crystal | Wong, Ryan | Silk, Jonathan D. | Adams, Katherine | Hamilton, Garth | Bennett, Alan D. | Brett, Sara | Jing, Junping | Quattrini, Adriano | Saini, Manoj | Wiedermann, Guy | Gerry, Andrew | Jakobsen, Bent | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Brewer, Joanna | Duong, MyLinh | Lu, An | Chang, Peter | Mahendravada, Aruna | Shinners, Nicholas | Slawin, Kevin | Spencer, David M. | Foster, Aaron E. | Bayle, J. Henri | Bergamaschi, Cristina | Ng, Sinnie Sin Man | Nagy, Bethany | Jensen, Shawn | Hu, Xintao | Alicea, Candido | Fox, Bernard | Felber, Barbara | Pavlakis, George | Chacon, Jessica | Yamamoto, Tori | Garrabrant, Thomas | Cortina, Luis | Powell, Daniel J. | Donia, Marco | Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin | Andersen, Rikke | Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff | Bianchi, Valentina | Legut, Mateusz | Attaf, Meriem | Dolton, Garry | Szomolay, Barbara | Ott, Sascha | Lyngaa, Rikke | Hadrup, Sine Reker | Sewell, Andrew Kelvin | Svane, Inge Marie | Fan, Aaron | Kumai, Takumi | Celis, Esteban | Frank, Ian | Stramer, Amanda | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wardell, Seth | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Goff, Stephanie L. | Zacharakis, Nikolaos | Assadipour, Yasmine | Prickett, Todd D. | Gartner, Jared J. | Somerville, Robert | Black, Mary | Xu, Hui | Chinnasamy, Harshini | Kriley, Isaac | Lu, Lily | Wunderlich, John | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven | Feldman, Steven A. | Trebska-McGowan, Kasia | Kriley, Isaac | Malekzadeh, Parisa | Payabyab, Eden | Sherry, Richard | Rosenberg, Steven | Goff, Stephanie L. | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Kopits, Charlene | Rabinovich, Brian | Lotze, Michael T. | Green, Daniel S. | Kamenyeva, Olena | Zoon, Kathryn C. | Annunziata, Christina M. | Hammill, Joanne | Helsen, Christopher | Aarts, Craig | Bramson, Jonathan | Harada, Yui | Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu | Helsen, Christopher | Hammill, Joanne | Mwawasi, Kenneth | Denisova, Galina | Bramson, Jonathan | Giri, Rajanish | Jin, Benjamin | Campbell, Tracy | Draper, Lindsey M. | Stevanovic, Sanja | Yu, Zhiya | Weissbrich, Bianca | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Trimble, Cornelia L. | Rosenberg, Steven | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Tsang, Kwong | Fantini, Massimo | Hodge, James W. | Fujii, Rika | Fernando, Ingrid | Jochems, Caroline | Heery, Christopher | Gulley, James | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Schlom, Jeffrey | Jing, Weiqing | Gershan, Jill | Blitzer, Grace | Weber, James | McOlash, Laura | Johnson, Bryon D. | Kiany, Simin | Gangxiong, Huang | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Klichinsky, Michael | Ruella, Marco | Shestova, Olga | Kenderian, Saad | Kim, Miriam | Scholler, John | June, Carl H. | Gill, Saar | Moogk, Duane | Zhong, Shi | Yu, Zhiya | Liadi, Ivan | Rittase, William | Fang, Victoria | Dougherty, Janna | Perez-Garcia, Arianne | Osman, Iman | Zhu, Cheng | Varadarajan, Navin | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Frey, Alan | Krogsgaard, Michelle | Landi, Daniel | Fousek, Kristen | Mukherjee, Malini | Shree, Ankita | Joseph, Sujith | Bielamowicz, Kevin | Byrd, Tiara | Ahmed, Nabil | Hegde, Meenakshi | Lee, Sylvia | Byrd, David | Thompson, John | Bhatia, Shailender | Tykodi, Scott | Delismon, Judy | Chu, Liz | Abdul-Alim, Siddiq | Ohanian, Arpy | DeVito, Anna Marie | Riddell, Stanley | Margolin, Kim | Magalhaes, Isabelle | Mattsson, Jonas | Uhlin, Michael | Nemoto, Satoshi | Villarroel, Patricio Pérez | Nakagawa, Ryosuke | Mule, James J. | Mailloux, Adam W. | Mata, Melinda | Nguyen, Phuong | Gerken, Claudia | DeRenzo, Christopher | Spencer, David M. | Gottschalk, Stephen | Mathieu, Mélissa | Pelletier, Sandy | Stagg, John | Turcotte, Simon | Minutolo, Nicholas | Sharma, Prannda | Tsourkas, Andrew | Powell, Daniel J. | Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine | Mauer, Daniela | Drechsel, Katharina | Barth, Carola | Freese, Katharina | Kolrep, Ulrike | Schult, Silke | Assenmacher, Mario | Kaiser, Andrew | Mullinax, John | Hall, MacLean | Le, Julie | Kodumudi, Krithika | Royster, Erica | Richards, Allison | Gonzalez, Ricardo | Sarnaik, Amod | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Nielsen, Morten | Krarup-Hansen, Anders | Hovgaard, Dorrit | Petersen, Michael Mørk | Loya, Anand Chainsukh | Junker, Niels | Svane, Inge Marie | Rivas, Charlotte | Parihar, Robin | Gottschalk, Stephen | Rooney, Cliona M. | Qin, Haiying | Nguyen, Sang | Su, Paul | Burk, Chad | Duncan, Brynn | Kim, Bong-Hyun | Kohler, M. Eric | Fry, Terry | Rao, Arjun A. | Teyssier, Noam | Pfeil, Jacob | Sgourakis, Nikolaos | Salama, Sofie | Haussler, David | Richman, Sarah A. | Nunez-Cruz, Selene | Gershenson, Zack | Mourelatos, Zissimos | Barrett, David | Grupp, Stephan | Milone, Michael | Rodriguez-Garcia, Alba | Robinson, Matthew K. | Adams, Gregory P. | Powell, Daniel J. | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Siurala, Mikko | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Parviainen, Suvi | Antilla, Marjukka | Hemminki, Akseli | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Santiago, Laurelis | Chen, Jie Qing | Dai, Zhimin | Wardell, Seth | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Sha, Huizi | Su, Shu | Ding, Naiqing | Liu, Baorui | Stevanovic, Sanja | Pasetto, Anna | Helman, Sarah R. | Gartner, Jared J. | Prickett, Todd D. | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Bhatia, Shailender | Burgess, Melissa | Zhang, Hui | Lee, Tien | Klingemann, Hans | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Nghiem, Paul | Kirkwood, John M. | Rossi, John M. | Sherman, Marika | Xue, Allen | Shen, Yueh-wei | Navale, Lynn | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Kochenderfer, James N. | Bot, Adrian | Veerapathran, Anandaraman | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Stramer, Amanda | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wiener, Doris | Frank, Ian | Santiago, Laurelis | Rabinovich, Brian | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Waller, Edmund K. | Li, Jian-Ming | Petersen, Christopher | Blazar, Bruce R. | Li, Jingxia | Giver, Cynthia R. | Wang, Ziming | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Sturgill, Ian | Canter, Robert J. | Murphy, William J. | Zhang, Congcong | Burger, Michael C. | Jennewein, Lukas | Waldmann, Anja | Mittelbronn, Michel | Tonn, Torsten | Steinbach, Joachim P. | Wels, Winfried S. | Williams, Jason B. | Zha, Yuanyuan | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Williams, LaTerrica C. | Krenciute, Giedre | Kalra, Mamta | Louis, Chrystal | Gottschalk, Stephen | Xin, Gang | Schauder, David | Jiang, Aimin | Joshi, Nikhil | Cui, Weiguo | Zeng, Xue | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Zhao, Zeguo | Hamieh, Mohamad | Eyquem, Justin | Gunset, Gertrude | Bander, Neil | Sadelain, Michel | Askmyr, David | Abolhalaj, Milad | Lundberg, Kristina | Greiff, Lennart | Lindstedt, Malin | Angell, Helen K. | Kim, Kyoung-Mee | Kim, Seung-Tae | Kim, Sung | Sharpe, Alan D. | Ogden, Julia | Davenport, Anna | Hodgson, Darren R. | Barrett, Carl | Lee, Jeeyun | Kilgour, Elaine | Hanson, Jodi | Caspell, Richard | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ansari, Tameem | Schiller, Annemarie | Sundararaman, Srividya | Lehmann, Paul | Hanson, Jodi | Roen, Diana | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ayers, Mark | Levitan, Diane | Arreaza, Gladys | Liu, Fang | Mogg, Robin | Bang, Yung-Jue | O’Neil, Bert | Cristescu, Razvan | Friedlander, Philip | Wassman, Karl | Kyi, Chrisann | Oh, William | Bhardwaj, Nina | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gustafson, Michael P. | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Parney, Ian F. | Dietz, Allan B. | Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel | Mani, Nikita | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Schalper, Kurt | Rimm, David | Chang, Serena | Levy, Ronald | Kurland, John | Krishnan, Suba | Ahlers, Christoph Matthias | Jure-Kunkel, Maria | Cohen, Lewis | Maecker, Holden | Kohrt, Holbrook | Chen, Shuming | Crabill, George | Pritchard, Theresa | McMiller, Tracee | Pardoll, Drew | Pan, Fan | Topalian, Suzanne | Danaher, Patrick | Warren, Sarah | Dennis, Lucas | White, Andrew M. | D’Amico, Leonard | Geller, Melissa | Disis, Mary L. | Beechem, Joseph | Odunsi, Kunle | Fling, Steven | Derakhshandeh, Roshanak | Webb, Tonya J. | Dubois, Sigrid | Conlon, Kevin | Bryant, Bonita | Hsu, Jennifer | Beltran, Nancy | Müller, Jürgen | Waldmann, Thomas | Duhen, Rebekka | Duhen, Thomas | Thompson, Lucas | Montler, Ryan | Weinberg, Andrew | Kates, Max | Early, Brandon | Yusko, Erik | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Bivalacqua, Trinity J. | Ayers, Mark | Lunceford, Jared | Nebozhyn, Michael | Murphy, Erin | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Albright, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Kang, S. Peter | Shankaran, Veena | Piha-Paul, Sarina A. | Yearley, Jennifer | Seiwert, Tanguy | Ribas, Antoni | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Cristescu, Razvan | Mogg, Robin | Ayers, Mark | Albright, Andrew | Murphy, Erin | Yearley, Jennifer | Sher, Xinwei | Liu, Xiao Qiao | Nebozhyn, Michael | Lunceford, Jared | Joe, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Plimack, Elizabeth | Ott, Patrick A. | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Forrest-Hay, Alex | Guyre, Cheryl A. | Narumiya, Kohei | Delcommenne, Marc | Hirsch, Heather A. | Deshpande, Amit | Reeves, Jason | Shu, Jenny | Zi, Tong | Michaelson, Jennifer | Law, Debbie | Trehu, Elizabeth | Sathyanaryanan, Sriram | Hodkinson, Brendan P. | Hutnick, Natalie A. | Schaffer, Michael E. | Gormley, Michael | Hulett, Tyler | Jensen, Shawn | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Dubay, Christopher | Afentoulis, Michael | Reddy, Ashok | David, Larry | Fox, Bernard | Jayant, Kumar | Agrawal, Swati | Agrawal, Rajendra | Jeyakumar, Ghayathri | Kim, Seongho | Kim, Heejin | Silski, Cynthia | Suisham, Stacey | Heath, Elisabeth | Vaishampayan, Ulka | Vandeven, Natalie | Viller, Natasja Nielsen | O’Connor, Alison | Chen, Hui | Bossen, Bolette | Sievers, Eric | Uger, Robert | Nghiem, Paul | Johnson, Lisa | Kao, Hsiang-Fong | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Lai, Shu-Chuan | Wang, Chun-Wei | Ko, Jenq-Yuh | Lou, Pei-Jen | Lee, Tsai-Jan | Liu, Tsang-Wu | Hong, Ruey-Long | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Landis, Benjamin J. | Koegler, Sally | Hirsch, Brooke | Gianani, Roberto | Kim, Jeffrey | He, Ming-Xiao | Zhang, Bingqing | Su, Nan | Luo, Yuling | Ma, Xiao-Jun | Park, Emily | Kim, Dae Won | Copploa, Domenico | Kothari, Nishi | doo Chang, Young | Kim, Richard | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Knaus, Hanna A. | Berglund, Sofia | Hackl, Hubert | Karp, Judith E. | Gojo, Ivana | Luznik, Leo | Hong, Henoch S. | Koch, Sven D. | Scheel, Birgit | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Wiegand, Volker | Backert, Linus | Kohlbacher, Oliver | Hoerr, Ingmar | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Billingsley, James M. | Koguchi, Yoshinobu | Conrad, Valerie | Miller, William | Gonzalez, Iliana | Poplonski, Tomasz | Meeuwsen, Tanisha | Howells-Ferreira, Ana | Rattray, Rogan | Campbell, Mary | Bifulco, Carlo | Dubay, Christopher | Bahjat, Keith | Curti, Brendan | Urba, Walter | Vetsika, E-K | Kallergi, G. | Aggouraki, Despoina | Lyristi, Z. | Katsarlinos, P. | Koinis, Filippos | Georgoulias, V. | Kotsakis, Athanasios | Martin, Nathan T. | Aeffner, Famke | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Cerkovnik, Logan | Pratte, Luke | Kim, Rebecca | Hirsch, Brooke | Krueger, Joseph | Gianani, Roberto | Martínez-Usatorre, Amaia | Jandus, Camilla | Donda, Alena | Carretero-Iglesia, Laura | Speiser, Daniel E. | Zehn, Dietmar | Rufer, Nathalie | Romero, Pedro | Panda, Anshuman | Mehnert, Janice | Hirshfield, Kim M. | Riedlinger, Greg | Damare, Sherri | Saunders, Tracie | Sokol, Levi | Stein, Mark | Poplin, Elizabeth | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Silk, Ann | Chan, Nancy | Frankel, Melissa | Kane, Michael | Malhotra, Jyoti | Aisner, Joseph | Kaufman, Howard L. | Ali, Siraj | Ross, Jeffrey | White, Eileen | Bhanot, Gyan | Ganesan, Shridar | Monette, Anne | Bergeron, Derek | Amor, Amira Ben | Meunier, Liliane | Caron, Christine | Morou, Antigoni | Kaufmann, Daniel | Liberman, Moishe | Jurisica, Igor | Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie | Hamzaoui, Kamel | Lapointe, Rejean | Mongan, Ann | Ku, Yuan-Chieh | Tom, Warren | Sun, Yongming | Pankov, Alex | Looney, Tim | Au-Young, Janice | Hyland, Fiona | Conroy, Jeff | Morrison, Carl | Glenn, Sean | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Gardner, Mark | Mongan, Ann | Omilian, Angela R. | Conroy, Jeff | Bshara, Wiam | Angela, Omilian | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Glenn, Sean | Morrison, Carl | Mongan, Ann | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Smolkin, Mark E. | Deacon, Donna H. | Patterson, James W. | Chen, Lieping | Bullock, Timothy N. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Deacon, Donna H. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Bullock, Timothy N. | Loffredo, John T. | Vuyyuru, Raja | Beyer, Sophie | Spires, Vanessa M. | Fox, Maxine | Ehrmann, Jon M. | Taylor, Katrina A. | Korman, Alan J. | Graziano, Robert F. | Page, David | Sanchez, Katherine | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Martel, Maritza | Bifulco, Carlo | Urba, Walter | Fox, Bernard | Patel, Sapna P. | De Macedo, Mariana Petaccia | Qin, Yong | Reuben, Alex | Spencer, Christine | Guindani, Michele | Bassett, Roland | Wargo, Jennifer | Racolta, Adriana | Kelly, Brian | Jones, Tobin | Polaske, Nathan | Theiss, Noah | Robida, Mark | Meridew, Jeffrey | Habensus, Iva | Zhang, Liping | Pestic-Dragovich, Lidija | Tang, Lei | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Logan, Theodore | Khushalani, Nikhil | Margolin, Kim | Koon, Henry | Olencki, Thomas | Hutson, Thomas | Curti, Brendan | Roder, Joanna | Blackmon, Shauna | Roder, Heinrich | Stewart, John | Amin, Asim | Ernstoff, Marc S. | Clark, Joseph I. | Atkins, Michael B. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Sosman, Jeffrey | Weber, Jeffrey | McDermott, David F. | Weber, Jeffrey | Kluger, Harriet | Halaban, Ruth | Snzol, Mario | Roder, Heinrich | Roder, Joanna | Asmellash, Senait | Steingrimsson, Arni | Blackmon, Shauna | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Wang, Chichung | Roman, Kristin | Clement, Amanda | Downing, Sean | Hoyt, Clifford | Harder, Nathalie | Schmidt, Guenter | Schoenmeyer, Ralf | Brieu, Nicolas | Yigitsoy, Mehmet | Madonna, Gabriele | Botti, Gerardo | Grimaldi, Antonio | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Huss, Ralf | Athelogou, Maria | Hessel, Harald | Harder, Nathalie | Buchner, Alexander | Schmidt, Guenter | Stief, Christian | Huss, Ralf | Binnig, Gerd | Kirchner, Thomas | Sellappan, Shankar | Thyparambil, Sheeno | Schwartz, Sarit | Cecchi, Fabiola | Nguyen, Andrew | Vaske, Charles | Hembrough, Todd
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-106.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0172-7
PMCID: PMC5123387
2.  Imaging of Sleeping Beauty-Modified CD19-Specific T Cells Expressing HSV1-Thymidine Kinase by Positron Emission Tomography 
Purpose
We have incorporated a positron emission tomography (PET) functionality in T cells expressing a CD19-specific chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) to non-invasively monitor the adoptively transferred cells.
Procedures
We engineered T cells to express CD19-specific CAR, firefly luciferase (ffLuc), and herpes simplex virus type-1 thymidine kinase (TK) using the non-viral-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase system adapted for human application. Electroporated primary T cells were propagated on CD19+ artificial antigen-presenting cells.
Results
After 4 weeks, 90 % of cultured cells exhibited specific killing of CD19+ targets in vitro, could be ablated by ganciclovir, and were detected in vivo by bioluminescent imaging and PET following injection of 2′-deoxy-2′-[18F]fluoro-5-ethyl-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-uracil ([18F]FEAU).
Conclusion
This is the first report demonstrating the use of SB transposition to generate T cells which may be detected using PET laying the foundation for imaging the distribution and trafficking of T cells in patients treated for B cell malignancies.
doi:10.1007/s11307-016-0971-8
PMCID: PMC5096958  PMID: 27246312
Chimeric antigen receptor; Immunotherapy; B cell malignancy
3.  Genetic Engineering of T cells to Target HERV-K, an Ancient Retrovirus on Melanoma 
Purpose
The human endogenous retrovirus (HERV-K) envelope (env) protein is a tumor- associated antigen expressed on melanoma, but not normal cells. This study was designed to engineer a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) on T cell surface, such that they target tumors in advanced stages of melanoma.
Experimental Design
Expression of HERV-K protein was analyzed in 220 melanoma samples (with various stages of disease) and 139 normal organ donor tissues using immuno-histochemical (IHC) analysis. HERV-K env-specific CAR derived from mouse monoclonal antibody was introduced into T cells using the transposon-based Sleeping Beauty (SB) system. HERV-K env-specific CAR+ T cells were expanded ex vivo on activating and propagating cells (AaPC), and characterized for CAR expression and specificity. This includes evaluating the HERV-K-specific CAR+ T cells for their ability to kill A375-SM metastasized tumors in a mouse xenograft model.
Results
We detected HERV-K env protein on melanoma, but not in normal tissues. After electroporation of T cells and selection on HERV-K+ AaPC, over 95% of genetically-modified T cells expressed the CAR with an effector memory phenotype and lysed HERV-K env+ tumor targets in an antigen specific manner. Even though there is apparent shedding of this TAA from tumor cells which can be recognized by HERV-K env-specific CAR+ T cells, we observed a significant anti-tumor effect.
Conclusion
Adoptive cellular immunotherapy with HERV-K env-specific CAR+ T cells represents a clinically-appealing treatment strategy for advanced-stage melanoma and provides an approach for targeting this TAA on other solid tumors.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-3197
PMCID: PMC4506228  PMID: 25829402
4.  ELF5 Drives Lung Metastasis in Luminal Breast Cancer through Recruitment of Gr1+ CD11b+ Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells 
PLoS Biology  2015;13(12):e1002330.
During pregnancy, the ETS transcription factor ELF5 establishes the milk-secreting alveolar cell lineage by driving a cell fate decision of the mammary luminal progenitor cell. In breast cancer, ELF5 is a key transcriptional determinant of tumor subtype and has been implicated in the development of insensitivity to anti-estrogen therapy. In the mouse mammary tumor virus-Polyoma Middle T (MMTV-PyMT) model of luminal breast cancer, induction of ELF5 levels increased leukocyte infiltration, angiogenesis, and blood vessel permeability in primary tumors and greatly increased the size and number of lung metastasis. Myeloid-derived suppressor cells, a group of immature neutrophils recently identified as mediators of vasculogenesis and metastasis, were recruited to the tumor in response to ELF5. Depletion of these cells using specific Ly6G antibodies prevented ELF5 from driving vasculogenesis and metastasis. Expression signatures in luminal A breast cancers indicated that increased myeloid cell invasion and inflammation were correlated with ELF5 expression, and increased ELF5 immunohistochemical staining predicted much shorter metastasis–free and overall survival of luminal A patients, defining a group who experienced unexpectedly early disease progression. Thus, in the MMTV-PyMT mouse mammary model, increased ELF5 levels drive metastasis by co-opting the innate immune system. As ELF5 has been previously implicated in the development of antiestrogen resistance, this finding implicates ELF5 as a defining factor in the acquisition of the key aspects of the lethal phenotype in luminal A breast cancer.
Up-regulation of the transcription factor ELF5 in tumors helps to create a micro-environment that recruits the innate immune system and increases vascular permeability, leading to increased metastasis in luminal breast cancer. Together with its role in anti-estrogen resistance, this suggests that ELF5 is a major driver of a lethal phenotype.
Author Summary
The transcription factor Elf5 defines hormone-insensitive and endocrine-therapy–resistant breast cancer. In this study, we have discovered that ELF5 drives the spread of tumor cells to the lungs. We demonstrate that the underlying mechanism for this metastatic spread is via recruitment of the innate immune system. Interestingly, this effect is able to overcome the other tumor-suppressive effects of ELF5 on cancer cells, such as reduced proliferation, motility, and invasion. This important finding challenges the more conventional view that the most potent determinant of metastatic activity lies within the cancer cell. We clearly demonstrate that the innate immune system strongly influences the metastatic activity of cancer cells despite their cell-intrinsic spread potential. Our previous work demonstrated that in luminal breast cancer, ELF5 is a key determinant of antiestrogen therapy resistance. Here, we show that the metastatic mechanism driven by ELF5 is most important in luminal breast cancer patients, in whom higher ELF5 expression is associated with low presence of cytotoxic T lymphocytes, an immune cell population responsible for tumor rejection. Thus, we now see that ELF5 may be behind the two most important processes that cause luminal breast cancers to progress towards the lethal phenotype; resistance to antiestrogen therapy and the development of metastatic activity. This understanding could pave the way for new therapeutic strategies to be devised and new predictive tests to be developed.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1002330
PMCID: PMC4696735  PMID: 26717410
5.  Activating and propagating polyclonal gamma delta T cells with broad specificity for malignancies 
Purpose
To activate and propagate populations of γδT cells expressing polyclonal repertoire of γ and δ TCR chains for adoptive immunotherapy for cancer, which has yet to be achieved.
Experimental Design
Clinical-grade artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) derived from K562 tumor cells were used as irradiated feeders to activate and expand human γδT cells to clinical scale. These cells were tested for proliferation, TCR expression, memory phenotype, cytokine secretion, and tumor killing.
Results
γδT cell proliferation was dependent upon CD137L expression on aAPC and addition of exogenous IL-2 and IL-21. Propagated γδT cells were polyclonal as they expressed Vδ1, Vδ2, Vδ3, Vδ5, Vδ7, and Vδ8 with Vγ2, Vγ3, Vγ7, Vγ8, Vγ9, Vγ10, and Vγ11 TCR chains. Interferon-γ production by Vδ1, Vδ2, and Vδ1negVδ2neg subsets was inhibited by pan-TCRγδantibody when added to co-cultures of polyclonal γδT cells and tumor cell lines. Polyclonal γδT cells killed acute and chronic leukemia, colon, pancreatic, and ovarian cancer cell lines, but not healthy autologous or allogeneic normal B cells. Blocking antibodies demonstrated that polyclonal γδT cells mediated tumor cell lysis through combination of DNAM1, NKG2D, and TCRγδ. The adoptive transfer of activated and propagated γδT cells expressing polyclonal versus defined Vδ TCR chains imparted a hierarchy (polyclonal>Vδ1>Vδ1negVδ2neg>Vδ2) of survival of mice with ovarian cancer xenografts.
Conclusions
Polyclonal γδT cells can be activated and propagated with clinical-grade aAPC and demonstrate broad anti-tumor activities, which will facilitate the implementation of γδT cell cancer immunotherapies in humans.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-3451
PMCID: PMC4233015  PMID: 24833662
7.  Treating brain tumor–initiating cells using a combination of myxoma virus and rapamycin 
Neuro-Oncology  2013;15(7):904-920.
Background
Intratumoral heterogeneity in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) poses a significant barrier to therapy in certain subpopulation such as the tumor-initiating cell population, being shown to be refractory to conventional therapies. Oncolytic virotherapy has the potential to target multiple compartments within the tumor and thus circumvent some of the barriers facing conventional therapies. In this study, we investigate the oncolytic potential of myxoma virus (MYXV) alone and in combination with rapamycin in vitro and in vivo using human brain tumor–initiating cells (BTICs).
Methods
We cultured fresh GBM specimens as neurospheres and assayed their growth characteristics in vivo. We then tested the susceptibility of BTICs to MYXV infection with or without rapamycin in vitro and assessed viral biodistribution/survival in vivo in orthotopic xenografts.
Results
The cultured neurospheres were found to retain stem cell markers in vivo, and they closely resembled human infiltrative GBM. In this study we determined that (i) all patient-derived BTICs tested, including those resistant to temozolomide, were susceptible to MYXV replication and killing in vitro; (ii) MYXV replicated within BTICs in vivo, and intratumoral administration of MYXV significantly prolonged survival of BTIC-bearing mice; (iii) combination therapy with MYXV and rapamycin improved antitumor activity, even in mice bearing “advanced” BTIC tumors; (iv) MYXV treatment decreased expression of stem cell markers in vitro and in vivo.
Conclusions
Our study suggests that MYXV in combination with rapamycin infects and kills both the BTICs and the differentiated compartments of GBM and may be an effective treatment even in TMZ-resistant patients.
doi:10.1093/neuonc/not035
PMCID: PMC3688014  PMID: 23585629
brain tumor initiating cells; malignant glioma; myxoma virus; oncolytic virus; rapamycin
8.  Sleeping Beauty system to redirect T-cell specificity for human applications 
The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon/transposase DNA plasmid system is used to genetically modify cells for long-term transgene expression. We adapted the SB system for human application and generated T cells expressing a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for CD19. Electro-transfer of CD19-specific SB DNA plasmids in PBMC and propagation on CD19+ artificial antigen presenting cells (aAPC) was used to numerically expand CD3+ T cells expressing CAR. By Day 28 of co-culture >90% of expanded CD3+ T cells expressed CAR. CAR+ T cells specifically killed CD19+ target cells and consisted of subsets expressing biomarkers consistent with central memory, ieffector memory, and effector phenotypes. CAR+ T cells contracted numerically in the absence of CD19 antigen, did not express SB11 transposase, and maintained a polyclonal TCRVα and TCRVβ repertoire. Quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization (Q-FISH) revealed that CAR+ T cells preserved telomere length. Quantitative PCR (Q-PCR) and FISH showed CAR transposon integrated on average once per T-cell genome. CAR+ T cells in peripheral blood can be detected by Q-PCR at a sensitivity of 0.01%. These findings lay the groundwork as the basis of our first-in-human clinical trials of the non-viral SB system for the investigational treatment of CD19+ B-cell malignancies (currently under three INDs #: 14193, 14577, and 14739).
doi:10.1097/CJI.0b013e3182811ce9
PMCID: PMC3568214  PMID: 23377665
Sleeping Beauty transposon and transposase; Chimeric Antigen Receptor; T-cell adoptive immunotherapy; aAPC; CD19; Digital mRNA profiling
9.  A new approach to simultaneously quantify both TCR α- and β-chain diversity after adoptive immunotherapy 
Purpose
TCR (T-cell receptor) variable Vα and Vβ gene diversity is a surrogate biomarker for the therapeutic potential of adoptive immunotherapy and cellular immunity. Therefore creating a straightforward, rapid, sensitive, and reliable method to view the global changes of both TCRVα and Vβ transcripts in heterogeneous populations of T-cells is appealing.
Experimental Design
We designed a “direct TCR expression assay” (DTEA) employing a panel of customized bar-coded probes that simultaneously detects and quantifies 45 Vα and 46 Vβ transcripts in a non-enzymatic digital multiplexed assay from a small number of cells (104 cells) or as little as 100 ng total RNA.
Results
We evaluated DTEA on total RNA samples of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes and peripheral blood obtained from patients with melanoma after adoptive T-cell therapy. DTEA detected a similar spectrum of the dominant patterns of TCRVβ gene usage as sequencing cloned TCRVβ CDR3 regions. However, DTEA was rapid, achieved a level of sensitivity to identify rare T-cell populations, and simultaneously tracked the full array of Vα and Vβ transcripts.
Conclusions
DTEA can rapidly and sensitively track changes in TCRVα and Vβ gene usages in T-cell pools following immune interventions, such as adoptive T-cell transfer, and may also be employed to assess impact of vaccination or reconstitution of T-cell compartment after hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-11-3234
PMCID: PMC3823368  PMID: 22761473
Immunotherapy; TCR usage; Direct TCR Expression Assay (DTEA); melanoma; cloning and sequencing
11.  Src inhibition with saracatinib reverses fulvestrant resistance in ER-positive ovarian cancer models in vitro and in vivo 
Purpose
More effective, less toxic treatments for recurrent ovarian cancer (OVCA) are needed. Although >60% of OVCAs express the estrogen receptor (ER), ER-targeted drugs have been disappointing due to drug resistance. In other estrogen-sensitive cancers, estrogen activates Src to phosphorylate p27 promoting its degradation and increasing cell cycle progression. Since Src is activated in most OVCAs, we investigated whether combined Src and ER blockade by saracatinib and fulvestrant would circumvent antiestrogen resistance.
Experimental Design
ER and Src were assayed in 338 primary OVCAs. Dual ER and Src blockade effects on cell cycle, ER target gene expression, and survival were assayed in ERα+ OVCA lines, a primary human OVCA culture in vitro, and on xenograft growth.
Results
Most primary OVCAs express ER. Src activity was greater in OVCA lines than normal epithelial lines. Estrogen activated Src, ER-Src binding and ER translocation from cytoplasm to nucleus. Estrogen mediated mitogenesis was via ERα, not ERβ. While each alone had little effect, combined saracatinib and fulvestrant increased p27, inhibited cyclin E-Cdk2 and cell cycle progression. Saracatinib also impaired induction of ER-target genes Myc and FOSL1; this was greatest with dual therapy. Combined therapy induced autophagy and more effectively inhibited OVCA xenograft growth than monotherapy.
Conclusions
Saracatinib augments effects of fulvestrant by opposing estrogen-mediated Src activation and target gene expression, increasing cell cycle arrest and impairing survival, all of which would oppose antiestrogen resistance in these ER+ OVCA models. These data support further pre-clinical and clinical evaluation of combined fulvestrant and saracatinib in OVCA.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-12-1257
PMCID: PMC3698880  PMID: 22896656
Ovarian cancer; ER; fulvestrant; Src inhibitor; cell cycle; p27
12.  Persistent antigen at vaccination sites induces tumor-specific CD8+ T cell sequestration, dysfunction and deletion 
Nature medicine  2013;19(4):465-472.
To understand why cancer vaccine-induced T cells often fail to eradicate tumors, we studied immune responses in mice vaccinated with gp100 melanoma peptide in incomplete Freund’s adjuvant (IFA), commonly used in clinical cancer vaccine trials. Peptide/IFA vaccination primed tumor-specific CD8+ T cells, which accumulated not in tumors but at the persisting, antigen-rich vaccination site. Once there, primed T cells became dysfunctional and underwent antigen-driven, Interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and Fas ligand (FasL)-mediated apoptosis, resulting in hyporesponsiveness to subsequent vaccination. Provision of anti-CD40 antibody, Toll-like receptor 7 (TLR7) agonist and interleukin-2 (IL-2) reduced T cell apoptosis but did not prevent vaccination site sequestration. A non-persisting vaccine formulation shifted T cell localization towards tumors, inducing superior anti-tumor activity while reducing systemic T cell dysfunction and promoting memory formation. Persisting peptide/IFA vaccine depots can induce specific T cell sequestration, dysfunction and deletion at vaccination sites; short-lived formulations may overcome these limitations and result in greater therapeutic efficacy of peptide-based cancer vaccines.
doi:10.1038/nm.3105
PMCID: PMC3618499  PMID: 23455713
13.  A Central Role for RAF→MEK→ERK Signaling in the Genesis of Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma. 
Cancer discovery  2012;2(8):685-693.
KRAS mutation is a hallmark of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), but remains an intractable pharmacological target. Consequently, defining RAS effector pathway(s) required for PDA initiation and maintenance is critical to improve treatment of this disease. Here we demonstrate that expression of BRAFV600E, but not PIK3CAH1047R, in the mouse pancreas leads to pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) lesions. Moreover, concomitant expression of BRAFV600E and TP53R270H result in lethal PDA. We tested pharmacologic inhibitors of Ras effectors against multiple human PDA cell lines. MEK inhibition was highly effective both in vivo and in vitro, and was synergistic with AKT inhibition in most cell lines tested. We demonstrate that RAF→MEK→ERK signaling is central to the initiation and maintenance of PDA and to rational combination strategies in this disease. These results emphasize the value of leveraging multiple complementary experimental systems to prioritize pathways for effective intervention strategies in PDA.
doi:10.1158/2159-8290.CD-11-0347
PMCID: PMC3425446  PMID: 22628411
Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma; Systems Biology; Mouse Models of Cancer
14.  Molecular Imaging of Mesenchymal Stem Cell: Mechanistic Insight into Cardiac Repair following Experimental Myocardial Infarction 
Background
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can differentiate into endothelial cells in vivo. However, it is unknown if the differentiated MSCs persist in vivo and if this potential persistence contributes to functional improvement following experimental myocardial infarction (EMI).
Methods and Results
We generated a lentivector encoding two distinct reporter genes, one driven by a constitutive murine stem cell virus promoter and the other, by an endothelial specific Tie-2 promoter. The endothelial specificity of the lentivector was validated by its expression in endothelial cells, but not in human MSCs (hMSCs). The lentivirus-transduced hMSCs were injected into peri-infarct areas of the hearts of severe combined immune-deficient mice. Persistence of injected cells was tracked by bioluminescence imaging (BLI) and verified by immunohistochemical staining (IHS). The BLI signal from the endothelial-specific reporter revealed that hMSCs differentiated into endothelial cells 48 hours following injection. However, both the constitutive and the endothelial-specific BLI signals disappeared by day 50. Nonetheless, the improvement in left ventricle ejection fraction with hMSC therapy persisted for up to 6 months. IHS showed that hMSC-derived endothelial cells integrated into endogenous CD31+ vessels. Furthermore, hMSC-transplanted hearts had more CD31+ vessels and a lesser degree of cardiac fibrosis compared to the controls at 6 months.
Conclusions
hMSCs differentiated into endothelial cells and integrated into blood vessels after EMI. The differentiated hMSCs only lasted for up to 50 days in vivo, but improvement in cardiac function persisted for up to 6 months. Increased angiogenesis and decreased fibrosis were associated with cardiac functional improvement following hMSC transplantation.
doi:10.1161/CIRCIMAGING.111.966424
PMCID: PMC3273544  PMID: 22135400
molecular imaging; mesenchymal stem cell; endothelial differentiation
15.  Transduction of Tumor-Specific T Cells with CXCR2 Chemokine Receptor Improves Migration to Tumor and Antitumor Immune Responses 
Purpose
One of the most important rate-limiting steps in adoptive cell transfer (ACT) is the inefficient migration of T cells to tumors. Since melanomas specifically express the chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL8 that are known to facilitate the CXCR2-dependent migration by monocytes, our aim is to evaluate whether introduction of the CXCR2 gene into tumor-specific T cells could further improve the effectiveness of ACT, by enhancing T-cell migration to tumor.
Experimental Design
In this study, we utilized transgenic pmel-1 T cells which recognize gp100 in the context of H-2Db, that were transduced with luciferase gene to monitor the migration of transferred T cells in vivo. In order to visualize luciferase-expressing T cells within a tumor, a non-pigmented tumor is required. Therefore, we utilized the MC38 tumor model which naturally expresses CXCL1.
Results
Mice bearing MC38/gp100 tumor cells treated with CXCR2/luciferase-transduced pmel-1 T cells showed enhanced tumor regression and survival compared to mice receiving control luciferase transduced pmel-1 T cells. We also observed preferential accumulation of CXCR2-expressing pmel-1 T cells in the tumor sites of these mice using bioluminescence imaging. A similar enhancement in tumor regression and survival was observed when CXCR2-transduced pmel-1 T cells were transferred into mice bearing CXCL1-transduced B16 tumors compared to mice treated with control pmel-1 T cells.
Conclusions
These results implicate that the introduction of the CXCR2 gene into tumor-specific T cells can enhance their localization to tumors and improve antitumor immune responses. This strategy may ultimately enable personalization of cancer therapies based on chemokine expression by tumors.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-10-0712
PMCID: PMC3476703  PMID: 20889916
CXCR2; T cell-mediated antitumor immune response; Adoptive cell transfer (ACT); melanoma immunotherapy
16.  FLUORINATED CANNABINOID CB2 RECEPTOR LIGANDS: SYNTHESIS AND IN VITRO BINDING CHARACTERISTICS OF 2-OXOQUINOLINE DERIVATIVES 
Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry  2011;19(18):5698-5707.
Cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2) plays an important role in human physiology and the pathophysiology of different diseases, including neuroinflammation, neurodegeneration, and cancer. Several classes of CB2 receptor ligands, including 2-oxoquinoline derivatives, have been previously reported. We report the synthesis and results of in vitro receptor binding of a focused library of new fluorinated 2-oxoquinoline CB2 ligands. Twelve compounds, 13-16 18, 19, 21-24, 27, and 28 were synthesized in good yields in multiple steps. Human U87 glioma cells expressing either hCB1 (control) or hCB2 were generated via lentiviral transduction. In vitro competitive binding assay was performed using [3H]CP-55,940 in U87hCB1 and U87hCB2 cells. Inhibition constant (Ki) values of compounds 13, 14, 15, 16, 18, 19, 21, 22, 23, 24, 27, and 28 for CB2 were >10000, 2.8, 5.0, 2.4, 22, 0.8, 1.4, >10000, 486, 58, 620, and 2400 nM, respectively, and those for CB1 were >10000 nM. Preliminary in vitro results suggest that six of these compounds may be useful for therapy of neuropathic pain, neuroinflammatory diseases and immune disorders. In addition, compound 19, with its subnanomolar Ki value, could be radiolabeled with 18F and explored for PET imaging of CB2 expression.
doi:10.1016/j.bmc.2011.07.062
PMCID: PMC3174488  PMID: 21872477
Central nervous system; cannabinoid receptor 2; multiple sclerosis; neuroinflammation; neurodegeneration
17.  Peli1 negatively regulates T-cell activation and prevents autoimmunity 
Nature immunology  2011;12(10):1002-1009.
T-cell activation is subject to tight regulation to avoid inappropriate responses against self-antigens. Here we show that genetic deficiency in an ubiquitin ligase, Peli1, causes hyper activation of T cells and renders T cells refractory to suppression by T regulatory cells and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β. As a result, Peli1 knockout mice spontaneously develop autoimmunity, characterized by multiorgan inflammation and autoantibody production. Peli1 deficiency results in accumulation of nuclear c-Rel, a member of the NF-κB family of transcription factors with pivotal roles in T-cell activation. Peli1 negatively regulates c-Rel by mediating its K48 ubiquitination. These results identify Peli1 as a critical factor in the maintenance of peripheral T-cell tolerance and reveal a novel mechanism of c-Rel regulation.
doi:10.1038/ni.2090
PMCID: PMC3178748  PMID: 21874024
18.  Imaging Long-Term Fate of Intramyocardially Implanted Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Porcine Myocardial Infarction Model 
PLoS ONE  2011;6(9):e22949.
The long-term fate of stem cells after intramyocardial delivery is unknown. We used noninvasive, repetitive PET/CT imaging with [18F]FEAU to monitor the long-term (up to 5 months) spatial-temporal dynamics of MSCs retrovirally transduced with the sr39HSV1-tk gene (sr39HSV1-tk-MSC) and implanted intramyocardially in pigs with induced acute myocardial infarction. Repetitive [18F]FEAU PET/CT revealed a biphasic pattern of sr39HSV1-tk-MSC dynamics; cell proliferation peaked at 33–35 days after injection, in periinfarct regions and the major cardiac lymphatic vessels and lymph nodes. The sr39HSV1-tk-MSC–associated [18F]FEAU signals gradually decreased thereafter. Cardiac lymphography studies using PG-Gd-NIRF813 contrast for MRI and near-infrared fluorescence imaging showed rapid clearance of the contrast from the site of intramyocardial injection through the subepicardial lymphatic network into the lymphatic vessels and periaortic lymph nodes. Immunohistochemical analysis of cardiac tissue obtained at 35 and 150 days demonstrated several types of sr39HSV1-tk expressing cells, including fibro-myoblasts, lymphovascular cells, and microvascular and arterial endothelium. In summary, this study demonstrated the feasibility and sensitivity of [18F]FEAU PET/CT imaging for long-term, in-vivo monitoring (up to 5 months) of the fate of intramyocardially injected sr39HSV1-tk-MSC cells. Intramyocardially transplanted MSCs appear to integrate into the lymphatic endothelium and may help improve myocardial lymphatic system function after MI.
doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0022949
PMCID: PMC3164664  PMID: 21912635
19.  Human CD34+ Cells in Experimental Myocardial Infarction: Long-term Survival, Sustained Functional Improvement, and Mechanism of Action 
Circulation research  2010;106(12):1904-1911.
Rationale
Human CD34+ cells have been used in clinical trials for treatment of myocardial infarction (MI). However, it is unknown how long the CD34+ cells persist in hearts, whether the improvement in cardiac function is sustained, and what are the underlying mechanisms.
Objectives
We sought to track the fate of injected human CD34+ cells in the hearts of severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) mice after experimental MI, and to determine the mechanisms of action.
Methods and Results
We used multimodality molecular imaging to track the fate of injected human CD34+ cells in the hearts of SCID mice after experimental MI, and employed selective antibody blocking to determine the mechanisms of action. Bioluminescence imaging (BLI) showed that injected CD34+ cells survived in the hearts for longer than 12 months. The PET signal from the injected cells was detected in the wall of the left ventricle. Cardiac MRI showed that left ventricular ejection fraction was significantly improved in the treated mice compared to the control mice for up to 52 weeks (P<0.05). Furthermore, treatment with anti-α4β1 showed that generation of human-derived cardiomyocytes was inhibited, whereas anti-VEGF treatment blocked the production of human-derived endothelial cells. However, the improvement in cardiac function was abolished only in the anti-VEGF, but not anti-α4β1, treated group.
Conclusions
Angiogenesis and/or paracrine effect, but not myogenesis, is responsible for functional improvement following CD34+ cells therapy.
doi:10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.110.221762
PMCID: PMC2908245  PMID: 20448213
human CD34+ cells; experimental myocardial infarction; molecular imaging; myogenesis; angiogenesis
20.  Plasmacytoid dendritic cells induce NK cell–dependent, tumor antigen–specific T cell cross-priming and tumor regression in mice 
The Journal of Clinical Investigation  2008;118(3):1165-1175.
A prerequisite for strong adaptive antiviral immunity is the robust initial activation of the innate immune system, which is frequently mediated by TLR-activated plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs). Natural antitumor immunity is often comparatively weak, potentially due to the lack of TLR-mediated activation signals within the tumor microenvironment. To assess whether pDCs are capable of directly facilitating effective antitumor immune responses, mice bearing established subcutaneous B16 melanoma tumors were administered TLR9-activated pDCs directly into the tumor. We found that TLR9-activated pDCs induced robust, spontaneous CTL cross-priming against multiple B16 tumor antigens, leading to the regression of both treated tumors and untreated tumors at distant contralateral sites. This T cell cross-priming was mediated by conventional DCs (cDCs) and was completely dependent upon the early recruitment and activation of NK cells at the tumor site. NK cell recruitment was mediated by CCR5 via chemokines secreted by pDCs, and optimal IFN-γ production by NK cells was mediated by OX40L expressed by pDCs. Our data thus demonstrated that activated pDCs are capable of initiating effective and systemic antitumor immunity through the orchestration of an immune cascade involving the sequential activation of NK cells, cDCs, and CD8+ T cells.
doi:10.1172/JCI33583
PMCID: PMC2230660  PMID: 18259609

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