PMCC PMCC

Search tips
Search criteria

Advanced

Important Notice

PubMed Central Canada to be taken offline in February 2018

On February 23, 2018, PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) will be taken offline permanently. No author manuscripts will be deleted, and the approximately 2,900 manuscripts authored by Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR)-funded researchers currently in the archive will be copied to the National Research Council’s (NRC) Digital Repository over the coming months. These manuscripts along with all other content will also remain publicly searchable on PubMed Central (US) and Europe PubMed Central, meaning such manuscripts will continue to be compliant with the Tri-Agency Open Access Policy on Publications.

Read more

Results 1-25 (65)
 

Clipboard (0)
None

Select a Filter Below

Year of Publication
more »
1.  31st Annual Meeting and Associated Programs of the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC 2016): part one 
Lundqvist, Andreas | van Hoef, Vincent | Zhang, Xiaonan | Wennerberg, Erik | Lorent, Julie | Witt, Kristina | Sanz, Laia Masvidal | Liang, Shuo | Murray, Shannon | Larsson, Ola | Kiessling, Rolf | Mao, Yumeng | Sidhom, John-William | Bessell, Catherine A. | Havel, Jonathan | Schneck, Jonathan | Chan, Timothy A. | Sachsenmeier, Eliot | Woods, David | Berglund, Anders | Ramakrishnan, Rupal | Sodre, Andressa | Weber, Jeffrey | Zappasodi, Roberta | Li, Yanyun | Qi, Jingjing | Wong, Philip | Sirard, Cynthia | Postow, Michael | Newman, Walter | Koon, Henry | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Callahan, Margaret K. | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Merghoub, Taha | Lum, Lawrence G. | Choi, Minsig | Thakur, Archana | Deol, Abhinav | Dyson, Gregory | Shields, Anthony | Haymaker, Cara | Uemura, Marc | Murthy, Ravi | James, Marihella | Wang, Daqing | Brevard, Julie | Monaghan, Catherine | Swann, Suzanne | Geib, James | Cornfeld, Mark | Chunduru, Srinivas | Agrawal, Sudhir | Yee, Cassian | Wargo, Jennifer | Patel, Sapna P. | Amaria, Rodabe | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Woodman, Scott | Hwu, Wen-Jen | Davies, Michael A. | Hwu, Patrick | Overwijk, Willem W. | Bernatchez, Chantale | Diab, Adi | Massarelli, Erminia | Segal, Neil H. | Ribrag, Vincent | Melero, Ignacio | Gangadhar, Tara C. | Urba, Walter | Schadendorf, Dirk | Ferris, Robert L. | Houot, Roch | Morschhauser, Franck | Logan, Theodore | Luke, Jason J. | Sharfman, William | Barlesi, Fabrice | Ott, Patrick A. | Mansi, Laura | Kummar, Shivaani | Salles, Gilles | Carpio, Cecilia | Meier, Roland | Krishnan, Suba | McDonald, Dan | Maurer, Matthew | Gu, Xuemin | Neely, Jaclyn | Suryawanshi, Satyendra | Levy, Ronald | Khushalani, Nikhil | Wu, Jennifer | Zhang, Jinyu | Basher, Fahmin | Rubinstein, Mark | Bucsek, Mark | Qiao, Guanxi | MacDonald, Cameron | Hylander, Bonnie | Repasky, Elizabeth | Chatterjee, Shilpak | Daenthanasanmak, Anusara | Chakraborty, Paramita | Toth, Kyle | Meek, Megan | Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth | Nishimura, Michael | Paulos, Chrystal | Beeson, Craig | Yu, Xuezhong | Mehrotra, Shikhar | Zhao, Fei | Evans, Kathy | Xiao, Christine | Holtzhausen, Alisha | Hanks, Brent A. | Scharping, Nicole | Menk, Ashley V. | Moreci, Rebecca | Whetstone, Ryan | Dadey, Rebekah | Watkins, Simon | Ferris, Robert | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Peled, Jonathan | Devlin, Sean | Staffas, Anna | Lumish, Melissa | Rodriguez, Kori Porosnicu | Ahr, Katya | Perales, Miguel | Giralt, Sergio | Taur, Ying | Pamer, Eric | van den Brink, Marcel R. M. | Jenq, Robert | Annels, Nicola | Pandha, Hardev | Simpson, Guy | Mostafid, Hugh | Harrington, Kevin | Melcher, Alan | Grose, Mark | Davies, Bronwyn | Au, Gough | Karpathy, Roberta | Shafren, Darren | Ricca, Jacob | Merghoub, Taha | Wolchok, Jedd D. | Zamarin, Dmitriy | Batista, Luciana | Marliot, Florence | Vasaturo, Angela | Carpentier, Sabrina | Poggionovo, Cécile | Frayssinet, Véronique | Fieschi, Jacques | Van den Eynde, Marc | Pagès, Franck | Galon, Jérôme | Hermitte, Fabienne | Smith, Sean G. | Nguyen, Khue | Ravindranathan, Sruthi | Koppolu, Bhanu | Zaharoff, David | Schvartsman, Gustavo | Bassett, Roland | McQuade, Jennifer L. | Haydu, Lauren E. | Davies, Michael A. | Tawbi, Hussein | Glitza, Isabella | Kline, Douglas | Chen, Xiufen | Fosco, Dominick | Kline, Justin | Overacre, Abigail | Chikina, Maria | Brunazzi, Erin | Shayan, Gulidanna | Horne, William | Kolls, Jay | Ferris, Robert L. | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Bruno, Tullia C. | Workman, Creg | Vignali, Dario | Adusumilli, Prasad S. | Ansa-Addo, Ephraim A | Li, Zihai | Gerry, Andrew | Sanderson, Joseph P. | Howe, Karen | Docta, Roslin | Gao, Qian | Bagg, Eleanor A. L. | Tribble, Nicholas | Maroto, Miguel | Betts, Gareth | Bath, Natalie | Melchiori, Luca | Lowther, Daniel E. | Ramachandran, Indu | Kari, Gabor | Basu, Samik | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Chagin, Karen | Pandite, Lini | Holdich, Tom | Amado, Rafael | Zhang, Hua | Glod, John | Bernstein, Donna | Jakobsen, Bent | Mackall, Crystal | Wong, Ryan | Silk, Jonathan D. | Adams, Katherine | Hamilton, Garth | Bennett, Alan D. | Brett, Sara | Jing, Junping | Quattrini, Adriano | Saini, Manoj | Wiedermann, Guy | Gerry, Andrew | Jakobsen, Bent | Binder-Scholl, Gwendolyn | Brewer, Joanna | Duong, MyLinh | Lu, An | Chang, Peter | Mahendravada, Aruna | Shinners, Nicholas | Slawin, Kevin | Spencer, David M. | Foster, Aaron E. | Bayle, J. Henri | Bergamaschi, Cristina | Ng, Sinnie Sin Man | Nagy, Bethany | Jensen, Shawn | Hu, Xintao | Alicea, Candido | Fox, Bernard | Felber, Barbara | Pavlakis, George | Chacon, Jessica | Yamamoto, Tori | Garrabrant, Thomas | Cortina, Luis | Powell, Daniel J. | Donia, Marco | Kjeldsen, Julie Westerlin | Andersen, Rikke | Westergaard, Marie Christine Wulff | Bianchi, Valentina | Legut, Mateusz | Attaf, Meriem | Dolton, Garry | Szomolay, Barbara | Ott, Sascha | Lyngaa, Rikke | Hadrup, Sine Reker | Sewell, Andrew Kelvin | Svane, Inge Marie | Fan, Aaron | Kumai, Takumi | Celis, Esteban | Frank, Ian | Stramer, Amanda | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wardell, Seth | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Goff, Stephanie L. | Zacharakis, Nikolaos | Assadipour, Yasmine | Prickett, Todd D. | Gartner, Jared J. | Somerville, Robert | Black, Mary | Xu, Hui | Chinnasamy, Harshini | Kriley, Isaac | Lu, Lily | Wunderlich, John | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven | Feldman, Steven A. | Trebska-McGowan, Kasia | Kriley, Isaac | Malekzadeh, Parisa | Payabyab, Eden | Sherry, Richard | Rosenberg, Steven | Goff, Stephanie L. | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Kopits, Charlene | Rabinovich, Brian | Lotze, Michael T. | Green, Daniel S. | Kamenyeva, Olena | Zoon, Kathryn C. | Annunziata, Christina M. | Hammill, Joanne | Helsen, Christopher | Aarts, Craig | Bramson, Jonathan | Harada, Yui | Yonemitsu, Yoshikazu | Helsen, Christopher | Hammill, Joanne | Mwawasi, Kenneth | Denisova, Galina | Bramson, Jonathan | Giri, Rajanish | Jin, Benjamin | Campbell, Tracy | Draper, Lindsey M. | Stevanovic, Sanja | Yu, Zhiya | Weissbrich, Bianca | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Trimble, Cornelia L. | Rosenberg, Steven | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Tsang, Kwong | Fantini, Massimo | Hodge, James W. | Fujii, Rika | Fernando, Ingrid | Jochems, Caroline | Heery, Christopher | Gulley, James | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Schlom, Jeffrey | Jing, Weiqing | Gershan, Jill | Blitzer, Grace | Weber, James | McOlash, Laura | Johnson, Bryon D. | Kiany, Simin | Gangxiong, Huang | Kleinerman, Eugenie S. | Klichinsky, Michael | Ruella, Marco | Shestova, Olga | Kenderian, Saad | Kim, Miriam | Scholler, John | June, Carl H. | Gill, Saar | Moogk, Duane | Zhong, Shi | Yu, Zhiya | Liadi, Ivan | Rittase, William | Fang, Victoria | Dougherty, Janna | Perez-Garcia, Arianne | Osman, Iman | Zhu, Cheng | Varadarajan, Navin | Restifo, Nicholas P. | Frey, Alan | Krogsgaard, Michelle | Landi, Daniel | Fousek, Kristen | Mukherjee, Malini | Shree, Ankita | Joseph, Sujith | Bielamowicz, Kevin | Byrd, Tiara | Ahmed, Nabil | Hegde, Meenakshi | Lee, Sylvia | Byrd, David | Thompson, John | Bhatia, Shailender | Tykodi, Scott | Delismon, Judy | Chu, Liz | Abdul-Alim, Siddiq | Ohanian, Arpy | DeVito, Anna Marie | Riddell, Stanley | Margolin, Kim | Magalhaes, Isabelle | Mattsson, Jonas | Uhlin, Michael | Nemoto, Satoshi | Villarroel, Patricio Pérez | Nakagawa, Ryosuke | Mule, James J. | Mailloux, Adam W. | Mata, Melinda | Nguyen, Phuong | Gerken, Claudia | DeRenzo, Christopher | Spencer, David M. | Gottschalk, Stephen | Mathieu, Mélissa | Pelletier, Sandy | Stagg, John | Turcotte, Simon | Minutolo, Nicholas | Sharma, Prannda | Tsourkas, Andrew | Powell, Daniel J. | Mockel-Tenbrinck, Nadine | Mauer, Daniela | Drechsel, Katharina | Barth, Carola | Freese, Katharina | Kolrep, Ulrike | Schult, Silke | Assenmacher, Mario | Kaiser, Andrew | Mullinax, John | Hall, MacLean | Le, Julie | Kodumudi, Krithika | Royster, Erica | Richards, Allison | Gonzalez, Ricardo | Sarnaik, Amod | Pilon-Thomas, Shari | Nielsen, Morten | Krarup-Hansen, Anders | Hovgaard, Dorrit | Petersen, Michael Mørk | Loya, Anand Chainsukh | Junker, Niels | Svane, Inge Marie | Rivas, Charlotte | Parihar, Robin | Gottschalk, Stephen | Rooney, Cliona M. | Qin, Haiying | Nguyen, Sang | Su, Paul | Burk, Chad | Duncan, Brynn | Kim, Bong-Hyun | Kohler, M. Eric | Fry, Terry | Rao, Arjun A. | Teyssier, Noam | Pfeil, Jacob | Sgourakis, Nikolaos | Salama, Sofie | Haussler, David | Richman, Sarah A. | Nunez-Cruz, Selene | Gershenson, Zack | Mourelatos, Zissimos | Barrett, David | Grupp, Stephan | Milone, Michael | Rodriguez-Garcia, Alba | Robinson, Matthew K. | Adams, Gregory P. | Powell, Daniel J. | Santos, João | Havunen, Riikka | Siurala, Mikko | Cervera-Carrascón, Víctor | Parviainen, Suvi | Antilla, Marjukka | Hemminki, Akseli | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Santiago, Laurelis | Chen, Jie Qing | Dai, Zhimin | Wardell, Seth | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Sha, Huizi | Su, Shu | Ding, Naiqing | Liu, Baorui | Stevanovic, Sanja | Pasetto, Anna | Helman, Sarah R. | Gartner, Jared J. | Prickett, Todd D. | Robbins, Paul F. | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Hinrichs, Christian S. | Bhatia, Shailender | Burgess, Melissa | Zhang, Hui | Lee, Tien | Klingemann, Hans | Soon-Shiong, Patrick | Nghiem, Paul | Kirkwood, John M. | Rossi, John M. | Sherman, Marika | Xue, Allen | Shen, Yueh-wei | Navale, Lynn | Rosenberg, Steven A. | Kochenderfer, James N. | Bot, Adrian | Veerapathran, Anandaraman | Gokuldass, Aishwarya | Stramer, Amanda | Sethuraman, Jyothi | Blaskovich, Michelle A. | Wiener, Doris | Frank, Ian | Santiago, Laurelis | Rabinovich, Brian | Fardis, Maria | Bender, James | Lotze, Michael T. | Waller, Edmund K. | Li, Jian-Ming | Petersen, Christopher | Blazar, Bruce R. | Li, Jingxia | Giver, Cynthia R. | Wang, Ziming | Grossenbacher, Steven K. | Sturgill, Ian | Canter, Robert J. | Murphy, William J. | Zhang, Congcong | Burger, Michael C. | Jennewein, Lukas | Waldmann, Anja | Mittelbronn, Michel | Tonn, Torsten | Steinbach, Joachim P. | Wels, Winfried S. | Williams, Jason B. | Zha, Yuanyuan | Gajewski, Thomas F. | Williams, LaTerrica C. | Krenciute, Giedre | Kalra, Mamta | Louis, Chrystal | Gottschalk, Stephen | Xin, Gang | Schauder, David | Jiang, Aimin | Joshi, Nikhil | Cui, Weiguo | Zeng, Xue | Menk, Ashley V. | Scharping, Nicole | Delgoffe, Greg M. | Zhao, Zeguo | Hamieh, Mohamad | Eyquem, Justin | Gunset, Gertrude | Bander, Neil | Sadelain, Michel | Askmyr, David | Abolhalaj, Milad | Lundberg, Kristina | Greiff, Lennart | Lindstedt, Malin | Angell, Helen K. | Kim, Kyoung-Mee | Kim, Seung-Tae | Kim, Sung | Sharpe, Alan D. | Ogden, Julia | Davenport, Anna | Hodgson, Darren R. | Barrett, Carl | Lee, Jeeyun | Kilgour, Elaine | Hanson, Jodi | Caspell, Richard | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ansari, Tameem | Schiller, Annemarie | Sundararaman, Srividya | Lehmann, Paul | Hanson, Jodi | Roen, Diana | Karulin, Alexey | Lehmann, Paul | Ayers, Mark | Levitan, Diane | Arreaza, Gladys | Liu, Fang | Mogg, Robin | Bang, Yung-Jue | O’Neil, Bert | Cristescu, Razvan | Friedlander, Philip | Wassman, Karl | Kyi, Chrisann | Oh, William | Bhardwaj, Nina | Bornschlegl, Svetlana | Gustafson, Michael P. | Gastineau, Dennis A. | Parney, Ian F. | Dietz, Allan B. | Carvajal-Hausdorf, Daniel | Mani, Nikita | Velcheti, Vamsidhar | Schalper, Kurt | Rimm, David | Chang, Serena | Levy, Ronald | Kurland, John | Krishnan, Suba | Ahlers, Christoph Matthias | Jure-Kunkel, Maria | Cohen, Lewis | Maecker, Holden | Kohrt, Holbrook | Chen, Shuming | Crabill, George | Pritchard, Theresa | McMiller, Tracee | Pardoll, Drew | Pan, Fan | Topalian, Suzanne | Danaher, Patrick | Warren, Sarah | Dennis, Lucas | White, Andrew M. | D’Amico, Leonard | Geller, Melissa | Disis, Mary L. | Beechem, Joseph | Odunsi, Kunle | Fling, Steven | Derakhshandeh, Roshanak | Webb, Tonya J. | Dubois, Sigrid | Conlon, Kevin | Bryant, Bonita | Hsu, Jennifer | Beltran, Nancy | Müller, Jürgen | Waldmann, Thomas | Duhen, Rebekka | Duhen, Thomas | Thompson, Lucas | Montler, Ryan | Weinberg, Andrew | Kates, Max | Early, Brandon | Yusko, Erik | Schreiber, Taylor H. | Bivalacqua, Trinity J. | Ayers, Mark | Lunceford, Jared | Nebozhyn, Michael | Murphy, Erin | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Albright, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Kang, S. Peter | Shankaran, Veena | Piha-Paul, Sarina A. | Yearley, Jennifer | Seiwert, Tanguy | Ribas, Antoni | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Cristescu, Razvan | Mogg, Robin | Ayers, Mark | Albright, Andrew | Murphy, Erin | Yearley, Jennifer | Sher, Xinwei | Liu, Xiao Qiao | Nebozhyn, Michael | Lunceford, Jared | Joe, Andrew | Cheng, Jonathan | Plimack, Elizabeth | Ott, Patrick A. | McClanahan, Terrill K. | Loboda, Andrey | Kaufman, David R. | Forrest-Hay, Alex | Guyre, Cheryl A. | Narumiya, Kohei | Delcommenne, Marc | Hirsch, Heather A. | Deshpande, Amit | Reeves, Jason | Shu, Jenny | Zi, Tong | Michaelson, Jennifer | Law, Debbie | Trehu, Elizabeth | Sathyanaryanan, Sriram | Hodkinson, Brendan P. | Hutnick, Natalie A. | Schaffer, Michael E. | Gormley, Michael | Hulett, Tyler | Jensen, Shawn | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Dubay, Christopher | Afentoulis, Michael | Reddy, Ashok | David, Larry | Fox, Bernard | Jayant, Kumar | Agrawal, Swati | Agrawal, Rajendra | Jeyakumar, Ghayathri | Kim, Seongho | Kim, Heejin | Silski, Cynthia | Suisham, Stacey | Heath, Elisabeth | Vaishampayan, Ulka | Vandeven, Natalie | Viller, Natasja Nielsen | O’Connor, Alison | Chen, Hui | Bossen, Bolette | Sievers, Eric | Uger, Robert | Nghiem, Paul | Johnson, Lisa | Kao, Hsiang-Fong | Hsiao, Chin-Fu | Lai, Shu-Chuan | Wang, Chun-Wei | Ko, Jenq-Yuh | Lou, Pei-Jen | Lee, Tsai-Jan | Liu, Tsang-Wu | Hong, Ruey-Long | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Landis, Benjamin J. | Koegler, Sally | Hirsch, Brooke | Gianani, Roberto | Kim, Jeffrey | He, Ming-Xiao | Zhang, Bingqing | Su, Nan | Luo, Yuling | Ma, Xiao-Jun | Park, Emily | Kim, Dae Won | Copploa, Domenico | Kothari, Nishi | doo Chang, Young | Kim, Richard | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Kim, Namyong | Lye, Melvin | Wan, Ee | Knaus, Hanna A. | Berglund, Sofia | Hackl, Hubert | Karp, Judith E. | Gojo, Ivana | Luznik, Leo | Hong, Henoch S. | Koch, Sven D. | Scheel, Birgit | Gnad-Vogt, Ulrike | Kallen, Karl-Josef | Wiegand, Volker | Backert, Linus | Kohlbacher, Oliver | Hoerr, Ingmar | Fotin-Mleczek, Mariola | Billingsley, James M. | Koguchi, Yoshinobu | Conrad, Valerie | Miller, William | Gonzalez, Iliana | Poplonski, Tomasz | Meeuwsen, Tanisha | Howells-Ferreira, Ana | Rattray, Rogan | Campbell, Mary | Bifulco, Carlo | Dubay, Christopher | Bahjat, Keith | Curti, Brendan | Urba, Walter | Vetsika, E-K | Kallergi, G. | Aggouraki, Despoina | Lyristi, Z. | Katsarlinos, P. | Koinis, Filippos | Georgoulias, V. | Kotsakis, Athanasios | Martin, Nathan T. | Aeffner, Famke | Kearney, Staci J. | Black, Joshua C. | Cerkovnik, Logan | Pratte, Luke | Kim, Rebecca | Hirsch, Brooke | Krueger, Joseph | Gianani, Roberto | Martínez-Usatorre, Amaia | Jandus, Camilla | Donda, Alena | Carretero-Iglesia, Laura | Speiser, Daniel E. | Zehn, Dietmar | Rufer, Nathalie | Romero, Pedro | Panda, Anshuman | Mehnert, Janice | Hirshfield, Kim M. | Riedlinger, Greg | Damare, Sherri | Saunders, Tracie | Sokol, Levi | Stein, Mark | Poplin, Elizabeth | Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Lorna | Silk, Ann | Chan, Nancy | Frankel, Melissa | Kane, Michael | Malhotra, Jyoti | Aisner, Joseph | Kaufman, Howard L. | Ali, Siraj | Ross, Jeffrey | White, Eileen | Bhanot, Gyan | Ganesan, Shridar | Monette, Anne | Bergeron, Derek | Amor, Amira Ben | Meunier, Liliane | Caron, Christine | Morou, Antigoni | Kaufmann, Daniel | Liberman, Moishe | Jurisica, Igor | Mes-Masson, Anne-Marie | Hamzaoui, Kamel | Lapointe, Rejean | Mongan, Ann | Ku, Yuan-Chieh | Tom, Warren | Sun, Yongming | Pankov, Alex | Looney, Tim | Au-Young, Janice | Hyland, Fiona | Conroy, Jeff | Morrison, Carl | Glenn, Sean | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Gardner, Mark | Mongan, Ann | Omilian, Angela R. | Conroy, Jeff | Bshara, Wiam | Angela, Omilian | Burgher, Blake | Ji, He | Glenn, Sean | Morrison, Carl | Mongan, Ann | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Smolkin, Mark E. | Deacon, Donna H. | Patterson, James W. | Chen, Lieping | Bullock, Timothy N. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Obeid, Joseph M. | Erdag, Gulsun | Deacon, Donna H. | Slingluff, Craig L. | Bullock, Timothy N. | Loffredo, John T. | Vuyyuru, Raja | Beyer, Sophie | Spires, Vanessa M. | Fox, Maxine | Ehrmann, Jon M. | Taylor, Katrina A. | Korman, Alan J. | Graziano, Robert F. | Page, David | Sanchez, Katherine | Ballesteros-Merino, Carmen | Martel, Maritza | Bifulco, Carlo | Urba, Walter | Fox, Bernard | Patel, Sapna P. | De Macedo, Mariana Petaccia | Qin, Yong | Reuben, Alex | Spencer, Christine | Guindani, Michele | Bassett, Roland | Wargo, Jennifer | Racolta, Adriana | Kelly, Brian | Jones, Tobin | Polaske, Nathan | Theiss, Noah | Robida, Mark | Meridew, Jeffrey | Habensus, Iva | Zhang, Liping | Pestic-Dragovich, Lidija | Tang, Lei | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Logan, Theodore | Khushalani, Nikhil | Margolin, Kim | Koon, Henry | Olencki, Thomas | Hutson, Thomas | Curti, Brendan | Roder, Joanna | Blackmon, Shauna | Roder, Heinrich | Stewart, John | Amin, Asim | Ernstoff, Marc S. | Clark, Joseph I. | Atkins, Michael B. | Kaufman, Howard L. | Sosman, Jeffrey | Weber, Jeffrey | McDermott, David F. | Weber, Jeffrey | Kluger, Harriet | Halaban, Ruth | Snzol, Mario | Roder, Heinrich | Roder, Joanna | Asmellash, Senait | Steingrimsson, Arni | Blackmon, Shauna | Sullivan, Ryan J. | Wang, Chichung | Roman, Kristin | Clement, Amanda | Downing, Sean | Hoyt, Clifford | Harder, Nathalie | Schmidt, Guenter | Schoenmeyer, Ralf | Brieu, Nicolas | Yigitsoy, Mehmet | Madonna, Gabriele | Botti, Gerardo | Grimaldi, Antonio | Ascierto, Paolo A. | Huss, Ralf | Athelogou, Maria | Hessel, Harald | Harder, Nathalie | Buchner, Alexander | Schmidt, Guenter | Stief, Christian | Huss, Ralf | Binnig, Gerd | Kirchner, Thomas | Sellappan, Shankar | Thyparambil, Sheeno | Schwartz, Sarit | Cecchi, Fabiola | Nguyen, Andrew | Vaske, Charles | Hembrough, Todd
Journal for Immunotherapy of Cancer  2016;4(Suppl 1):1-106.
doi:10.1186/s40425-016-0172-7
PMCID: PMC5123387
2.  Tracking daily fatigue fluctuations in multiple sclerosis: ecological momentary assessment provides unique insights 
Journal of Behavioral Medicine  2017;40(5):772-783.
Studies investigating the prevalence, cause, and consequence of multiple sclerosis (MS) fatigue typically use single measures that implicitly assume symptom-stability over time, neglecting information about if, when, and why severity fluctuates. We aimed to examine the extent of moment-to-moment and day-to-day variability in fatigue in relapsing-remitting MS and healthy individuals, and identify daily life determinants of fluctuations. Over 4 weekdays, 76 participants (38 relapsing-remitting MS; 38 controls) recruited from multiple sites provided real-time self-reports six times daily (n = 1661 observations analyzed) measuring fatigue severity, stressors, mood, and physical exertion, and daily self-reports of sleep quality. Fatigue fluctuations were evident in both groups. Fatigue was highest in relapsing-remitting MS, typically peaking in late-afternoon. In controls, fatigue started lower and increased steadily until bedtime. Real-time stressors and negative mood were associated with increased fatigue, and positive mood with decreased fatigue in both groups. Increased fatigue was related to physical exertion in relapsing-remitting MS, and poorer sleep quality in controls. In relapsing-remitting MS, fatigue fluctuates substantially over time. Many daily life determinants of fluctuations are similar in relapsing-remitting MS and healthy individuals (stressors, mood) but physical exertion seems more relevant in relapsing-remitting MS and sleep quality most relevant in healthy individuals.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s10865-017-9840-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1007/s10865-017-9840-4
PMCID: PMC5613039  PMID: 28281106
Multiple sclerosis; Fatigue; Ecological momentary assessment; Ambulatory assessment; Psychological stress; Affect
3.  Multiparameter comparative analysis reveals differential impacts of various cytokines on CART cell phenotype and function ex vivo and in vivo 
Oncotarget  2016;7(50):82354-82368.
Exogenous cytokines are widely applied to enhance the anti-tumor ability of immune cells. However, systematic comparative studies of their effects on chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-engineered T (CART) cells are lacking. In this study, CART cells targeting folate receptor-alpha were generated and expanded ex vivo in the presence of different cytokines (IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, IL-18, and IL-21), and their expansion, phenotype and cytotoxic capacity were evaluated, in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, the effect of the administration of these cytokines along with CART cells in vivo was also studied. IL-2, IL-7, and IL-15 favored the ex vivo expansion of CART cells compared to other cytokines or no cytokine treatment. IL-7 induced the highest proportion of memory stem cell-like CART cells in the final product, and IL-21 supported the expansion of CART cells with a younger phenotype, while IL-2 induced more differentiated CART cells. IL-2 and IL-15-exposed CART cells secreted more proinflammatory cytokines and presented stronger tumor-lysis ability in vitro. However, when tested in vivo, CART cells exposed to IL-2 ex vivo showed the least anti-tumor effect. In contrast, the administration of IL-15 and IL-21 in combination with CART cells in vivo increased their tumor killing capacity. According to our results, IL-7 and IL-15 show promise to promote ex vivo expansion of CART cells, while IL-15 and IL-21 seem better suited for in vivo administration after CART cell infusion. Collectively, these results may have a profound impact on the efficacy of CART cells in both hematologic and solid cancers.
doi:10.18632/oncotarget.10510
PMCID: PMC5347696  PMID: 27409425
chimeric antigen receptor; cytokine; adoptive immunotherapy; ovarian cancer; T cells
4.  Advances and prospects in adoptive cell transfer therapy for ovarian cancer 
Immunotherapy  2015;7(5):473-476.
doi:10.2217/imt.15.21
PMCID: PMC4851244  PMID: 26065472
adoptive T-cell therapy; chimeric antigen receptor; gene engineering; immunotherapy; ovarian cancer; TCR; TILs
5.  CAR T Cells: New Approaches to Improve Their Efficacy and Reduce Toxicity 
Cancer journal (Sudbury, Mass.)  2015;21(6):475-479.
The durable remission of B-cell leukemia and lymphoma following chimeric antigen receptor T (CART) cell therapy has brought this new form of adoptive immunotherapy to center stage with the expectation that CART cell therapy may provide similar efficacy in other hematological and solid cancers. Herein, we review recent advances in the areas of CAR design that improve CART cell proliferation, engraftment and efficacy as well as clinical application strategies that are designed to improve clinical efficacy while reducing the risk for toxicity and broaden patient access to this promising form of cancer immunotherapy.
doi:10.1097/PPO.0000000000000155
PMCID: PMC4656124  PMID: 26588679
Chimeric antigen receptor; adoptive transfer; genetic engineering; T cell; toxicity; immunotherapy
6.  Follicle-stimulating hormone receptor as a target in the redirected T-cell therapy for cancer 
Cancer immunology research  2015;3(10):1130-1137.
Adoptive transfer of T-cells engineered to express chimeric immunoreceptors is an effective strategy to treat hematological cancers, however, such therapy for solid cancers such as ovarian cancer remains challenging because a safe and effective immunotherapeutic target has not yet been identified. Here, we constructed and evaluated a novel redirected T-cell-based immunotherapy targeting human follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (FSHR), a highly conserved molecule in vertebrate animals with expression limited to gonadal tissues, ovarian cancer and cancer-associated vasculature. Receptor ligand-based anti-FSHR immunoreceptors were constructed that contained small binding fragments from the ligand for FSHR, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), fused to T-cell transmembrane and T-cell signaling domains. Human T-cells transduced to express anti-FSHR immunoreceptors were specifically immunoreactive against FSHR-expressing human and mouse ovarian cancer cell lines in a MHC-non-restricted manner, and mediated effective lysis of FHSR-expressing tumor cells, but not FSHR-deficient targets, in vitro. Similarly, the outgrowth of human ovarian cancer xenografts in immunodeficient mice was significantly inhibited by the adoptive transfer of FSHR-redirected T-cells. Our experimental observations show for the first time that FSHR is a promising immunotherapeutic target for ovarian cancer and supports further exploration of FSHR-targeted immune therapy approaches for cancer patients.
doi:10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-15-0047
PMCID: PMC4596767  PMID: 26112923
7.  High affinity FRβ-specific CAR T cells eradicate AML and normal yeloid lineage without HSC toxicity 
Leukemia  2016;30(6):1355-1364.
Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is an aggressive malignancy, and development of new treatments to prolong remissions is warranted. Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapies appear promising but on-target, off-tumor recognition of antigen in healthy tissues remains a concern. Here, we isolated a high affinity (HA) folate receptor beta (FRβ)-specific scFv (2.48nM KD) for optimization of FRβ-redirected CAR T-cell therapy for AML. T-cells stably expressing the HA-FRβ CAR exhibited greatly enhanced antitumor activity against FRβ+ AML in vitro and in vivo compared to a low affinity (LA) FRβ CAR (54.3nM KD). Using the HA-FRβ IgG, FRβ expression was detectable in myeloid-lineage hematopoietic cells; however, expression in CD34+ hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) was nearly undetectable. Accordingly, HA-FRβ CAR T-cells lysed mature CD14+ monocytes, while HSC colony formation was unaffected. Because of the potential for elimination of mature myeloid lineage, mRNA CAR electroporation for transient CAR expression was evaluated. mRNA-electroporated HA-FRβ CAR T-cells retained effective anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo. Together, our results highlight the importance of antibody affinity in target protein detection and CAR development and suggest that transient delivery of potent HA-FRβ CAR T-cells is highly effective against AML and reduces the risk for long-term myeloid toxicity.
doi:10.1038/leu.2016.35
PMCID: PMC4889499  PMID: 26898190
8.  Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer 
Cancer Biology & Therapy  2015;16(6):807-820.
The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment.
doi:10.1080/15384047.2015.1040960
PMCID: PMC4622931  PMID: 25894333
immunotherapy; immunosuppression; ovarian cancer; prognostic factors; regulatory T-cells; tumor infiltrating lymphocytes
9.  The Impact of Chemotherapy, Radiation and Epigenetic Modifiers in Cancer Cell Expression of Immune Inhibitory and Stimulatory Molecules and Anti-Tumor Efficacy 
Vaccines  2016;4(4):43.
Genomic destabilizers, such as radiation and chemotherapy, and epigenetic modifiers are used for the treatment of cancer due to their apoptotic effects on the aberrant cells. However, these therapies may also induce widespread changes within the immune system and cancer cells, which may enable tumors to avoid immune surveillance and escape from host anti-tumor immunity. Genomic destabilizers can induce immunogenic death of tumor cells, but also induce upregulation of immune inhibitory ligands on drug-resistant cells, resulting in tumor progression. While administration of immunomodulatory antibodies that block the interactions between inhibitory receptors on immune cells and their ligands on tumor cells can mediate cancer regression in a subset of treated patients, it is crucial to understand how genomic destabilizers alter the immune system and malignant cells, including which inhibitory molecules, receptors and/or ligands are upregulated in response to genotoxic stress. Knowledge gained in this area will aid in the rational design of trials that combine genomic destabilizers, epigenetic modifiers and immunotherapeutic agents that may be synergized to improve clinical responses and prevent tumor escape from the immune system. Our review article describes the impact genomic destabilizers, such as radiation and chemotherapy, and epigenetic modifiers have on anti-tumor immunity and the tumor microenvironment. Although genomic destabilizers cause DNA damage on cancer cells, these therapies can also have diverse effects on the immune system, promote immunogenic cell death or survival and alter the cancer cell expression of immune inhibitor molecules.
doi:10.3390/vaccines4040043
PMCID: PMC5192363  PMID: 27854240
DNA destabilizers; chemotherapy; radiation; histone deacetylase inhibitor; PD-L1; CTLA-4
10.  Rigorous optimization and validation of potent RNA CAR T cell therapy for the treatment of common epithelial cancers expressing folate receptor 
Oncotarget  2015;6(30):28911-28928.
Using lentiviral technology, we recently demonstrated that incorporation of CD27 costimulation into CARs greatly improves antitumor activity and T cell persistence. Still, virus-mediated gene transfer is expensive, laborious and enables long-term persistence, creating therapies which cannot be easily discontinued if toxic. To address these concerns, we utilized a non-integrating RNA platform to engineer human T cells to express FRα-specific, CD27 CARs and tested their capacity to eliminate human FRα+ cancer. Novel CARs comprised of human components were constructed, C4-27z and C4opt-27z, a codon-optimized variant created for efficient expression. Following RNA electroporation, C4-27z and C4opt-27z CAR expression is initially ubiquitous but progressively declines across T cell populations. In addition, C4-27z and C4opt-27z RNA CAR T cells secrete high levels of Th-1 cytokines and display strong cytolytic function against human FRα+ cancers in a time- and antigen-dependent manner. Further, C4-27z and C4opt-27z CAR T cells exhibit significant proliferation in vivo, facilitate the complete regression of fully disseminated human ovarian cancer xenografts in mice and reduce the progression of solid ovarian cancer. These results advocate for rapid progression of C4opt-27z RNA CAR to the clinic and establish a new paradigm for preclinical optimization and validation of RNA CAR candidates destined for clinical translation.
PMCID: PMC4745700  PMID: 26359629
folate receptor alpha; chimeric antigen receptor; adoptive immunotherapy; ovarian cancer; T cells
11.  A fully human chimeric antigen receptor with potent activity against cancer cells but reduced risk for off-tumor toxicity 
Oncotarget  2015;6(25):21533-21546.
Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) can redirect T cells against antigen-expressing tumors in an HLA-independent manner. To date, various CARs have been constructed using mouse single chain antibody variable fragments (scFvs) of high affinity that are immunogenic in humans and have the potential to mediate “on-target” toxicity. Here, we developed and evaluated a fully human CAR comprised of the human C4 folate receptor-alpha (αFR)-specific scFv coupled to intracellular T cell signaling domains. Human T cells transduced to express the C4 CAR specifically secreted proinflammatory cytokine and exerted cytolytic functions when cultured with αFR-expressing tumors in vitro. Adoptive transfer of C4 CAR T cells mediated the regression of large, established human ovarian cancer in a xenogeneic mouse model. Relative to a murine MOv19 scFv-based αFR CAR, C4 CAR T cells mediated comparable cytotoxic tumor activity in vitro and in vivo but had lower affinity for αFR protein and exhibited reduced recognition of normal cells expressing low levels of αFR. Thus, T cells expressing a fully human CAR of intermediate affinity can efficiently kill antigen-expressing tumors in vitro and in vivo and may overcome issues of transgene immunogenicity and “on-target off-tumor” toxicity that plague trials utilizing CARs containing mouse-derived, high affinity scFvs.
PMCID: PMC4673284  PMID: 26101914
folate receptor alpha; chimeric antigen receptor; adoptive immunotherapy; ovarian cancer; T cells
12.  A Human ErbB2-Specific T-Cell Receptor Confers Potent Antitumor Effector Functions in Genetically Engineered Primary Cytotoxic Lymphocytes 
Human Gene Therapy  2014;25(8):730-739.
Abstract
The ErbB2 protein is a member of the tyrosine kinase family of growth factor receptors that is overexpressed in cancers of the breast, ovary, stomach, kidney, colon, and lung, and therefore represents an attractive candidate antigen for targeted cancer immunotherapy. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for various immunogenic ErbB2 peptides have been described, but they often exhibit both poor functional avidity and tumor reactivity. In order to generate potent CD8+ T cells with specificity for the ErbB2369–377 peptide, we performed one round of in vitro peptide stimulation of CD8+ T cells isolated from an HLA-A2+ patient who was previously vaccinated with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with HLA class I ErbB2 peptides. Using this approach, we enriched highly avid ErbB2-reactive T cells with strong ErbB2-specific, antitumor effector functions. We then stimulated these ErbB2-reactive T cells with ErbB2+ HLA-A2+ tumor cells in vitro and sorted tumor-activated ErbB2369–377 peptide T cells, which allowed for the isolation of a novel T-cell receptor (TCR) with ErbB2369–377 peptide specificity. Primary human CD8+ T cells genetically modified to express this ErbB2-specific TCR specifically bound ErbB2369–377 peptide containing HLA-A2 tetramers, and efficiently recognized target cells pulsed with low nanomolar concentrations of ErbB2369–377 peptide as well as nonpulsed ErbB2+ HLA-A2+ tumor cell lines in vitro. In a novel xenograft model, ErbB2-redirected T cells also significantly delayed progression of ErbB2+ HLA-A2+ human tumor in vivo. Together, these results support the notion that redirection of normal T-cell specificity by TCR gene transfer can have potential applications in the adoptive immunotherapy of ErbB2-expressing malignancies.
doi:10.1089/hum.2014.006
PMCID: PMC4137348  PMID: 25003657
13.  The Ovarian Cancer Chemokine Landscape is Conducive to Homing of Vaccine-primed and CD3/CD28 Costimulated T cells Prepared for Adoptive Therapy 
Purpose
Chemokines are implicated in T cell trafficking. We mapped the chemokine landscape in advanced stage ovarian cancer and characterized the expression of cognate receptors in autologous DC-vaccine primed T cells in the context of cell-based immunotherapy.
Experimental design
The expression of all known human chemokines in patients with primary ovarian cancer was analyzed on two independent microarray datasets and validated on tissue microarray. Peripheral blood T cells from five HLA-A2 patients with recurrent ovarian cancer, who previously received autologous tumor DC vaccine, underwent CD3/CD28 costimulation and expansion ex vivo. Tumor-specific T cells were identified by HER2/neu pentamer staining and were evaluated for the expression and functionality of chemokine receptors important for homing to ovarian cancer.
Results
The chemokine landscape of ovarian cancer is heterogeneous with high expression of known lymphocyte-recruiting chemokines (CCL2, CCL4 and CCL5) in tumors with intraepithelial T cells, whereas CXCL10, CXCL12 and CXCL16 are expressed quasi-universally, including in tumors lacking tumor infiltrating T cells. DC-vaccine primed T cells were found to express the cognate receptors for the above chemokines. Ex vivo CD3/CD28 costimulation and expansion of vaccine-primed T cells upregulated CXCR3 and CXCR4, and enhanced their migration toward universally expressed chemokines in ovarian cancer.
Conclusions
DC-primed tumor specific T cells are armed with the appropriate receptors to migrate towards universal ovarian cancer chemokines, and these receptors are further upregulated by ex vivo CD3/CD28 costimulation, which render T cells more fit for migrating towards these chemokines.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-14-2777
PMCID: PMC4987088  PMID: 25712684
14.  Effective adoptive immunotherapy of triple-negative breast cancer by folate receptor-alpha redirected CAR T cells is influenced by surface antigen expression level 
Background
The poor prognosis and the limited efficacy of targeted therapy in patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) have raised the need for alternative therapies. Recent studies have demonstrated that folate receptor-alpha (FRα) may represent an ideal tumor-associated marker for immunotherapy for TNBC.
Methods
The aim of the present study was to apply a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) approach for the targeting of FRα expressed on TNBC cells and evaluate the antitumor activity of CAR-engineered T cells in vitro and in vivo.
Results
We found that human T cells expressing a FRα-specific CAR were potent and specific killers of TNBC cells that express moderate levels of FRα in vitro and significantly inhibited tumor outgrowth following infusion into immunodeficient mice bearing an MDA-MB-231 tumor xenograft. However, the antitumor activity of the FRα CAR T cells was modest when compared to the same CAR T cells applied in an ovarian tumor xenograft model where FRα expression is more abundant. Notably, FRα CAR T cells induced superior tumor regression in vivo against MDA-MB-231 that was engineered for overexpression of FRα.
Conclusions
Taken together, our results show that FRα CAR T cells can mediate antitumor activity against established TNBC tumor, particularly when FRα is expressed at higher levels. These results have significant implications for the pre-selection of patients with high antigen expression levels when utilizing CAR-based adoptive T cell therapies of cancer in future clinical trials.
Electronic supplementary material
The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s13045-016-0285-y) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
doi:10.1186/s13045-016-0285-y
PMCID: PMC4955216  PMID: 27439908
Folate receptor-alpha; Triple-negative breast cancer; Chimeric antigen receptor; Immunotherapy
15.  Rethinking ovarian cancer II: reducing mortality from high-grade serous ovarian cancer 
Nature reviews. Cancer  2015;15(11):668-679.
High-grade serous ovarian cancer (HGSOC) accounts for 70-80% of ovarian cancer deaths, and overall survival has not changed significantly for several decades. In this Opinion article, we outline a set of research priorities that we believe will reduce incidence and improve outcomes for women with this disease. This ‘roadmap’ for HGSOC was determined after extensive discussions at an Ovarian Cancer Action meeting in January 2015.
doi:10.1038/nrc4019
PMCID: PMC4892184  PMID: 26493647
16.  CD137 accurately identifies and enriches for naturally-occurring tumor-reactive T cells in tumor 
Purpose
Up-regulation of CD137 (4-1BB) on recently activated CD8+ T-cells has been used to identify rare viral or tumor antigen-specific T-cells from peripheral blood. Here, we evaluated the immunobiology of CD137 in human cancer and the utility of a CD137-positive separation methodology for the identification and enrichment of fresh tumor-reactive tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) or tumor-associated lymphocytes (TAL) from ascites for use in adoptive immunotherapy.
Experimental Design
TILs from resected ovarian cancer or melanoma were measured for surface CD137expression directly or after overnight incubation in the presence of tumor cells and homeostatic cytokines. CD137pos TILs were sorted and evaluated for anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo.
Result
Fresh ovarian TILs and TALs naturally expressed higher levels of CD137 than circulating T-cells. An HLA-dependent increase in CD137 expression was observed following incubation of fresh enzyme-digested tumor or ascites in IL-7 and IL-15 cytokines, but not IL-2. Enriched CD137pos TILs, but not PD-1pos or PD-1neg CD137neg cells, possessed autologous tumor-reactivity in vitro and in vivo. In melanoma studies, all MART-1-specific CD8+ TILs up-regulated CD137 expression after incubation with HLA-matched, MART-expressing cancer cells and antigen-specific effector function was restricted to the CD137pos subset in vitro. CD137pos TILs also mediated superior anti-tumor effects in vivo, compared to CD137neg TILs.
Conclusion
Our findings reveal a role for the TNFR-family member CD137 in the immunobiology of human cancer where it is preferentially expressed on tumor-reactive subset of TILs, thus rationalizing its agonistic engagement in vivo and its use in TIL selection for adoptive immunotherapy trials.
doi:10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-13-0945
PMCID: PMC3947326  PMID: 24045181
Tumor infiltrating lymphocyte (TIL); CD137 (4-1BB); Adoptive Immunotherapy; Tumor antigen; Enrichment
17.  CD4+ T-helper Type 1 Cytokines and Trastuzumab Facilitate CD8+ T-cell Targeting of HER-2/neu-expressing Cancers 
Cancer immunology research  2015;3(5):455-463.
Vaccination strategies incorporating the immunodominant HLA-A2-restricted HER2/neu-derived peptide 369-377 (HER2369-377) are increasingly utilized in HER2/neu-expressing cancer patients. The failure of post-vaccination HER2369-377-specific CD8+ T cells to recognize HLA-A2posHER2/neu-expressing cells in vitro, however, has been attributed to impaired MHC class I/HLA-A2 presentation observed in HER2/neu-overexpressing tumors. We reconcile this controversy by demonstrating that HER2369-377 is directly recognized by high functional-avidityHER2369-377-specific CD8+ T cells—either genetically modified to express a novel HER2369-377-TCR or sensitized using HER2369-377-pulsed type 1-polarized dendritic cells (DC1)—on class I-abundant HER2low, but not class I-deficient HER2high, cancer cells. Importantly, a critical cooperation between CD4+ T-helper type-1 (Th1) cytokines IFNγ/TNFα and HER2/neu-targeted antibody trastuzumab is necessary to restore class I expression in HER2high cancers, thereby facilitating recognition and lysis of these cells by HER2369-377-specific CD8+ T cells. Concomitant induction of PD-L1 on HER2/neu-expressing cells by IFNγ/TNF and trastuzumab, however, has minimal impact on DC1-sensitized HER2369-377-CD8+ T cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Although activation of EGFR and HER3 signaling significantly abrogates IFNγ/TNFα and trastuzumab-induced class I restoration, EGFR/HER3 receptor blockade rescues class I expression and ensuing HER2369-377-CD8+ cytotoxicity of HER2/neu-expressing cells. Thus, combinations of CD4+ Th1 immune interventions and multivalent targeting of HER family members may be required for optimal anti-HER2/neuCD8+ T cell-directed immunotherapy.
doi:10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-14-0208
PMCID: PMC4556111  PMID: 25791067
CD4+ T-helper cytokines; IFN-gamma; TNF-alpha; trastuzumab; programmed death receptor 1; programmed death receptor ligand 1; oncogene inhibition; CD8+ T-cell; HER2/neu
18.  In vivo persistence, tumor localization and anti-tumor activity of CAR engineered T cells is enhanced by costimulatory signaling through CD137 (4-1BB) 
Cancer research  2011;71(13):4617-4627.
Human T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) specific for folate receptor-alpha (FRα) have shown robust anti-tumor activity against epithelial cancers in vitro but not in the clinic due to their inability to persist and home to tumor in vivo. In this study, CARs were constructed containing a FRα-specific scFv (MOv19) coupled to the T cell receptor CD3ζ chain signaling module alone (MOv19-ζ) or in combination with the CD137 (4-1BB) costimulatory motif in tandem (MOv19-BBζ). Primary human T cells transduced to express conventional MOv19-ζ or costimulated MOv19-BBζ CARs secreted various proinflammatory cytokines and exerted cytotoxic function when cocultured with FRα+ tumor cells in vitro. However, only transfer of human T cells expressing the costimulated MOv19-BBζ CAR mediated tumor regression in immunodeficient mice bearing large, established FRα+ human cancer. MOv19-BBζ CAR T cell infusion mediated tumor regression in models of metastatic intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and lung-involved human ovarian cancer. Importantly, tumor response was associated with the selective survival and tumor localization of human T cells in vivo and was only observed in mice receiving costimulated MOv19-BBζ CAR T cells. T cell persistence and anti-tumor activity were primarily antigen-driven; however, antigen-independent CD137 signaling by CAR did improve T cell persistence but not anti-tumor activity in vivo. Our results show that anti-FRα CAR outfitted with CD137 costimulatory signaling in tandem overcome issues of T cell persistence and tumor localization that limit the conventional FRα T cell targeting strategy to provide potent antitumor activity in vivo.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-0422
PMCID: PMC4140173  PMID: 21546571
19.  Chimeric antigen receptor T cells with dissociated signaling domains exhibit focused anti-tumor activity with reduced potential for toxicity in vivo 
Cancer immunology research  2013;1(1):43-53.
Adoptive immunotherapy using lymphocytes genetically-modified to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CART) holds considerable promise for the treatment of cancer. However, CAR-based therapies may involve on-target toxicity against normal tissues expressing low amounts of the targeted tumor-associated antigen (TAA). To specify T cells for robust effector function that is selective for tumor but not normal tissue, we developed a trans-signaling CAR strategy whereby T cell activation signal 1 (CD3ζ) is physically dissociated from costimulatory signal 2 (CD28) in two CARs of differing antigen specificity; mesothelin and a-folate receptor (FRa). Human T cells were genetically modified to co-express signal 1 (Anti-Meso scFv-CD3ζ) and signal 2 (Anti-FRa scFv-CD28) CARs in trans. Trans-signaling CART cells showed weak cytokine secretion against target cells expressing only one TAA in vitro, similar to first generation CART cells bearing CD3ζ only, but demonstrated enhanced cytokine secretion upon encountering natural or engineered tumor cells co-expressing both antigens, equivalent to that of second generation CART cells with dual signaling in cis. CART cells with dual specificity also showed potent anti-cancer activity and persistence in vivo which was superior to first generation CART cells and equivalent to second generation CARs. Importantly, second generation CART cells exhibited potent activity against cells expressing mesothelin alone, recapitulating normal tissue, whereas trans-signaling CART cells did not. Thus, a dual specificity, trans-signaling CAR approach can potentiate the therapeutic efficacy of CART cells against cancer while minimizing parallel reactivity against normal tissues bearing single antigen.
doi:10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-13-0008
PMCID: PMC3881605  PMID: 24409448
20.  Chimeric NKG2D CAR-Expressing T Cell-Mediated Attack of Human Ovarian Cancer Is Enhanced by Histone Deacetylase Inhibition 
Human Gene Therapy  2013;24(3):295-305.
Abstract
NKG2D ligands (NKG2DLs) are widely expressed on ovarian cancers to various degrees, making them attractive targets for immunotherapy. Here, we applied a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) approach for the targeting of NKG2DLs expressed on human ovarian cancer cells and evaluated the impact of pharmacological upregulation of NKG2DLs on immune recognition. Various NKG2DLs, including MICA/B and ULBP-1, -2, -3, and -4, were expressed at various levels on the surface of all established ovarian cancer cell lines and primary ovarian cancer samples tested. To redirect human T cells against NKG2DLs, an NKG2DL-specific CAR was generated by fusing the extracellular domain of the NKG2D receptor to the 4-1BB costimulatory and CD3-ζ chain signaling domains. In vitro expansion of chimeric NKG2D CAR T cells was delayed compared with untransduced T cells and control CAR T cells; the likely result of fratricide among activated T cells expressing NKG2DLs. However, NKG2D CAR T cells did expand and were selectively enriched during prolonged culture. In coculture, CD4+ and CD8+ NKG2D CAR T cells specifically recognized and killed NKG2DL-expressing ovarian cancer cell lines but not NKG2DL-negative cells. Notably, pretreatment of ovarian cancer cells expressing moderate to low levels of NKG2DLs with the histone deacetylase inhibitor sodium valproate (VPA) upregulated NKG2DL cell surface expression and consequently enhanced their immune recognition by chimeric NKG2D CAR T cells. Our results demonstrate that VPA-induced upregulation of NKG2DL expression enhances the immune recognition of ovarian cancer cells by engineered NKG2D CAR T cells, and rationalizes the use of VPA in combination with NKG2DL-targeted immunotherapy in ovarian cancer.
Song and colleagues target NKG2D ligands (NGK2DLs) expressed on various human ovarian cancer cells, using a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) approach. NGK2DL-specific CAR T cells selectively kill NKG2DL-expressing cells, and this immune recognition is enhanced by increasing surface NGK2DL expression, using a histone deacetylase inhibitor.
doi:10.1089/hum.2012.143
PMCID: PMC3609608  PMID: 23297870
21.  T cells bearing a chimeric antigen receptor against prostate-specific membrane antigen mediate vascular disruption and result in tumor regression 
Cancer immunology research  2014;3(1):68-84.
Aberrant blood vessels enable tumor growth, provide a barrier to immune infiltration, and serve as a source of pro-tumorigenic signals. Targeting tumor blood vessels for destruction, or tumor vascular disruption therapy, can therefore provide significant therapeutic benefit. Here we describe the ability of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-bearing T cells to recognize human prostate-specific membrane antigen (hPSMA) on endothelial targets in vitro as well as in vivo. CAR T cells were generated using the anti-PSMA scFv, J591, and the intracellular signaling domains: CD3ζ, CD28, and/or CD137/4-1BB. We found that all anti-hPSMA CAR T cells recognized and eliminated PSMA+ endothelial targets in vitro, regardless of the signaling domain. T cells bearing the 3rd generation anti-hPSMA CAR, P28BBζ, were able to recognize and kill primary human endothelial cells isolated from gynecologic cancers. In addition, the P28BBζ CAR T cells mediated regression of hPSMA-expressing vascular neoplasms in mice. Finally, in murine models of ovarian cancers populated by murine vessels expressing hPSMA, the P28BBζ CAR T cells were able to ablate PSMA+ vessels, cause secondary depletion of tumor cells, and reduce tumor burden. Taken together, these results provide strong rationale for the use of CAR T cells as agents of tumor vascular disruption, specifically those targeting PSMA.
doi:10.1158/2326-6066.CIR-14-0192
PMCID: PMC4289112  PMID: 25358763
Chimeric antigen receptor; Adoptive therapy; Vascular disruption; PSMA; Endothelial cell
24.  A universal strategy for adoptive immunotherapy of cancer through use of a novel T cell antigen receptor 
Cancer Research  2012;72(7):1844-1852.
Adoptive immunotherapies composed of T cells engineered to express a chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) offer an attractive strategy for treatment of human cancer. However, CARs have a fixed antigen specificity such that only one tumor-associated antigen (TAA) can be targeted, limiting the efficacy that can be achieved due to heterogeneous TAA expression. For this reason, a more generalized and effective application of CAR therapy would benefit from the capability to produce large panels of CARs against many known TAAs. In this study, we demonstrate a novel strategy to extend the recognition specificity potential of a bioengineered lymphocyte population, allowing flexible approaches to redirect T cells against various TAAs. Our strategy employs a biotin-binding immune receptor (BBIR) composed of an extracellular-modified avidin linked to an intracellular T cell signaling domain. BBIR T cells recognized and bound exclusively to cancer cells pre-targeted with specific biotinylated molecules. The versatility afforded by BBIRs permitted sequential or simultaneous targeting of a combination of distinct antigens. Together, our findings demonstrate that a platform of universal T cell specificity can significantly extend conventional CAR approaches, permitting the tailored generation of T cells of unlimited antigen specificity for improving the effectiveness of adoptive T cell immunotherapies for cancer.
doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-3890
PMCID: PMC3319867  PMID: 22315351
Adoptive immunotherapy; cancer; chimeric antigen receptor; universal
25.  Partial Reduction of Human FOXP3+ CD4 T Cells In Vivo After CD25-directed Recombinant Immunotoxin Administration 
Summary
The regulation of tolerance to self-proteins and the suppression of T-cell responses have in part been attributed to the activity of CD25+CD4+ T regulatory (Treg) cells. Further, Treg cells can inhibit the antitumor effectiveness of adoptive immunotherapy and active immunization approaches in preclinical models. In an effort to selectively eliminate Treg cells from human peripheral blood mononuclear cell to potentially bolster antitumor responses, we have evaluated the Treg-cell depleting capacity of the CD25-directed immunotoxin, RFT5-SMPT-dgA. In preclinical studies, incubation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cell with RFT5-SMPT-dgA mediated a partial reduction in the levels of CD25+, Foxp3- expressing CD4+ T cells in vitro. Administration of RFT5-SMPT-dgA to 6 patients with metastatic melanoma induced a transient but robust reduction in the number of CD25high CD4+ T cells in vivo (a 97.5% mean reduction at nadir; from 69.4±12.4 cells/μL to 1.7±0.3 cells/μL). The reduction in FOXP3+ CD4+ T-cell number was less comprehensive (a 71.3% mean reduction at nadir; from 66.6±16.5 cells/μL to 14.2±3.9 cells/μL). This resulted in the selective persistence of a stable number of CD25low/neg FOXP3+ CD4+ T cells in vivo. No objective antitumor responses were seen in any patient. Our results indicate that the CD25-directed, RFT5-SMPT-dgA immunotoxin can mediate a transient, partial reduction in Treg-cell frequency and number in vitro and in vivo and suggest that comprehensive eradication of human Treg cells in vivo may require the ability to target and eliminate FOXP3+ CD4+ T cells expressing both high and low levels of CD25.
doi:10.1097/CJI.0b013e31815dc0e8
PMCID: PMC3480218  PMID: 18481388
human; immunotoxin; RFT5-SMPT-dgA; CD25; regulatory T cell; depletion

Results 1-25 (65)